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FEM 3335 Development and Sustainability (face


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Title: FEM 3335 Development and Sustainability (face

FEM 3335Development and Sustainability(face
to face lecture)
  • Associate Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd
  • Department of Social Development Science
  • Faculty of Human Ecology
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • sharifah_at_putra.upm.edu.my

Topics covered today
  • Topics
  • Sustainable Communities
  • Sustainable Consumption
  • Economic Sustainability
  • Sustainable Cities
  • Good Governance and Sustainability
  • Stakeholders And Sustainability

Topic 7Sustainable Communities
  • Sustainability Sustainable Communities
  • Concepts, Definitions and principles
  • Characteristics of Sustainable Communities and
    Community Sustainability
  • The 3 E Economy, Equity Ecology
  • New Social Forms of Communities
  • Virtual Communities
  • Gated Communities

Sustainability and Sustainable Communities
  • The concept of sustainability is based on the
    premise that communities are made up of social,
    economic, and environmental systems that are in
    constant interaction and must be kept in harmony
    or balance if the community is to continue to
    function to the benefit of its inhabitants now
    and in the future.
  • There are six principles of sustainability that
    can help a community ensure that its social,
    economic, and environmental systems are well
    integrated and will endure. A community or
    society that wants to pursue sustainability will
    try to

Principles of sustainability as basis for
community sustainability
  • Maintain and, if possible, enhance, its
    residents quality of life.
  • Enhance local economic vitality.
  • Promote social and intergenerational equity.
  • Maintain and, if possible, enhance, the quality
    of the environment.
  • Incorporate disaster resilience and mitigation
    into its decisions and actions.
  • Use a consensus-building, participatory process
    when making decisions.

Sustainable Communities have similar principles
with Sustainable Development
  • Balance and integration among the three
    components of a community ie social, economy and
    the environment.
  • Meeting the needs of the present and future

What is a sustainable community? (i)
  • Many definitions of a sustainable community have
    been put forward, but they all revolve around the
    interconnectedness of society, economy and
    environment. According to Maureen Hart, a
    sustainable community is one in which
  • . . . the economic, social and environmental
    systems that make up the community provide a
    healthy, productive, meaningful life for all
    community residents, present and future.
    Sustainable communities acknowledge that there
    are limits to the natural, social and built
    systems upon which we depend.

What is a Sustainable Community? (ii)
  • Maintains carrying capacities (natural
    resources, cultural values, human and social
    capital, economy and built capital)
  • Considers future generations
  • Retains diversity (creativity, skills), equity
  • Balanced development - recognizes
    interconnections of everything
  • Considers wider interdependencies
  • Community-owned, participatory

Important Components of Sustainable Communities
  • Active, inclusive and safe.
  • Well organized and managed quality
    participation and good leadership
  • Sensitive to the environment
  • Well designed environment
  • Good physical connections
  • Justice to all

New social forms of Communities
  • Gated and Guarded Communities
  • Virtual Communities
  • Content
  • Why the need for these new social forms of
  • The advantages and disadvantages
  • Are these communities sustainable?
  • What the future holds for these new communities

Main Attractions of Gated and Guarded Community
  • The main attractions of gated community is
    security, lifestyle and the protection of
    property values. There are also clear development
    guidelines for individual style homes which helps
    to keep house designs at an acceptable standard
    without too much homogeneity.
  • One very important feature of a gated community
    is that the building standards are more flexible
    and as such enables more efficient land
    utilization. For example removing the necessity
    for walled boundaries and fences.

Gated Community in Malaysia
  • A gated community in Malaysia is generally
    focused on the need for a safer community with
    secured and guarded surroundings offering a new
    privatized way of life.
  • Property developers today are reinvesting
    themselves in response to needs of an
    increasingly affluent population, keeping pace
    with the rapid changes in trends and consumer
    preferences in order to thrive offering a safe
    community through the provisions of security and
    exclusivity as part of a communitys lifestyle.
  • The emphasis in these guarded community are the
    combination of security, privacy and the affluent
    lifestyle of its residents.

  • Although some housing schemes are not categorised
    as gated and guarded schemes, residents have
    nevertheless taken steps to restrict access of
    the general by setting up guard posts with the
    hope of preventing and reducing crime in the
    area. Usually some form of physical barrier
    surrounds the boundaries to the housing estate
    where residents employ private security to
    provide security services. This often involves an
    attempt to restrict or regulate public spaces
    privately by erection of barriers on public
    needs, guardhouses, etc.

