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Quantitative-Qualitative Research: Marleonie M. Bauyot marleonie_b@yahoo.com

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Title: Quantitative-Qualitative Research: Marleonie M. Bauyot marleonie_b@yahoo.com


1
Quantitative-Qualitative Research
Marleonie M. Bauyot marleonie_b_at_yahoo.com
2
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • The Nature of Qualitative Research
  • ?The term qualitative research refers to studies
    that investigate the quality of relationships,
    activities, situations, or materials.
  • ?The natural setting is a direct source of data,
    and the researcher is a key part of the
    instrumentation process in qualitative research.
  • ?Qualitative data are collected mainly in the
    form of words or pictures and seldom involve
    numbers. Content analysis is a primary method of
    data analysis.

3
  • Qualitative researchers are especially interested
    in how things occur and particularly in the
    perspectives of the subjects of a study.
  • Qualitative researchers do not, usually,
    formulate a hypothesis beforehand and then seek
    to test it. Rather, they allow hypotheses to
    emerge as a study develops.
  • Qualitative and quantitative research differ in
    the philosophic assumptions that underlie the two
    approaches.

4
STEPS INVOLVED IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • The steps involved in conducting a qualitative
    study are not as distinct as they are in
    quantitative studies. They often overlap and
    sometimes are even conducted concurrently.
  • All qualitative studies begin with a foreshadowed
    problem, the particular phenomenon the researcher
    is interested in investigating.
  • Researchers who engage in a qualitative study of
    some type usually select a purposive sample.
    Several types of purposive samples exist.

5
  • There is no treatment in a qualitative study, nor
    is there any manipulation of variables.
  • The collection of data in a qualitative study is
    ongoing.
  • Conclusions are drawn continuously throughout the
    course of a qualitative study.

6
APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • A biographical study tells the story of the
    special events in the life of a single
    individual.
  • A researcher studies an individuals reactions to
    a particular phenomenon in a phenomenological
    study. He or she attempts to identify
    commonalities among different individual
    perceptions.
  • In a grounded theory study, a researcher forms a
    theory inductively from the data collected as
    part of the study.
  • A case study is a detailed study of one or (at
    most) a few individuals or other social units,
    such as a classroom, a school, or a
    neighborhood. It can also be a study of an event,
    an activity, or an ongoing process.

7
GENERALIZATION IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • Generalizing is possible in qualitative
    research, but it is of different type than that
    found in quantitative studies. Most likely it
    will be done by interested practitioners.

8
ETHICS AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • The identities of all participants in a
    qualitative study should be protected, and they
    should be treated with respect.

9
RECONSIDERING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
  • Aspects of both qualitative and quantitative
    research often are used together in a study.
    Increased attention is being given to such
    mixed-methods studies.
  • Whether qualitative or quantitative research is
    the most appropriate boils down to what the
    researcher involved wants to find out.

10
OBSERVATION AND INTERVIEWING
  • Observation Roles
  • ?There are four roles that an observer can play
    in a qualitative research study, ranging from
    complete participant, to participant-as-observer,
    to observer-as-participant, to complete observer.
    The degree of involvement of the observer in the
    observed situation diminishes accordingly for
    each of these roles.

11
PARTICIPANT VERSUS NONPARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
  • In participant observation studies, the
    researcher actually participates as an active
    member of the group in the situation or setting
    he or she is observing.
  • In nonparticipant observation studies, the
    researcher does not participant in an activity or
    situation but observes from the sidelines.
  • The most common forms of nonparticipant
    observation studies include naturalistic
    observation and simulations.
  • A simulation is an artificially created
    situation in which subjects are asked to act
    certain roles.

12
OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES
  • A coding scheme is a set of categories an
    observer uses to record a persons or groups
    behaviors.
  • Even with a fixed coding scheme in mind, an
    observer must still choose what to observe.
  • A major problem in all observational research is
    that much that goes on may be missed.

