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Providing for effective teaching


Providing for effective teaching How quality teaching can be achieved and maintained in a language program 2009-2010 Semester 2 TESL 3240 Lecture – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Providing for effective teaching

Providing for effective teaching
  • How quality teaching can be achieved and
    maintained in a language program

2009-2010 Semester 2 TESL 3240 Lecture
  • Teaching
  • Effective teaching
  • Quality teaching
  • Good teaching

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How quality teaching can be achieved
  • Teaching well
  • Creating contexts and environments that can
    facilitate good teaching

Issues considered
  • Institutional factors
  • 2. Teacher factors
  • 3. Teaching factors
  • 4. Learner factors

1. The institution
  • 1.1 The organisational structure
  • 1.2 Quality indicators in an institution
  • 1.3 The teaching context

1.1 The organisational culture
  • The organisational culture of a school refers to
  • the ethos and environment that exist within a
    school, the kinds of communications and decision
    making that take place, and the management and
    staffing structure they support.

  • Questions that could reveal a schools
    organisational structure
  • What are schools goals and missions?
  • What is the schools management style?

  • What shared values do staff have?
  • What are the decision-making characteristics of
    the school?
  • What roles do teachers perform?
  • How are teaching and other work planned and

  • What provision is made for staff development?
  • How are courses and currciulum planned?
  • How receptive is the school to change and
  • How open are communicative channels?

  • the organisational structure
  • mechanistic
  • organic

The mechanistic model
  • This model is a bureaucratic approach to
    organising collective activities that stresses
    the need for authority,hierarchies of control,
    and and explicit chain of command(Davidson and
    Tesh 1997,178)

The organic model
  • This model maximises flexibility and
    adaptability, encourages complete confidence and
    trust between superior and subordinates, and taps
    a wide range of human motivations to achieve
    organisational goals.

  • Communication flows in all directions, both
    vertically and laterally.
  • Team work is essential, and decision-making and
    control functions are shared widely throughout
    the organisation.
  • (Davidson and Tesh 1997,179)

1.2 Quality indicators in an institution
  • There are clearly stated educational goals
  • There is a well-planned, balanced, and organised
    program that meets the needs of its students
  • Systematic and identifiable processes exist for
    determining educational needs in the school and
    placing them in order of priority

  • There is a commitment to learning, and an
    expectation that students will do well
  • There is a high degree of staff involvement in
    developing goals and making decisions
  • There is a motivated and cohesive teaching force
    with good team spirit

  • Administrators are concerned with the teachers
    professional development and are able to make the
    best use of their skills and experience
  • The schools programs are regularly reviewed and
    progress toward their goals is evaluated

Key dimensions of quality
  • A sense of mission
  • A strategic plan
  • Quality assurance mechanisms
  • A sound curriculum
  • Flexible organisational framework
  • Good internal communications
  • Professional treatment of teachers
  • Opportunities for teacher development

1.3 The teaching context
  • Size and staff structure
  • Equipment
  • Support staff

  • Teacher work space
  • teacher resource room
  • Teaching facilities
  • Class size

2. The teachers
  • 2.1 Skills and qualifications
  • 2.2 Support for teachers

2.1 Skills and qualifications
  • Teaching is a profession characterized by
  • A homogenous consensual knowledge base
  • Restricted entry
  • High social status
  • Self-regulation
  • The legal right to govern daily work affairs

  • The core components of teacher knowledge
  • 1.practice knowledge
  • 2.Content knowledge
  • 3.Contextual knowledge
  • 4.pedagogical knowledge
  • 5.personal knowledge
  • 6.reflective knowledge

Six areas of basic teaching skills (CELTA in
UCLES 1996)
  • Language awareness
  • The learner, the teacher, and the
    teaching/learning context
  • Planning for effective teaching of adult learners
    of English
  • Classroom management and teaching skills
  • Resources and materials for teaching
  • Professional development

Characteristics of novice teachers( with a good
or native command of English)
  • Novice teachers perception of classroom events
    are relatively undiscriminating and simpler than
    those of experienced teachers.
  • They are less able to select which information is
    salient when planning a lesson.

  • They lack knowledge of what to expect of pupils,
    what challenges to set, and what difficulties to
  • They tend to work from the textbook rather than
    in terms of pupil attainment levels

  • The lack practical classroom management routines
    to keep pupils in task
  • Their concern with control makes it difficult for
    them to focus on pupil learning

  • The lack an eastablished pedagogic content
  • They lack practical experience from which to
    analyse and discuss teaching
  • They lack a specialised vocabulary with which to
    analyse and discuss teaching

Opportunities to develop these skills
  • Observation of experienced teachers
  • Observation of training videos
  • Short theory course
  • Practice teaching under the supervision of
    exeperienced teachers
  • Working with a mentor teacher

The needs of nonnative speaker of English (NNS)
  • NNS teachers may lack confidence in their english
    language ability and give their own language
    improvement a high priority
  • NNS teachers may undergo an errosion in their
    english Language performance through its
    restriction to classroom discourse

  • They may not have NS intuitions about the
    language and may need linguistic rules as a
    source of security
  • They may avoid classroom activities which demand
    unpredictable language use and where rapid and
    intuitive assessment of accuracy and appropriacy
    are needed

  • They may need the support of a textbook more than
    NS teachers

  • They have the personal experience to understand
    their learners difficulties
  • Where teachers and learners share a common
    culture, group norms may exert a powerful
    influence on their behaviour, whereas NS teachers
    may be exempt from such norms.