Legality of Gated and Guarded Communities
  • It is unlawful to privately attempt to restrict
    or regulate public spaces without the approval of
    the relevant authority. Any attempt to close,
    barricade or restrict the access of a public
    road, drain or space, there may be a
    contravention of Sections 46(1) of Street
    Drainage and Building Act 1974, Section 80 of the
    Road Transport Act 1987 and Section(s) 62 and 136
    of the National Land Code 1965. In addition,
    provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act
    1976 may also be violated where guard houses are
    built in the public land or road shoulders.
  • There is no problem with private security
    patrolling public roads in a housing scheme under
    the employment of the residents associations.
    Nevertheless, the local authority and the police
    should be consulted first. It has to be noted
    that erecting structures to restrict access to
    public roads or guardhouses is another matter and
    would violate the law unless the relevant
    authority gives its approval to do so.

  • In recognition of a growing problem of security,
    various local authorities and state governments
    have issued guidelines for guarded communities.
    These guidelines do allow erection of guard
    houses and the employment of private security
    based on the consent by the residents in the area
    affected. For example, in Selangor, the Housing
    and Property Board and the local authorities
    allow guard houses to be built based on certain
    guidelines amongst which include-
    Applications made through the Resident
    Association (RA) only Consent by 85 of the
    residents Agreement must be made between RA
    and local authority Guard house without a
    barrier are allowed and the location should not
    obstruct traffic (situated at road shoulder

  • A written consent from Local Authority and Land
    Administrator (LA) for the construction of guard
    house on reserved road/vacant land must first be
    obtained Appointed security guards must be
    registered with Ministry of Home Affairs or with
    other relevant agencies
  • The authorities do sometimes turn a blind eye
    to allow some form of limited barriers so long as
    it is backed by an overwhelming support of the
    local residents and it does not deny access nor
    unduly obstruct traffic.

Claimed advantages and disadvantages of GGC
  • Safer community with secured and guarded
    surroundings offering a new privatized way of
    life and exclusivity as part of a communitys
    lifestyle. Better quality public services, such
    as garbage removal and park maintenance can be
    expected as these jobs are privatized, leaving
    local authorities to concentrate on the provision
    of other aspects.
  • National Social Policy segregation?
  • Conflict between GGC and Non GCC residents

What is a Virtual Community?
  • A virtual community is a community of people
    sharing common interests, ideas, and feelings
    over the Internet or other collaborative
  • A possible inventor of this term and one of its
    first proponents was Howard Rheingold, who
    created one of the first major Internet
    communities, called "The Well."
  • In his book, The Virtual Community , Rheingold
    defines virtual communities as social
    aggregations that emerge from the Internet when
    enough people carry on public discussions long
    enough and with sufficient human feeling to form
    webs of personal relationships in cyberspace.

According to Rheingold
  • A virtual community as they exist today is a
    group of people who may or may not meet one
    another face to face, and who exchange words and
    ideas through the mediation of computer bulletin
    boards and networks. In cyberspace, we chat and
    argue, engage in intellectual intercourse,
    perform acts of commerce, exchange knowledge,
    share emotional support, make plans, brainstorm,
    gossip, feud, fall in love, find
  • friends and lose them, play games and metagames,
    flirt, create a little high art and a lot of idle
    talk. We do everything people do when people get
    together, but we do it with words on computer
    screens, leaving our bodies behind.
  • From the reading A Slice of Life in my Virtual

Claimed Advantages Include
  • Lack of prejudice on physical attributes
  • Age, race, gender, handicap, etc.
  • Easy to meet people by interests
  • Rather than by where they live/work
  • Bring into contact with more people
  • Rheingold claims experts are readily available

Dangers of Exclusion
  • In real world, many communities are segregated by
  • Social class
  • Race or ethnicity
  • Political views or lifestyle choices
  • Age or family status

Are Online Communities Worse?
  • Rheingold likes chance to seek out people with
    same interests, ideas
  • But will that lead to more segregation?
  • E.g. right or left wing political communities
  • Never exposed to opposing viewpoints
  • New kinds of cyberghetto