13
OBSERVER EFFECT
  • The term observer effect refers to either the
    effect the presence of an observer can have on
    the behavior of the subjects or observer bias in
    the data reported. The use of audio- and
    videotapings is especially helpful in guarding
    against this effect.
  • For this reason, many researchers argue that
    participants in a study should not be informed of
    the studys purpose until after the data have
    been collected.

14
OBSEVATION BIAS
  • Observer bias refers to the possibility that
    certain characteristics or ideas of observers may
    affect what they observe.

15
SAMPLING IN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
  • Researchers who engage in observation usually
    must choose a purposive sample.

16
INTERVIEWING
  • A major technique commonly used by qualitative
    researchers is in-depth interviewing.
  • One purpose of interviewing the participants in a
    qualitative study is to find out how they think
    or feel about something. Another purpose is to
    provide a check on the researchers observations.
  • Interviews may be structured, semi-structured,
    informal, or retrospective.

17
  • The six types of questions asked by interviewers
    are background (or demographic) questions,
    knowledge questions, experience (or behavior
    questions), opinion (or values) questions,
    feelings questions, and sensory questions.
  • Respect for the individual being interviewed is a
    paramount expectation in any proper interview.

18
  • Key actors are people in any group who are more
    informed about the culture and history of the
    group and who also are more articulate than
    others.
  • A focus group interview is an interview with a
    small, fairly homogeneous group of people who
    respond to a series of questions, asked by an
    interviewer.
  • The most effective characteristic of a good
    interviewer is a strong interest in people and in
    listening to what they have to say.

19
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • An important check on the validity and
    reliability of the researchers interpretations
    in qualitative research is to compare one
    informants description of something with another
    informants description of the same thing.
  • Another, although more difficult, check on
    reliability/validity is to compare information on
    the same topic with different information-triangul
    ation.
  • Efforts to ensure reliability and validity
    include use of proper vocabulary, recording
    questions used as well as personal reactions,
    describing content, and documenting sources.

20
CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • WHAT IS CONTENT ANALYSIS?
  • Content analysis is an analysis of the contents
    of a communication.
  • Content analysis is a technique that enables
    researchers to study human behavior in an
    indirect way by analyzing communications.

21
APPLICATIONS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • Content analysis has wide applicability in
    educational research.
  • Content analysis can give researchers insights
    into problems that they can test by more direct
    methods.
  • There are several reasons to do a content
    analysis to obtain descriptive information of
    one kind or another to analyze observational and
    interview data to test hypotheses to check
    other research findings and/or to obtain
    information useful in dealing with educational
    problems.

22
CATEGORIZATION IN CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • Predetermined categories are sometimes used to
    code data.
  • Sometimes coding is done by using categories that
    emerge as data is reviewed.

23
STEPS INVOLVED IN CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • In doing a content analysis, researchers should
    always develop a rationale (a conceptual link) to
    explain how the data to be collected are related
    to their objectives.
  • Important terms should at some point be defined.
  • All of the sampling methods used in other kinds
    of educational research can be applied to content
    analysis. Purposive sampling, however, is the
    most commonly used.
  • The unit of analysis-what specifically is to be
    analyzed-should be specified before the
    researcher begins an analysis.
  • After precisely defining what aspects of the
    content are to be analyzed, the researcher needs
    to formulate coding categories.

24
CODING CATEGORIES
  • Developing emergent coding categories requires a
    high level of familiarity with the content of
    communication.
  • In doing a content analysis, a researcher can
    code either the manifest or the latent content of
    a communication, and sometimes both.
  • The manifest content of a communication refers to
    the specific, clear, surface contents the words,
    pictures, images, and such that are easily
    categorized.
  • The latent content of a document refers to the
    meaning underlying what is contained in a
    communication.

25
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY AS APPLIED TO CONTENT
ANALYSIS
  • Reliability in content analysis is commonly
    checked by comparing the results of two
    independent scorers (categorizers).
  • Validity can be checked by comparing data
    obtained from manifest content to that obtained
    from the latent content.

