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Balanced Leadership: School Leadership That Works

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Title: Balanced Leadership: School Leadership That Works Author: Douglas Patrick Lockwood Last modified by: Brian McNulty Created Date: 1/21/2005 3:23:14 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Balanced Leadership: School Leadership That Works


1
Balanced LeadershipSchool Leadership That
Works An Overview
  • Brian A. McNulty Ph.D.Mid-continent Research for
    Education and Learning

2
McRELs mission
  • McREL's mission is to make a difference in the
    quality of education and learning for all through
    excellence in applied research, product
    development, and service.

3
Changing Environments
  • Higher expectations
  • Greater accountability
  • Rapid increase in information
  • Public scrutiny
  • Work overload

4
Effects of changeson schools
  • Lack of clarity
  • Ambiguity
  • Increased stress
  • Lack of trust

require new expectations for leaders.
5
New expectations
  • Leading increasingly complex change
  • Relentless focus on improving student achievement
  • Sharing leadership

The principal cannot do it alone.
6
McRELs response
  • Balanced Leadership Framework
  • Purposeful Community
  • Leadership
  • Focus of Change
  • Magnitude of Change
  • Strategies, tools, and related resources
  • Research-based professional development

7
The Balanced Leadership Framework
FOCUS School practices Classroom
practices Student characteristics
MAGNITUDE Create demand Implement Manage
transitions Monitor evaluate
8
Key elements of high quality professional
development
  • Application to practice
  • Collaboration
  • Dialogue
  • Differentiated
  • Evaluation
  • Focus on student achievement
  • Follow-up
  • Guided application
  • Networking
  • Ongoing
  • Online learning
  • Reflection
  • Research-based

Balanced Leadership School Leadership That Works
is designed based on these key elements.
9
McRELs knowledge taxonomy
Type of Knowledge Description
Experiential Why?
Declarative What?
Contextual When?
Procedural How?
Traditionally, most professional development
focuses on declarative knowledge.
10
McRELs research questions
  • What knowledge from the quantitative and
    qualitative research on
  • teacher,
  • school,
  • leadership practices
  • associated with high levels of student
  • achievement institutional productivity
  • should we use to improve schools?

11
Background
  • Theory based meta-analysis of research
  • Classroom Instruction that Works
  • A New Era of School Reform (What Works in
    Schools)
  • Classroom Strategies for At-Risk Students
  • Out of School Time Strategies
  • Leadership

12
McRELs meta-analyses
Findings from meta-analysis Publications
Classroom-level practices Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001)
School-level practices student characteristics What Works in Schools (Marzano, 2003)
Leadership responsibilities practices School Leadership That Works (Marzano, Waters, McNulty, 2005)
13
McRELs leadership question
  • What must leaders know and be able to do to
    both improve current forms of schooling and to
    lead the transition from current forms to new and
    more productive forms of schooling?

14
Influences on student learning
School
Teacher
Student
1. Guaranteed Viable Curriculum
2. Challenging Goals Effective
Feedback 3. Parent Community
Involvement 4. Safe Orderly
Environment
5. Collegiality Professionalism
6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom
Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
9. Home Environment 10. Learning
Intelligence/Background Knowledge 11. Motivation
15
Leadership research methodology
  • Theory building
  • Meta-analysis
  • Factor analysis

16
Theoretical base
  • Review synthesis of theoretical research
  • Professional wisdom based on more than 350 years
    of experience

17
Theoretical research base
  • Change
  • Collective efficacy
  • Distributed leadership
  • Leadership
  • Institutional theory
  • Organizational capacity
  • Organizational learning
  • Supervision
  • Systems

18
Leadership meta-analysis
  • 5,000 study citations
  • 3,000 dissertation citations
  • 2,000 other study citations
  • 69 studies met our criteria for inclusion
  • Quantitative data
  • Student achievement as the dependent variable
  • Standardized scores
  • Teacher perceptions as the independent variable

19
Benefits of meta-analysis
  • Collectively, the sample size was large enough
    to show significance
  • 2,802 schools
  • 14,000 teachers
  • 1.4 million students

20
Findings from meta-analysis
  • There is a relationship between leadership and
    student achievement leadership matters
  • There are 21 leadership responsibilities each
    with a statistically significant effect on
    student achievement.
  • Strong leaders do not always have a positive
    effect on achievement

21
Finding 1 Leadership student achievement
  • Average correlation (r) between principal
    leadership behavior school achievement is .25
  • This means
  • A one standard deviation increase in principal
    leadership is associated with a 10 percentile
    point gain in school achievement.