  • "Sustainable community development is the ability
    to make development choices which respect the
    relationship between the three "E's"-economy,
    ecology, and equity. Discuss.
  • Young people in virtual community creating
    knowledge in cyberspace ... Why do young people
    participate in virtual communities? What kind of
    value does it impose on the youth?
  • What is a gated community? In your opinion what
    are the advantages and disadvantages of such a
    community and what the future holds for such

Topic 8Sustainable Consumption
  • Introduction
  • Standard of Living and Quality of Life (QoL)
  • Sustainable Consumption
  • - Principles and Definitions
  • Practice
  • - Sustainable Consumption and
    Production and how they are related
  • Minimum Consumption and Optimum Production
  • Impact of Production Process on man and the
  • New approach for development

Standard of Living and Quality of Life
  • Standard of living refers to the consumption of
    goods and services by an individual. It relates
    directly to economic development. Economic
    development refers to the improvement of human
    living standards by economic growth.
  • economic growth refers to the increase in goods
    and services which requires more producers and
    consumers (ie population growth and more
    production and consumption per person)
  • whereas the well-being or quality of life of a
    population refers to a combination of attributes
    that provide physical, mental, spiritual and
    social wellbeing.

Sustainable Growth For growth, we need resources
and the rate of depletion of resources cannot be
matched with the regenerating capacity of earth,
as it is finite, not-growing and materially
closed. Therefore, Sustainable growth is an
impossible theorem! Sustainable
Consumption Sustainable consumption is related to
production and distribution, use and disposal of
products and services and provides the means to
rethink our lifecycle. The aim is to ensure that
the basic needs of the entire global community
are met, excess is reduced and environmental
damage is avoided.
What is Sustainable Consumption?
  • the use of services and products which respond
    to basic needs and bring a better quality of life
    while minimizing the use of natural resources and
    toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste
    and pollutants over the life cycle of the service
    or product so as to not jeopardize the needs of
    future generations.
  • UN CSD, 1995

Sustainable Consumption is ....
  • more than consuming green  
  • meeting basic needs
  • about changing patterns
  • not doing without
  • responsible consumption consuming differently,
    efficiently !!
  • Changing consumption and productionpatterns is
    the heart of sustainable development.

Why The Need For Sustainable Consumption?
  • Recent studies show that we are already exceeding
    the Earths ability to support our lifestyles,
    and have been doing so for approximately twenty
    years. (UNDP, Source data from Earth trends,

Driving Forces that Influence ConsumptionThe
issue at a glance...
  • Global drivers of consumption
  • Global consumption levels and patterns are driven
    at the most fundamental level by
  • Rapid global population growth Population of 9
    billion expected by 2050
  • The rise in global affluence and associated
    consumption Global middle class expected to
    triple by 2030
  • A culture of consumerism among higher income
    groups, who account for the greatest per capita
    share of global consumption

  • 2. Global consumption patterns impacts
  • Global consumption is putting unsustainable and
    increasing stress on
  • The Earths ecosystems 60 of the Earths
    ecosystem services have been degraded in the past
    50 years
  • The supply of energy and material resources
    needed for industrial growth Natural resource
    consumption is expected to rise to 170 of the
    Earths bio-capacity by 2040
  • Human social systems and well-being Human
    well-being does not necessarily rely on high
    levels of consumption

  • 3. The role of the consumer
  • Consumer attitudes and behaviors
  • Consumers are increasingly concerned about
    environmental, social and economic issues, and
    increasingly willing to act on those concerns
  • Consumer willingness often does not translate
    into sustainable consumer behavior because of a
    variety of factors such as availability,
    affordability, convenience, product performance,
    conflicting priorities, skepticism and force of
  • 4. The role of the media, communications

Mixed messages from the consumers
Id like to end poverty, stop violence and
racism, and get rid of pollution. Everyone
should be equal.
I want to dress in the nicest clothes, drive a
great car, talk on the latest mobile phone, and
watch my brand new DVD
An international agenda
  • The sustainable consumption challenge emerged as
    a key issue in 1992 at the United Nations
    Conference on Environment and Development in Rio
    de Janeiro.
  • Ten years later, at the World Summit on
    Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the
    international community was called upon to
    improve global living conditions and to
    encourage and promote the development of a
    ten-year framework of programs on sustainable
    consumption and production (SCP) in support of
    regional and national initiatives to accelerate
    the shift towards SCP.