26
DATA ANALYSIS
  • A common way to interpret content analysis data
    is by using frequencies (i.e., the number of
    specific incidents found in the data) and
    proportion of particular occurrences to total
    occurrences.
  • Another method is to use coding to develop themes
    to facilitate synthesis.
  • Computer analysis is extremely useful in coding
    data once categories have been determined. It can
    also be useful at times in developing such
    categories.

27
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • Two major advantages of content analysis are that
    it is unobtrusive and it is comparatively easy to
    do.
  • The major disadvantages of content analysis are
    that it is limited to the analysis of
    communications and it is difficult to establish
    validity.

28
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
  • THE NATURE AND VALUE OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
  • Ethnographic research is particularly appropriate
    for behaviors that are best understood by
    observing them within their natural settings.
  • The key techniques in all ethnographic studies
    are in-depth interviewing and highly detailed,
    almost continual, ongoing participant observation
    of a situation.
  • A key strength of ethnographic research is that
    it provides the researcher with a much more
    comprehensive perspective than do other forms of
    educational research.

29
ETHNOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS
  • Important concepts in ethnographic research
    include culture, holistic perspective, thick
    description, contextualization, a nonjudgmental
    orientation, emic perspective, etic perspective,
    member checking, and multiple realities.

30
TOPICS THAT LEND THEMSELVES WELL TO ETHNOGRAHIC
RESEARCH
  • These include topics that defy simple
    quantification those that can best be understood
    in natural setting those that involve studying
    individual or group activities over time those
    that involve studying the roles that individuals
    play and the behaviors associated with those
    roles those that involve studying the activities
    and behaviors of groups as a unit and those that
    involve studying formal organizations in their
    totality.

31
SAMPLING IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
  • The sample in ethnographic studies is almost
    always purposive.
  • The data obtained from ethnographic research
    samples rarely, if ever, permit generalization to
    a population.

32
THE USE OF HYPOTHESES IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
  • Ethnographic researchers seldom formulate precise
    hypotheses ahead of time. Rather, they develop
    them as their study emerges.

33
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS IN ETHNOGRAPHIC
RESEARCH
  • The two major means of data collection in
    ethnographic research are participant observation
    and detailed interviewing.
  • Researchers use a variety of instruments in
    ethnographic studies to collect data and to check
    validity. This is frequently referred to as
    triangulation.
  • Analysis consists of continual reworking of data
    with emphasis on patterns, key events, and use of
    visual representations in addition to interviews
    and observations.

34
FIELDWORK
  • Field notes are the notes a researcher in an
    ethnographic study takes in the field. They
    include both descriptive field notes (what he or
    she sees and hears) and reflective field notes
    (what he or she thinks about what has been
    observed).
  • Field jottings refer to quick notes about
    something the researcher wants to write more
    about later.
  • A field diary is a personal statement of the
    researchers feelings and opinions about the
    people and situations he or she is observing.
  • A field log is a sort of running account of how
    the researcher plans to spend his or her time
    compared to how he or she actually spends it.

35
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC
RESEARCH
  • A key strength of ethnographic research is that
    it provides a much more comprehensive perspective
    than other forms of educational research. It
    lends itself well to topics that are not easily
    quantified. Also, it is particularly appropriate
    for studying behaviors best understood in their
    natural settings.
  • Like all research, ethnographic research also has
    its limitations. It is highly dependent on the
    particular researchers observations.
    Furthermore, some observer bias is almost
    impossible to eliminate. Lastly, generalization
    is practically nonexistent.

36
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
  • THE NATURE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH
  • The unique characteristic of historical research
    is that it focuses exclusively on the past.

37
PURPOSES OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH
  • Educational researchers conduct historical
    studies for a variety of reasons, but perhaps the
    most frequently cited is to help people learn
    from past failures and successes.
  • When well designed and carefully executed,
    historical research may lead to the confirmation
    or rejection of relational hypothesis.