22
Different teacher perceptions of principal
leadership
23
Difference in mean student achievement
24
Guided reflection
  • Consider what you do as a leader to impact
    student achievement.
  • Share with a partner.

25
Finding 2 Responsibilities practices
  • 21 leadership responsibilities
  • 66 leadership practices
  • All correlated to student achievement
  • Each correlation is statistically significant

26
Debrief
Affirmation Involvement with CIA
Change agent Knowledge of CIA
Communication Monitor/evaluate
Contingent rewards Optimizer
Culture Order
Discipline Outreach
Flexibility Relationships
Focus Resources
Ideals and beliefs Situational Awareness
Input Visibility
Intellectual stimulation
27
Finding 3 The differential impact of leadership
  • Leaders perceived as strong do not always have a
    positive effect on student achievement.

28
Differential impact of leadership
Teachers Perceptions of Principal Leadership (Percentile) Range of Correlations in Studies in Meta-analysis Student Achievement (Percentile)
84th .50 69th
84th .25 60th
84th -.02 49th
29
Differential impact of leadership
  • Perceptions of Leadership
  • Student Achievement


30
Reflection
  • Discuss with a partner what might explain the
    differential impact of leadership.

31
Differential impactMcRELs interpretation
  • Focus of the change
  • Magnitude of the change

32
The Focus of Change
33
Focus of change Influences on student learning
School 1. Guaranteed Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals Effective Feedback 3. Parent Community Involvement 4. Safe Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality Professionalism
Teacher 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
Student 9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/Background Knowledge 11. Motivation
34
Factors Influencing Achievement
School
  • Guaranteed and viable curriculum
  • Alignment and coherence (OTL)
  • Time
  • Challenging goals and effective feedback
  • Monitoring
  • Pressure to achieve
  • Parent and community involvement
  • School climate- Safe and orderly
  • Collegiality and professionalism
  • Communication and decision making
  • Cooperation

Teacher
Instruction Classroom management Curriculum design
Student
Home atmosphere Learned Intelligence/Background
knowledge Motivation
35
I. School Practices
AVERAGE ES PERCENTILE GAIN
Alignment and Coherence .88 31
Time .39 15
Monitoring .30 12
Pressure to Achieve .27 11
Parental Involvement .26 10
School Climate .22 8
Communication and Decision Making .10 4
Cooperation .06 2
36
Nine Categories ofInstructional Strategies
37
How do the strategies align with the questions?
Setting Objectives
What knowledge will students be learning?
What will be done to help students acquire and
integrate this knowledge?

Providing Feedback Reinforcing Effort/Providing
Recognition Cooperative Learning Homework
How will you know if students have learned this
knowledge?


Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Summarizin
g/Note Taking Non-linguistic Representations
What will be done to help students practice,
review, and apply this knowledge?

Similarities/Differences Practice Generating/Testi
ng Hypotheses
38
2. STUDENT FACTORS
  • Home atmosphere
  • Prior knowledge
  • Learned intelligence
  • Motivation

39
Factors Associated with SES
Factor Correlation PAV
Income .315 9.92
Education
Occupation
Home atmosphere
40
Factors Associated with SES
Factor Correlation PAV
Income .315 9.92
Education .185 3.24
Occupation
Home atmosphere
41
Factors Associated with SES
Factor Correlation PAV
Income .315 9.92
Education .185 3.24
Occupation .201 4.04
Home atmosphere
42
Factors Associated with SES
Factor Correlation PAV
Income .315 9.92
Education .185 3.24
Occupation .201 4.04
Home atmosphere .577 33.29
43
The Focus of the Work
  • What is the right work?
  • Lets look at how the practices play out in
    schools in terms of student achievement.