Chapter 4 of Agenda 21
  • The Chapter 4 of Agenda 21 was dedicated to
    improving the sustainability of development
    through more sustainable patterns of consumption
    and production.
  • It include two program areas.
  • i. Focus on unsustainable patterns of production
    and consumption.
  • ii. Developing national policies and strategies
    to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption

Towards a Definition of Sustainable Consumption
  • There are many definitions of SC, but most share
    the following common features
  • Satisfying basic human needs (not the desire for
    'wants' and luxuries
  • Favoring quality of life over material standards
    of living
  • Minimizing resource use, waste and pollution
  • Taking a life-cycle perspective in consumer
    decision-making life cycle of a product
    referring to its production, transport and
    retailing, use and disposal.
  • Acting with concern for future generations

Definition of Sustainable Consumption
  • These five emphases feature in a definition that
    has come to be seen as one of the most
    authoritative in recent years.
  • "Sustainable production and consumption is the
    use of goods and services that respond to basic
    needs and bring a better qualify of life, while
    minimizing the use of natural resources, toxic
    materials and emissions of waste and pollutants
    over the life cycle, so as not to jeopardize the
    needs of future generations."
  • Symposium Sustainable Consumption. Oslo, Norway
    19-20 January 1994.

Linking Sustainable Consumption with Sustainable
  • This definition is seen as a good one because it
    links sustainable consumption closely with
    sustainable production - by dealing with both the
    production and disposal phases of the product
    life-cycle as well as the transport, retailing
    and consumption of goods and services. It also
    assumes a two-way process of social change
    through which producers can influence consumption
    through product designs and marketing with
    consumers, in turn, influencing production
    through their market choices.

Sustainable Production What is Cleaner
  • Cleaner Production is the continuous
    application of an integrated environmental
  • to processes, products, and services
  • to increase overall efficiency,
  • and reduce risks to humans and the environment.
  • Cleaner production can be applied
  • to the processes used in any industry,
  • to products themselves and
  • to various services provided in society
  • http//www.uneptie.org/pc/cp/understanding_cp/home

There is no Sustainable Consumption without
Sustainable Production and vice versa
Consumption and production integrated issue
  • Consumers are increasingly interested in the
    world that lies behind the products. They want to
    know how and where and by whom the products have
    been produced.
  • This increasing awareness is a sign of hope.
    Business and governments must build on that.
  • Klaus Toepfer, UNEP Executive Director

Sustainable Consumption and Production a role
for all
  • Sustainable consumption and production is a
    common responsibility of
  • Governments,
  • Industry,
  • Consumers and
  • Mass media.

Future directions...
  • Encompasses the entire consumption and
    production system with a life cycle perspective
  • Focuses on minimising impacts of entire system
  • Includes interventions that influence consumption
    patterns (e.g, PSS, product information and
    product design)
  • Involves wide range of stakeholders
  • Covers both policy as well as techno-managerial

  1. Define Sustainable Consumption. What would you
    suggest the best way on getting the world onto a
    sustainable consumption course.

Topic 9Economic Sustainability
  • Background
  • Why Economic Sustainability?
  • What is the difference between economic growth,
    economic development, and environmentally
    sustainable economic development?
  • What are the earths main type of resources? How
    can they be depleted or degraded?
  • Definitions
  • Principles
  • Practice

The Essentials of Sustainable Economic
  • Todays industrial economy is not sustainable. It
    is depleting resources and degrading the natural
  • Sustainable economies must meet the needs of the
    present without diminishing opportunities for the
  • All economic value comes from the earth or from
    people from natural or human resources
    ultimately from energy.
  • Sustainable development must invest in nature and
    society even when there are no economic
    incentives to do so.
  • Sustainable development depends on social and
    ethical values, which are different from economic

The growth of the economy undermines
  • depletes resources
  • exceeds global and bioregional carrying capacity
  • destroys ecosystems
  • overwhelms natural waste disposal sinks
  • alters the climate
  • wages war on subsistence cultures
  • produces shocking mal-distribution of wealth and
  • Economics and Sustainability must be harmonized.

  • Global crisis of mainstream economic systems
  • (capitalist socialist) energy crisis,
    environmental crisis, food crisis, financial
    crisis, spiritual crisis marginalization of
    less developed countries
  • Globalization of poverty creeping poverty in
    both developed and less developed country.