38
STEPS IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH
  • There are four essential steps involved in a
    historical study defining the problem or
    hypothesis to be investigated searching for
    relevant source material summarizing and
    evaluating the sources the researcher is able to
    locate and interpreting the evidence obtained
    and then drawing conclusions about the problem or
    hypothesis.

39
HISTORICAL SOURCES
  • Most historical source material can be grouped
    into four basic categories documents, numerical
    records, oral statements, and relics.
  • Documents are written or printed materials that
    have been produced in one form or another
    sometime in the past.
  • Numerical records include any type of numerical
    data in printed or handwritten form.
  • Oral statements include any form of statement
    spoken by someone.

40
  • Relics are any objects whose physical or visual
    characteristics can provide some information
    about the past.
  • A primary source is one prepared by an individual
    who was a participant in or a direct witness to
    the event that is being described.
  • A secondary source is a document prepared by an
    individual who was not a direct witness to an
    event but who obtained his or her description of
    the event from someone else.

41
EVALUATION OF HISTORICAL RESOURCE MATERIAL
  • Content analysis is a primary method of data
    analysis in historical research.
  • External criticism refers to the genuineness of
    the documents a researcher uses in a historical
    study.
  • Internal criticism refers to the accuracy of the
    contents of the document. Whereas external
    criticism has to do with the authenticity of a
    document, internal criticism has to do with what
    the document says.

42
GENERALIZATION IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH
  • As in all research, researchers who conduct
    historical studies should exercise caution in
    generalizing from small or non-representative
    samples.

43
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HISTORICAL
RESEARCH
  • The main advantage of historical research is that
    it permits the investigation of topics that could
    be studied in no other way. It is the only
    research method that can study evidence from the
    past.
  • A disadvantage is that controlling for many of
    the threats to internal validity is not possible
    in historical research. Many of the threats to
    internal validity are likely to exist in
    historical studies.

44
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
  • EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
  • The uniqueness of experimental research
  • Experimental research is unique in that it is the
    only type of research that directly attempts to
    influence a particular variable, and it is the
    only type that, when used properly, can really
    test hypotheses about cause-and-effect
    relationships. Experimental designs are some of
    the strongest available for educational
    researchers to use in determining cause and
    effect.

45
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
  • Experiments differ from other types of research
    in two basic ways-comparison of treatments and
    the direct manipulation of one or more
    independent variables by the researcher.

46
RANDOMIZATION
  • Random assignment is an important ingredient in
    the best kinds of experiments. It means that
    every individual who is participating in the
    experiment has an equal chance of being assigned
    to any of the experiment or control conditions
    that are being compared.

47
CONTROL OF EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
  • The researcher in an experimental study has an
    opportunity to exercise far more control than in
    most other forms of research.
  • Some of the most common ways to control for the
    possibility of differential subject
    characteristics (in the various groups being
    compared) are randomization, holding certain
    variables constant, building the variable into
    the design, matching, using subjects as their own
    controls, and using the analysis of covariance.

48
WEAK EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
  • Three weak designs that are occasionally used in
    experimental research are the one-shot case study
    design, the one-group pretest-posttest design,
    and the static-group comparison design. They are
    considered weak because they do not have built-in
    controls for threats to internal validity.
  • In a one-shot case study, a single group is
    exposed to a treatment or event, and its effects
    are assessed.

49
  • In the one-group pretest-posttest design, a
    single group is measured or observed both before
    and after exposure of a treatment.
  • In the static-group comparison design, two intact
    groups are receive different treatments.

50
TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
  • The essential ingredient of a true experiment is
    random assignment of subjects to treatment
    groups.
  • The randomized posttest-only control group design
    involves two groups formed by random assignment.
  • The randomized pretest-posttest control group
    design differs from the randomized posttest-only
    control group only in the use of pretest.
  • The randomized Solomon four-group design involves
    random assignment of subjects to four groups,
    with two being pretested and two not.