44
Percentile Entering Percentile Leaving
Average School/ Average Teacher 50th 50th
Highly Ineffective School/Highly Ineffective Teacher 50th 3rd
Highly Effective School/ Highly Ineffective Teacher 50th 37th
Highly Ineffective School/ Highly Effective Teacher 50th 63rd
Highly Effective School/ Highly Effective Teacher 50th 96th
Highly Effective School/ Average Teacher 50th 78th
45
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46
The Magnitude of Change
47
Change Common labels
Incremental vs. Fundamental
Technical vs. Adaptive
Continuous vs. Discontinuous
First-order vs. Second-order
McREL uses labels based on the implications of
change rather than the type of change.
48
McRELs view of change
  • A change is defined bythe implications it has
    for the peopleexpected to implement it and/or
    those who will be impacted by it.

The same change can be perceived differently by
different stakeholders.
49
First- or second-order?
Do stakeholders perceive the change as Do stakeholders perceive the change as
an extension of the past? consistent with prevailing organizational norms? congruent with personal values? easily learned using existing knowledge skills? a break from the past? inconsistent with prevailing organizational norms? incongruent with personal values? requiring new knowledge skills?
First-order Implications Second-order Implications
50
Personal impact of change
  • Its not so much that were afraid of change or
    so in love with the old ways, but its that place
    in between that we fear . . . Its like being
    between trapezes. Its Linus when his blanket is
    in the dryer. Theres nothing to hold on to.

Marilyn Ferguson The Aquarian Conspiracy
51
Factor Analysis

52
What is a factor analysis?
  • Definition A statistical procedure that reduces
    a set of items on a measuring instrument into a
    smaller number of dimensions called factors¹.
  • Purpose To understand the nature of underlying
    patterns among factors
  • Requirements Scientific procedures and
    interpretation
  • ¹Lauer, P. A. (2004). A policymaker's primer on
    education research How to understand, evaluate,
    and use it. Aurora, CO McREL, and Denver, CO
    ECS. Available from www.ecs.org/researchprimer

53
McRELs leadership factor analysis
  • 92-item online survey
  • 652 principal responses
  • Data used to understand
  • Principals fulfillment of leadership
    responsibilities use of practices
  • Change initiatives
  • Relationship of change to leadership
    responsibilities
  • Identify inter-correlations among the
    responsibilities

54
Factor analysis findings
  1. Two major factors first-order change and
    second-order change
  2. 7 responsibilities positively correlated with
    changes perceived to be 2nd order
  3. 4 responsibilities negatively correlated with
    changes perceived to be 2nd order

55
Finding 4Two major factors
  • Two major factors
  • First-order change
  • Second-order change
  • Insufficient evidence to collapse any of the 21
    leadership responsibilities

56
First- or second-order?
Do stakeholders perceive the change as Do stakeholders perceive the change as
an extension of the past? consistent with prevailing organizational norms? congruent with personal values? easily learned using existing knowledge skills? a break from the past? inconsistent with prevailing organizational norms? incongruent with personal values? requiring new knowledge skills?
First-order Implications Second-order Implications
57
Leadership for first order change
  • All 21 responsibilities are necessary and should
    be considered SOP in a school.
  • First order change is a by product of the
    day-to-day operations of the school
  • Review of rank order of leadership
    responsibilities and practices

58
Factor 1 First-order change
(rank ordered)
  1. Relationships
  2. Optimizer
  3. Flexibility
  4. Resources
  5. Contingent rewards
  6. Situational awareness
  7. Outreach
  8. Visibility
  9. Discipline
  10. Change agent
  • 1. Monitor/evaluate
  • 2. Culture
  • 3. Ideals and Beliefs
  • 4. Knowledge of CIA
  • 5. Involvement in CIA
  • 6. Focus
  • 7. Order
  • 8. Affirmation
  • 9. Intellectual Stimulation
  • 10. Communication
  • 11. Input

Marzano, Waters, McNulty (2005). School
Leadership That Works. Alexandria, VA ASCD.
59
Positive correlations
60
Finding 5 Positively correlated
responsibilities
(rank ordered)
  1. Knowledge of curriculum, instruction,
    assessment
  2. Optimizer
  3. Intellectual stimulation
  4. Change agent
  5. Monitor/evaluate
  6. Flexibility
  7. Ideals/beliefs

Marzano, Waters, McNulty (2005). School
Leadership That Works. Alexandria, VA ASCD.
61
Negative correlations
62
Finding 6 Negatively correlated
responsibilities
(rank ordered)
  1. Culture
  2. Communication
  3. Order
  4. Input

Marzano, Waters, McNulty (2005). School
Leadership That Works. Alexandria, VA ASCD.
63
Distribute Leadership Responsibilities
  • Culture
  • Order
  • Communication
  • Input

64
Balancing leadership
  • principal leadership in these schools is based
    on a balance of emphases. It is supportive and
    facilitative (Louis Murphy, 1994) it is
    helpful but not threatening, directive but not
    overbearing, facilitative but not laissez-faire
    (Rosenholtz, 1989).