Costs of Economic Growth

Costs of Economic Growth
How did the Brundtland Commission operationalize
  • Seven strategic imperatives for sustainable
  • reviving (economic) growth
  • changing the quality of growth
  • meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy,
    water, and sanitation
  • ensuring a sustainable level of population
  • conserving and enhancing the resource base
  • reorienting technology and managing risk
  • merging environment and economics in
  • (Hackett, 2006)

Essential Economic Principles of Sustainability
  • Scarcity Economic value is determined by
    scarcity, not by human necessity. Some thing
    essential for economic sustainability have little
    if any economic value.
  • Efficiency Economic value relative to economic
    costs. Economic sustainability requires efficient
    use of natural and human resources.
  • Sovereignty People must have freedom to make
    informed economic choices, without coercion or
  • Economic principles must also be respected in
    social relationships and in relationships with

Addressing Economic Sustainability
  • What can we do to be more sustainable
  • Cut down on use of energy
  • Recycle
  • Adopt a more environmentally transport
  • Use renewable energy resources eg wind power
    solar power tidal power hydroelectric power and

Topic 10Sustainable Cities
  • Sustainable Cities
  • - Why the focus on cities?
  • - Definitions and Basic Principle
  • - What makes a city sustainable?
  • Urban 21 Conference Quality of Life
  • New Concepts
  • Compact City Eco City Healthy City Safe
  • Practice

Why the Focus on Cities?
  • The majority of the global population live in
    cities in 2008 and predictions suggest that the
    figure will have reached 70 by 2050.
  • Furthermore, cities are currently responsible
    for up to 70 of global greenhouse gas emissions
    but only take up 2 of the world's land area.
  • This shows that the scale of the sustainability
    challenge in the urban built environment is vast,
    tackling it is vital to creating long-term,
    systemic and sustainable change.
  • Ref Eugenie Birch and Susan Wachter
  • Global Urbanization

Sustainable City
  • Being a sustainable city means "improving the
    quality of life in a city, including ecological,
    cultural, political, institutional, social and
    economic components without leaving a burden on
    future generations...."
  • Urban21 Conference, Berlin, July 2000

Pillars of Sustainable City
  • " Economy, ecology and social cohesion are the
    pillars of a sustainable city. These must be in
    balance and therefore require an integrated
    approach. Dialogue is the basic principle for
    achieving this for Local Agenda 21."

Sustainable City
  • Cities have become the focal points as major
    consumers and distributors of goods and services.
    However, many cities tend to be large consumers
    of goods and services, while draining resources
    out of external regions that they depend on. As a
    result of increasing consumption of resources,
    and growing dependencies on trade, the ecological
    impact of cities extends beyond their geographic

Urban Areas in Crisis
  • Severe air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • 50 Unemployment
  • Deafening noise
  • Overcrowding
  • Traffic congestion
  • Inadequate public transportation
  • slums (barrios), squatter settlements, ghettos,
  • What progress is being made?

Global Outlook Extreme Poverty Forces Hundreds
of Millions to Live in Slums
Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Compact cities
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Tokyo, Japan
  • Mass transit
  • Dispersed cities
  • U.S. and Canada
  • Car-centered cities

How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and
  • An ecocity allows people to choose walking,
    biking, or mass transit for most transportation
    needs recycle or reuse most of their wastes
    grow much of their food and protect biodiversity
    by preserving surrounding land.

The Ecocity Concept Cities for People Not Cars
  • Ecocities or green cities
  • Build and redesign for people
  • Use renewable energy resources
  • Recycle and purify water
  • Use energy and matter resources efficiently
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
  • Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste
  • Protect and support biodiversity
  • Urban gardens farmers markets
  • Zoning and other tools for sustainability

Science Focus Urban Indoor Farming
  • Rooftop greenhouses
  • Sun Works designs energy-efficient greenhouses
  • Growing Power and Will Allen http//www.growingpow
  • Hydroponic gardens
  • Skyscraper farms
  • Ecological advantages and disadvantages
  • Growing localvore and organic food movement
  • http//www.foodfightthedoc.com/foodfight.html

Greenroofs EPA Building in Denver
Towards Healthy City Concept
  • Today environments have designed out physical
  • Excessive high energy food intake
  • Insufficient physical activity in daily life
  • Diminished social interaction

Living in a city health and quality of life
  • People live longer and healthier lives if
  • They breath clean air and drink safe water
  • They live in safe and comfortable housing
  • They have health supporting behaviour and
    easy access to health care services
  • They have meaningful jobs and income.
  • They have security
  • They have friends and feel they belong to their
  • They can make choices for their lives.
  • They have a peaceful home
  • They have trees, plants and feel they relate to
    the architecture.