51
MATCHING
  • To increase the likelihood that groups of
    subjects will be equivalent, pairs of subjects
    may be matched on certain variables. The members
    of the matched groups are then assigned to the
    experimental and control groups.
  • Matching may be either mechanical or statistical.
  • Mechanical matching is a process of pairing two
    persons whose scores in a particular variable are
    similar.

52
  • Two difficulties with mechanical matching are
    that it is very difficult to match on more than
    two or three variables, and that in order to
    match, some subjects must be eliminated from the
    study when no matches can be found.
  • Statistical matching does not necessitate a loss
    of subjects.

53
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
  • The matching-only design differs from random
    assignment with matching only in that random
    assignment is not used.
  • In a counterbalanced design, all groups are
    exposed to all treatments, but in a different
    order.
  • A time-series design involves repeated
    measurements or observations over time, both
    before and after treatment.

54
FACTORIAL DESIGNS
  • Factorial designs extend the number of
    relationships that may be examined in an
    experimental study.

55
SINGLE-SUBJECT RESEARCH
  • Essential characteristics of single-subject
    research
  • Single-subject research involves the extensive
    collection of data on one subject at a time.
  • An advantage of single-subject designs is that
    they can be applied in settings where group
    designs are difficult to put intoplay.

56
SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS
  • Single-subject designs are most commonly used to
    study the changes in behavior an individual
    exhibits after exposure to a treatment or
    intervention of some sort.
  • Single-subject researchers primarily use line
    graphs to present their data and to illustrate
    the effects of a particular intervention or
    treatment.
  • The basic approach of researchers using an A-B
    design is to expose the same subject, operating
    as his or her own control, to two conditions or
    phases.

57
  • When using an A-B-A design (sometimes called a
    reversal design), researchers simply add another
    baseline period to the A-B design.
  • In the A-B-A-B design, two baseline periods are
    combined with two treatment periods.
  • The B-A-B design is used when an individuals
    behavior is so sever or disturbing that a
    researcher cannot wait for a baseline to be
    established.
  • In the A-B-C-D design, the C condition refers to
    a variation of the intervention in the B
    condition. The intervention is changed during the
    C phase typically to control for any extra
    attention the subject may have received during
    the B phase.

58
MULTIPLE-BASELINE DESIGNS
  • Multiple-baseline designs are used when it is not
    possible or ethical to withdraw a treatment and
    return to baseline.
  • When a multiple-baseline design is used,
    researchers do more than collect data on one
    behavior for one subject in one setting they
    collect on several behaviors for one subject,
    obtaining a baseline for each during the same
    period of time.
  • Multiple-baseline designs also are sometimes used
    to collect data on several subjects with regard
    to a single behavior, or to measure a subjects
    behavior in two or more different settings.

59
THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN SINGLE-SUBJECT
RESEARCH
  • Several threats to internal validity exist with
    regard to single-subject designs. These include
    the length of the baseline and intervention
    conditions, the number of variables changed when
    moving from one condition to another, the degree
    and speed of any change that occurs, a return-or
    not-of the behavior to baseline levels, the
    independence of behaviors, and the number of
    baselines.

60
CONTROLLING THREATS IN SINGLE-SUBJECT STUDIES
  • Single-subject designs are most effective in
    controlling for subject characteristics,
    mortality, testing, and history threats.
  • They are less effective with location, data
    collector characteristics, maturation, and
    regression threats.
  • They are especially weak when it comes to
    instrument decay, data collector bias, attitude,
    and implementation threats.

61
EXTERNAL VALIDITY AND SINGLE-SUBJECT RESEARCH
  • Single-subject studies are weak when it comes to
    generalizability.
  • It is particularly important to replicate
    single-subject studies to determine whether they
    are worthy of generalization.

62
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • THE NATURE OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • The major characteristic of correlational
    research is seeking out associations among
    variables.

63
PURPOSES OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • Correlational studies are carried out either to
    help explain important human behaviors or to
    predict likely outcomes.
  • If a relationship of sufficient magnitude exists
    between two variables, it becomes possible to
    predict a score on one variable if a score on the
    other variable is known.
  • The variable that is used to make the prediction
    is called the predictor variable.
  • The variable about which the prediction is made
    is called the criterion variable.