65
Why balanced leadership?
Because any change can be perceived as both
first- and second-order.
  • Stability
  • Directing
  • Answers
  • Within
  • Stepping up
  • Instability
  • Supporting
  • Questions
  • Between
  • Stepping back

66
A balancing strategy Shared leadership
  • Shared leadership implies shared responsibility
    and mutual accountability toward a common goal or
    goals for the good of an organization. Shared
    leadership is not a program or a model. It is
    a condition that can be enabled and sustained
    through organizational authority.
  • (McREL, 2003)

67
Why shared leadership?
  • Leadership demands more than one person can
    provide.
  • Shared leadership creates conditions for
    maximizing individual and collective strengths.
  • Shared leadership requires that others assume
    responsibility and take action for the good of
    the whole.

68
The Balanced Leadership Framework
FOCUS School practices Classroom
practices Student characteristics
MAGNITUDE Create demand Implement Manage
transitions Monitor evaluate
69
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with
Purposeful Community
  • Culture
  • Ideals and Beliefs
  • Communication
  • Visibility
  • Input
  • Relationships
  • Situational Awareness
  • Affirmation

70
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with Focus
on Research-based Practices
  • Resources
  • Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
  • Focus
  • Outreach
  • Order
  • Discipline
  • Contingent Rewards

71
Leadership Responsibilities Associated with
Leading change
  • Ideals and Beliefs
  • Optimizer
  • Flexibility
  • Knowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and
    Assessment
  • Intellectual Stimulation
  • Change Agent
  • Monitor and Evaluate

72
Balanced Leadership
  • Development
  • Work

73
Development
  • Online Questionnaire Balanced Leadership
    Profile 360
  • Distributed Leadership
  • Superintendents
  • Teachers
  • Leadership Consortia
  • Fieldbook
  • Administrator standards
  • HPHN Study (5th year)

74
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75
Superintendent Leadership
  • Emerging findings
  • Superintendent leadership does matter
  • Impact on student achievement may be higher
  • Site management findings
  • Systemic considerations
  • monitoring

76
McRELs research and ISLLC standards
  • The ISLLC standards include
  • 44 knowledge statements
  • 43 dispositions
  • 97 performances
  • which can be found in 184 indices
  • However, 17 of the practices identified in
    McRELs analysis are not included in the ISLLC
    standards.

77
Leadership
  • we should be calling for leadership that will
    challenge us to face problems for which there are
    no painless solutions . . . problems that require
    us to learn in new ways.
  • Ronald A. Heifetz

78
For more information
  • Visit the McREL Web site
  • www.mcrel.org
  • Balanced Leadership Profile 360
  • Visit McRELs online newsroom
  • www.mcrel.org/newsroom
  • Click on education topics
  • Click on leadership

79
  • Insanity is doing the same thing you have always
    done and expecting different results.