The Aims of Healthy City Initiatives
  • Improve health and environmental services
  • Make people partners
  • Strengthen social support network
  • Stimulate economic development
  • Put health at center of city social and political

ConclusionAdvantages of Sustainable Cities
  • By promoting sustainable urban form and function,
    cities become healthy, viable communities for
    citizens. Efficient urban form also helps protect
    the hinterland ecosystems that cities depend on.
    In many ways, the advantages to sustainable
    communities are underlined in the characteristics
    and definitions of urban sustainability. A good
    quality of life, natural open spaces, reduced
    waste, equality, access, lower crime, sense of
    community, clean air and water quality, and
    environmental diversity are just a few beneficial
    characteristics previously mentioned.

  • The most important advantage of a sustainable
    city is that it follows such a development path
    that allows for an integral and long-term
    development without compromising future

Topic 11Good Governance Sustainability
  • Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Characteristics of Good Governance
  • Innovative Management
  • Assessment Technique to Achieve Sustainability
  • Sustainable Planning Technique

Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Sustainability cannot be achieved without good
    governance. The Johannesburg World Summit on
    Sustainable Development in 2002 stated that
    governance and sustainable development are
    intimately tied together and the future role of
    institutions, from local to international levels,
    will be crucial determinants to whether future
    policies and programs for sustainable development
    will succeed.
  • The traditional systems of regulations are being
    subjected to growing pressure for reform. All
    stakeholders including the government need to
    play a significant, if changed, role in the
    future. Sustainable development requires this

Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Such an intra- and intergenerational concept
    cannot be achieved with a top-down approach, but
    rather needs the participation of all. In fact,
    the governance of sustainable development
    requires the exploration of new forms of both
    social co-operation and confrontation. By doing
    so, the different levels (global and local),
    players (state, company and civil society),
    control structures (hierarchy, market and
    public-private) and fields of action need to be
    taken into consideration.
  • There is thus the need to examine the
    possibilities of integrating the environmental,
    social and economic dimensions of sustainable
    development within the framework of governance
    processes and how that might steer societies
    towards sustainability.

The Different Levels of Governance
  • International level
  • National level
  • Government
  • Private sector
  • Civil society
  • Local level
  • Family level
  • New Challenge of the Century The Changing Roles
    of the Government, Private Sectors, NGOs and the

What is Meant by Good Governance?
  • Definition of Governance
  • Definition of Good Governance
  • Concept and Elements of Good Governance
  • Characteristics of Good Governance

What is Governance
  • NOT equivalent to government
  • It involves multiple stakeholders in society (in
    multiple roles)
  • Individuals
  • Members of community/groups with specific groups
    interest and concerns
  • Sectoral entities with sectoral interests and
  • The whole society

Governance is about
  • Striking a BALANCE in attending to and providing
    for the needs and interests of its multiple
  • SAFEGUARDING the interest of the WHOLE

What is meant by Governance?
  • Governance can be seen as the exercise of
    economic, political, and administrative authority
    to manage a countrys affairs at all level. It
    comprises the mechanisms, processes and
    institutions through which citizen and groups
    articulate their rights and interests, exercise
    their legal means to meet their obligations and
    mediate their differences (UNDP)

  • The manner in which power is exercised in the
    management of a countrys economic
  • and social resources for development

  • World Bank
  • The exercise of economic, political and
  • administrative authority to manage
  • a countrys affairs at all levels
  • equitable, rule of law, with consensus
  • UNDP

Key issues
  • Governance- how power is shared and distributed
    to generate a better quality of life
  • People Development
  • Equitable Access
  • Indigenous Content Development
  • Pressures for Change