64
  • Both scatterplots and regression lines are used
    in correlational studies to predict a score on a
    criterion variable.
  • A predicted score is never exact. As a result,
    researchers calculate an index of prediction
    error, which is known as the standard error of
    estimate.

65
COMPLEX CORRELATIONAL TECHNIQUES
  • Multiple regression is a technique that enables
    the researcher to determine a correlation between
    a criterion variable and the best combination of
    two or more predictor variables.
  • The coefficient of multiple correlation indicates
    the strength of the correlation.
  • The value of a prediction equation depends on
    whether it predicts successfully with a new group
    individuals.

66
  • When the criterion variable is categorical rather
    than quantitative, discriminant function analysis
    (rather than multiple regression) must be used.
  • Factor analysis is a technique that allows a
    researcher to determine whether many variables
    can be described by a few factors.
  • Path analysis is a technique used to test the
    likelihood of causal connections among three or
    more variables.

67
BASIC STEPS IN CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • These include, as in most research, selecting a
    problem, choosing a sample, selecting or
    developing instruments, determining procedures,
    collecting and analyzing data, and interpreting
    results.

68
CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS AND THEIR MEANING
  • The meaning of a given correlation coefficient
    depends on how it is applied.
  • Correlation coefficients below .35 show only a
    slight relationship between variables.
  • Correlation between .40 and .60 may have
    theoretical and/or practical value depending on
    the context.

69
  • Only when a correlation of .65 or higher is
    obtained can reasonably accurate predictions be
    made.
  • Vorrelations over .85 indicate a very strong
    relationship between the variables correlated.

70
CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
  • THE NATURE OF CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
  • Causal-comparative research, like correlational
    research, seeks to identify associations among
    variables.
  • Causal-comparative research attempts the cause or
    consequences of differences that already exist
    between or among groups of individuals.
  • The basic causal-comparative approach is to begin
    with a noted difference between two groups and
    then to look for possible causes for, or
    consequences of, this difference.

71
  • There are three types of causal-comparative
    research (exploration of effects, exploration of
    causes, and exploration of consequences), which
    differ in their purposes and structure.
  • When an experiment would take a considerable
    length of time and be quite costly to conduct, a
    causal-comparative study is sometimes used as an
    alternative.
  • As in correlational studies, relationships can be
    identified in a causal-comparative study, but
    causation cannot be fully established.

72
CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE VERSUS CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
  • The basic similarity between causal-comparative
    and correlational studies is that both seek to
    explore relationships among variables. When
    relationships are identified through
    causal-comparative research (or in correlational
    research), they often are studied at a later time
    by means of experimental research.

73
CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL RSEARCH
  • In experimental research, the group membership
    variable is manipulated in causal-comparative
    research, the group differences already exist.

74
STEPS IN CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
  • The first step in formulating a problem in
    causal-comparative these research is usually to
    identify and define the particular phenomena of
    interest and then to consider possible causes
    for, or consequences of, these phenomena.
  • The important thing in selecting a sample for a
    causal-comparative study is to define carefully
    the characteristic to be studied and then to
    select groups that differ in this characteristic.

75
  • There are no limits to the kinds of instruments
    that can be used in a causal-comparative study.
  • The basic causal-comparative designs involves
    selecting two groups that differ on a particular
    variable of interest and then comparing them on
    another variable or variables.

76
THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN
CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
  • Two weaknesses in causal-comparative research are
    lack of randomization and inability to manipulate
    an independent variable.
  • A major threat to the internal validity of a
    causal-comparative study is the possibility of a
    subject selection bias.. The chief procedure that
    a researcher can use to reduce this threat
    include matching subjects on a related variable,
    creating homogeneous subgroups, and using the
    technique of statistical matching.

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  • Other threats to internal validity in
    causal-comparative studies include location,
    instrumentation, and loss of subject.