80
Affirmation
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Recognizes and celebrates school accomplishments and acknowledges failures Systematically and fairly recognizes the accomplishments of teachers and staff Systematically and fairly recognizes and celebrates the accomplishments of students Systematically and fairly recognizes the failures of and celebrates the accomplishments of the school as a whole
81
Change Agent
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Is willing to and actively challenges the status quo Consciously challenges the status quo Is willing to lead change initiatives with uncertain outcomes Systematically considers new and better ways of doing things Consistently attempts to operate at the edge versus the center of the schools competence
82
Communication
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Establishes strong lines of communication with teachers and among students Is easily accessible to teachers and staff Develops effective means for teachers and staff to communicate with one another Maintains open and effective lines of communication with teachers and staff
83
Contingent Rewards
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Recognizes and rewards individual accomplish-ments Recognizes and rewards individual accomplishments Uses performance versus seniority as the primary criteria for rewards and recognition Uses hard work and results as the basis for rewards and recognition Recognizes individuals who excel
84
Culture
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Fosters shared beliefs and a sense of community and cooperation Promotes a sense of well being among teachers and staff Promotes cohesion among teachers and staff Develops an understanding of purpose among teachers and staff Develops a shared vision of what the school could be like Promotes cooperation among teachers and staff
85
Discipline
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Protects teachers from issues and influences that would detract from their teaching time or focus Protects instructional time from interruptions Protects/shelters teachers and staff from internal and external distractions
86
Flexibility
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Adapts his or her leadership behavior to the needs of the current situation and is comfortable with dissent Is comfortable with making major changes in how things are done Encourages people to express diverse opinions contrary to those held by individuals in positions of authority Adapts leadership style to the needs of specific situations Is directive or non-directive as the situation warrants
87
Focus
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Establishes clear goals and keeps those goals in the forefront of the schools attention Establishes high, concrete goals and expectations that all students meet them Establishes high, concrete goals for curriculum, instruction and assessment practices within the school Establishes high, concrete goals for the general functioning of the school Continually keeps attention on established goals
88
Ideals/beliefs
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Communicates and operates from strong ideals and beliefs about schooling Possesses well-defined beliefs about schools, teaching, and learning Shares beliefs about school, teaching, and learning with the teachers and staff Demonstrates behaviors that are consistent with beliefs
89
Input
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Involves teachers in the design and implementation of important decisions Provides opportunities for teacher and staff input on all important decisions Provides opportunities for teachers and staff to be involved in developing school policies Uses leadership teams in decision-making
90
Intellectual Stimulation
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Ensures that the faculty and staff are aware of the most current theories and practices and makes the discussion of these a regular aspect of the school culture Keeps informed about current research and theory on effective schooling Continually exposes teachers and staff to cutting-edge research and theory on effective schooling Fosters systematic discussion regarding current research and theory on effective schooling
91
Involvement in CIA
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Is directly involved in the design and implementation of curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices Is directly involved in helping teachers design curricular activities and address assessment and instructional issues
92
Knowledge of CIA
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Is knowledgeable about current curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices Possesses extensive knowledge about effective curricular, instructional, and assessment practices Provides conceptual guidance regarding effective classroom practices
93
Monitor/evaluate
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Monitors the effectiveness of school practices and their impact on student learning Continually monitors the effectiveness of the schools curricular practices. Continually monitors the effectiveness of the schools instructional practices. Continually monitors the effectiveness of the schools assessment practices. Remains aware of the impact of the schools practices on student achievement.
94
Optimizer
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Inspires and leads new and challenging innovations Inspires teachers and staff to accomplish things that might be beyond their grasp. Is the driving force behind major initiatives. Portrays a positive attitude about the ability of teachers and staff to accomplish substantial things.
95
Order
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Establishes a set of standard operating procedures and routines Provides and reinforces clear structures, rules, and procedures for teachers and staff. Provides and reinforces clear structures, rules, and procedures for students. Establishes routines for the effective running of the school that teachers and staff understand and follow.
96
Outreach
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Is an advocate and spokes- person for the school to all stakeholders Ensures the school complies with all district and state mandates. Is an advocate of the school with the community at large. Is an advocate of the school with parents. Is an advocate of the school with central office.
97
Relationships
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Demonstrates awareness of the personal aspects of teachers and staff Is informed about significant personal issues within the lives of teachers and staff. Maintains personal relationships with teachers and staff. Is aware of the personal needs of teachers and staff. Acknowledges significant events in the lives of teachers and staff.
98
Resources
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Provides teachers with materials and professional development necessary for the successful execution of their jobs Ensures that teachers and staff have the necessary materials and equipment. Ensures that teachers and staff have the necessary professional development opportunities that directly enhance their teaching.
99
Situational Awareness
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Is aware of the details and the undercurrents in the running of the school and uses this information to address current and potential problems Is aware of informal groups and relationships among teachers and staff Is aware of the issues in the school that have not surfaced but could create discord Accurately predicts what could go wrong from day to day
100
Visibility
The extent to which the principal... Practices Used to Fulfill the Areas of Responsibility
Has quality contacts and interactions with teachers and students Makes systematic and frequent visits to the classroom. Is highly visible to students, teachers, and parents. Has frequents contact with students.
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