Pressure for Change
Information Revolution And ICT Convergence
Knowledge explosion
Globalized economy
Shrinking resources
Rise of Third Sector
Environmental degradation
Private Sector
Informed citizenry
What are some of the Challenges?
Government Become more Facilitative, Open Transparent Private Sector Go beyond the Profit motif, and Help society value Community Become more Participative and more Tolerant of each other
Leaders (all sectors) Become more facilities (focus on building and enhancing Understanding) focus more on institutional and capacity building Leaders (all sectors) Become more facilities (focus on building and enhancing Understanding) focus more on institutional and capacity building Leaders (all sectors) Become more facilities (focus on building and enhancing Understanding) focus more on institutional and capacity building
What does a good Government should be?
  • Not just representative but fully participatory
    affording opportunities for people to express
    their voice, opinion and make choices
  • Must be dynamic and changing but the core values
    do not get diminished
  • Must not be a separate entity but a continuum of
    the civil society
  • Allows full participation, uphold visions and
    values of its peoples, translate them into
    policies and allocate resources to convert policy
    into reality
  • Should be open and not closed
  • Must be people friendly and human
  • Uphold public interest

Nine Characteristics/Principles of Good Governance
  • Participant
  • Rule of law
  • Transparency
  • Responsiveness
  • Consensus orientation
  • Equity
  • Effectiveness and efficiency
  • Accountability
  • Strategic vision

The Concept and Element of Good Governance
  • The Concept
  • Governance encompasses the state, but it
    transcends the state by including the private
    sector and civil society organizations. The
    private sector covers private enterprise
    (manufacturing, trade banking, cooperatives and
    so on) and the informal sector in the market
  • 2. The Element
  • Two Aspects To Governance
  • The formal structure within which the local
    governments operate, and
  • The ways in which local governments act in
    relation to the wider community
  • An essential element of good governance in the
    context of the ways in which local authorities
    relate to their communities is inclusiveness

Good Governance
  • Implies a participatory and an inclusive approach
    to the community at large. It implies a bottom up
    approach to decision making, having all concerned
    people at every level of government and non
    governmental organizations.
  • A good governance system is a democratic system
    it is participatory, transparent, accountable,
    equitable, and it promotes the rule of law. This
    implies the creation of an institutional
    framework recognizing the legitimacy the will of
    the people.

Traditional Approach to Governance
  • Elements
  • Governance leads
  • Hierarchical model
  • Centralized decision-making
  • Top-down processes
  • Authority and influence based on positions of
    power within the hierarchy
  • Information flow limited and controllable (mostly
    1 way communication)
  • Transparency on a need to know basis

Private Sector
A Smart-Partnership-based Governance Approach
M The Marginalized
Governance Process
Community Sustaining and Improving Quality of Life
Public Preserving Rule of Law Maintaining Order,
Ensuring Social, Economic Justice
Private Creating Value
The WHOLE Greater Than the sum of its parts
  • Local governance must change to keep pace with
    development and time.
  • Local authority must be at par with others with
    the advancement of technology, local bureaucrats
    could not longer hide behind red tapes for the
    inefficiency and inability to deliver a certain
    standard of services to the people.
  • Today, there is almost full concensus among
    social stakeholders modern public management
    requires implementation of good governance
  • Good governance is a policy approach aimed to
    increase public sector efficiency and citizens
    satisfaction from having responsible and commited
  • Good governance in global context require
    learning and sharing knowledge and practices
    among scientists, policymakers, practitioners,
    NGOs from many countries.

  • What do you think good governance is when you
    hear that expression in everyday life?
  • Compare and contrast on the strengths and
    weaknesses of the traditional and new approach
    to governance.

Topic 12 Stakeholders And Sustainability
  • The Stakeholders Roles in Sustainable
  • - The Meaning of Stakeholders
  • Chapter 28 of Agenda 21 The Local Governments
    Roles in Sustainability
  • The Principles of Agenda 21 The Rights for
    Community Participation
  • The Roles of the NGOs, Private Sector

Agenda 21 is designed as a bridge
  • The Earth Summit held in Rio De Janerio, Brazil
    was attended by 178 country leaders (including
    Malaysia) on June 1992. The Earth Summit provides
    world's action plan towards sustainable
    development. This action plan was known as Agenda
    21 - an agenda to achieve sustainable development
    in the 21st century.
  • between environment and development
  • between the public and private sectors
  • between governments and civil society
  • between global and national goals
  • between current and future generations
  • between knowledge and action
  • between developed and developing countries.

Agenda 21 Consists of 40 Chapters in 4 Sections
as following -
  • Social and Economic Dimension
  • Maintaining and managing resources
  • Strengthen the roles of dominant groups (the
    women, children, NGO,LAs)
  • Methods of Accomplishment
  • Under Section 3 of Agenda 21, dominant group
    such as the women, children, NGO, youth,
    employee, business and industrial sectors
    including aborigines hold major role implementing
    Agenda 21 towards sustainable development at
    local level. Thus, it was known as Local Agenda
    21 - Local Action Plan towards sustainable
    development in 21st century.