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DATA ANALYSIS IN CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE STUDIES
  • The first step in a data analysis of a causal
    comparative study is to construct the frequency
    polygons.
  • Means and standard deviations are usually
    calculated if the variables involved are
    quantitative.

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  • The most commonly used test in causal-comparative
    is the t-test for the differences between
    variables.
  • Analysis of covariance is particularly useful in
    causal-comparative studies.
  • The results of causal-comparative studies should
    always be interpreted with caution because they
    do not prove cause and effect.

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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CATEGORICAL VARIABLES
  • Both crossbreak tables and contingent
    coefficients can be used to investigate possible
    associations between categorical variables,
    although predicitons from crossbreak tables are
    not precise. Fortunately, there are relatively
    few questions of interest is education that
    involve two categorical variables.

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SURVEY RESEARCH
  • MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESEARCH
  • Most surveys possess three basic characteristics
    (i) the collection of information (2) from a
    sample (3) by asking questions, in order to
    describe some aspects of the population of which
    the sample is a part.

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THE PURPOSE OF SURVEY RESEARCH
  • The major purpose of all surveys is to describe
    the characteristics of a population.
  • Rarely is the population as a whole studied,
    however. Instead, a sample is surveyed and a
    description of the population is inferred from
    what the sample reveals.

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TYPES OF SURVEYS
  • There are two major types of surveys
    cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal surveys.
  • Three longitudinal designs commonly employed in a
    survey research are trend studies, cohort
    studies, and panel studies.
  • In a trend study, different samples from a
    population whose members change are surveyed at
    different points in time.

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  • In a cohort study, different samples from a
    population whose members do not change are
    surveyed at different points in time.
  • In a panel study, the same sample of individuals
    is surveyed at different times over the course of
    the survey.
  • Surveys are not suitable for all research topics,
    especially those that require observation of
    subjects or the manipulation of variables.

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STEPS IN SURVEY RESEARCH
  • The focus of study in a survey is called the unit
    of analysis.
  • As in other types of research, the group of
    persons that is the focus of the study is called
    the target population.
  • There are four basic ways to collect data in
    survey by direct administration of the survey
    instrument to a group, by mail, by telephone, or
    by personal interview. Each method has advantages
    and disadvantages.
  • The sample to be surveyed should be selected
    randomly if possible.
  • The most common types of instruments used in
    survey research are the questionnaire and the
    interview schedule.

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QUESTIONS ASKED IN SURVEY RESEARCH
  • The nature of the questions, and the way they are
    asked, are extremely important in survey
    research.
  • Most surveys use some form of closed-ended
    question.
  • The survey instrument should pretested with a
    small sample similar to the potential
    respondents.
  • A contingency question is a question whose answer
    is contingent upon how a respondent answers a
    prior question to which the contingency question
    is related. Well-organized and sequenced
    contingency questions are particularly important
    in interview schedules.

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THE COVER LETTER
  • A cover letter is sent to potential respondents
    in a mail survey explaining the purpose of the
    survey questionnaire.

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INTERVIEWING
  • Both telephone and face-to-face interviewers need
    to be trained before they administer the survey
    instrument.
  • Both total non-response and item non-response are
    major problems in survey research that seem to be
    increasing in recent years. This is a problem
    because those who do not respond are very likely
    to differ from respondents in terms of how they
    would answer the survey questions.

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THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY IN SURVEY RESEARCH
  • Threats to the internal validity of survey
    research include location, instrumentation, and
    mortality.

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DATA ANALYSIS IN SURBEY RESEARCH
  • The percentage of the total sample responding for
    each item on a survey questionnaire should be
    reported, as well as the percentage of the total
    sample who chose each alternative for each
    question.

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Thanks to Professor Dr. Jack R.
Fraenkel of Stanford University and Professor Dr.
Norman E. Wallen of theSyracuse University of
their lecture notes and book and to my good
friend Professor Gina Lapaza-Montalan of the
Ateneo de Davao University for the encouragement
to give this talk in this conference
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