  • Local Agenda 21 is Agenda 21 at the local level.
  • Agenda 21 is an action plan towards global
    sustainable development in the next millennium
    and was endorsed by more than 178 heads of state
    and ministers at UNCED.
  • LA21 is a program to forge partnerships between
    local authorities and the communities, they serve
    to work together to plan and care for their
    surroundings towards sustainable development.
  • Local communities with local authority, identify
    and analyze local sustainable development issues,
    formulate and implement action plans to address
  • LA21 adopts a "bottom up" approach.

Chapter 28 of Agenda 21
  • Chapter 28 of Agenda 21 also contains a direct
    call to all local governments to create their own
    action plans for sustainable development. These
    Local Agenda 21 action plans translate the
    principles and mandates of Agenda 21 into
    concrete service strategies for each local
  • Chapter 28 states that
  • By 1996, most local authorities in each country
    should have undertaken a consultative process
    with their populations and achieved a consensus
    on a Local Agenda 21 for the community.

  • Holistic perpective in thinking and action among
  • Active participation from all partnership to
    create togetherness and love feeling
  • Community thinking and action in lifecycle
  • World perspective in local issues think globally
    act locally
  • Long term perspective for local issues

Characteristics of LA 21
  • The following are some characteristics of an LA21
  • It addresses economic, social and ecological
    needs together.
  • It includes a consensus on a vision for a
    sustainable future.
  • It includes a participatory process with local
  • It establishes a Stakeholders Group, Forum or
    equivalent multi sectoral community group to
    oversee the process.
  • It contains an Action Plan with concrete
    long-term targets.
  • It has a monitoring and reporting framework.
  • It has indicators to monitor progress.
  • It has tangible activities and programs to
    actualize its Action Plans.

LA 21 Process
  • Organize / prepare local authority
  • Partnership and participation
  • Develop a vision
  • Identity problems and issues
  • Develop objectives / set priorities
  • Action plan
  • Implement
  • Monitor and evaluate

Local Agenda 21
Resource http//www.kpkt.gov.my/jkt/la21
  • Participation is defined as
  • A process through which stakeholders influence
    and share control over development initiatives
    and the decisions and resources which affect them

  • (World Bank)
  • A Stakeholder can be defined as
  • Any individual, community, group or organisation
    with an interest in the outcome of a
    programme/project, either as a result of being
    affected by it positively or negatively, or by
    being able to influence the activity in a
    positive () or negative (x) way
  • (DFID)

Stakeholder participation is important in
plan-making because it helps implementation
  • Taking stakeholders views into account -
    particularly in relation to project/strategic
    objectives and how they are to be achieved -
    helps in achieving the plans aim
  • Enhancing stakeholder participation aims to
    strengthen local ownership of a plan.
  • From a planners perspective, it increases the
    likelihood that plans will be effective and
  • More effective in drawing on a wide range of
    interested parties, the prospects for appropriate
    project design and commitment are likely to be
  • More sustainable people are more likely to be
    committed to carrying on an activity after aid
    stops and are more able to do so since
    participation builds their skills and confidence

Roles of Development Players
  • Advocacy
  • Represent the marginalized
  • Community enabler
  • Link to grassroots
  • Government
  • Vision direction
  • Enabling conditions
  • Set rules/regulations
  • Public services
  • Resources

Sustainable Development
  • Business
  • Create wealth
  • Set sustainability of production
  • Influence consumption patterns
  • Resource Providers/Devt Institutions
  • Financial assistance
  • Technical assistance

Participant Roles
  • Community/CBOs
  • Set the agenda, development needs set ground
    rules for interaction and change set pace of
  • Knowledge, staff, other funding
  • Government
  • Create enabling environment, provide link to
    wider development goals and planning, management,
    staff, funding
  • Private Sector
  • Funding, technical and managerial expertise,
    planning, finance, training, skills, access to
    markets, wider network
  • Facilitator
  • create trust, build cultural bridges, provide
    capacity building, training and education, access
    to wider network

Optimizing Participation of Stakeholders in
Developing and Implementing Sustainability
  • NGOs, Private Sector and the Government

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