  • Language teaching behaviour cannot be separated
    from pedagogic models inherited from the mother
    tongue culture(Koranic, Confucian, African etc.)
    in such attributes as institutional culture,
    attitudes to authority and knowledge, adult-child
    relationships etc.

  • The place of English in society at large has a
    profound influence on the purposes of English
    language education, the English language
    curriculum, and therefore the nature of the
    teachers work

Opportunities that shall be given to teachers
  • Engage in self-relfection and evaluation
  • Identify their areas of strength and weakness
  • Develop specialised knowledge and skills about
    many apsects of teaching

  • Expand their knowledge base about research,
    theory, and issues in teaching
  • Take on new roles and responsibilities, such as
    supervisor, mentor teacher, teacher researcher,
    or material writer
  • Develop involvement in professional organizations

2.2 Support for teachers
  • 1.Orientation
  • 2. Adequate materials
  • 3.Course guides
  • 4.Division of responsibilities
  • 5.Further training

  • 6. Teaching release
  • 7. Mentors
  • 8. Feedback
  • 9. Rewards
  • 10.Help lines
  • 11. Review

3. The teaching process
  • 3.1 Teaching model and principles
  • 3.2 Maintaining good teaching
  • 3.3 Evaluating teaching

3.1 Teaching model and principles
  • 3.1.1 the operative vs problem-solving models
  • 3.1.2 teaching approaches
  • 3.1.3 Example of Teaching philosophy
  • 3.1.4 Examples of teacher principles (Breen)

3.1.1 the operative vs problem-solving models
  • In an operativemodel the teacher is restricted
    to meeting the requirements of a centralised
    system, such as the delivery of a textbook as
    planned, to a set timescale.

  • Such a limited role, limited to that of
    curriculum transmission,implies training based on
    mastery of a set of competencies determined by
    the centralised syllabus. Roberts(1998103)

  • In the case of the problem solver model,a
    decentralised curriculum gives teachers greater
    autonomy in making educational decisions.

  • A diversified language curriculum, characterised
    by adaptation to learners needs, requires
    teachers to be able to diagnose problems and
    adapt materials and design original learning

3.2.2 Teaching approaches
  • The communicative approach
  • The cooperative learning model
  • The process approach
  • The whole language approach

3.2.3 Teaching philosophy supporting a secondary
school EFL English program
  • There is a consistent focus throughout on
    learning English in order to develop practical
    and functional skills, rather than as an end in
  • Students are engaged in practical tasks that
    relate to real world uses of English

  • Realistic and communicative uses of language are
    given priority.
  • Maximum use is made of pair and group activities
    in which students complete tasks collaboratively.

  • There is an appropriate balance between
    accuracy-focused and fluency focused activities
  • Teachers serve as facilitators of learning rather
    than as presenters of information

  • Assessment procedures reflect and support a
    communicative and skill-based orientations to
    teaching and learning
  • Students develop an awareness of learning process
    and their own learning styles,strengths, and

  • Students develop the ability to monitor their own
    learning progress and ways of setting personal
    goals for language improvement

3.1.4 Examples of teacher principles (Breen)
  • Selectively focus on the form of the language
  • Selectively focus on vocabulary or meaning
  • Enable the learners to use the language

  • Address learner mental-processing capacities
  • Make the new language familar and manageable
  • Make the learners internalise and remember the
    new language

  • Take account of learners affective involvement
  • Directly address learners needs or interests
  • Monitor learner progress and provide feedback

  • Facilitate learner responsibility or autonomy
  • Manage the lesson and the group

3.2 Maintaining good teaching
  • Monitoring
  • Observation
  • Identification and resolution of problems
  • Shared planning
  • Documentation and sharing of good practices
  • Self study of the programe

3.3 Evaluating teaching
  • 3.3.1 The purposes of appraisal
  • 3.3.2 Developing the appriasal system
  • 3.3.3 The focus of appraisal
  • 3.3.4 Conducting the appraisal

3.3.1 The purposes of appraisal
  • to reward teachers for good performance
  • to help identify needs for further training
  • to reinforce the need for continuous staff

  • to help improve teaching
  • to provide a basis for contract renewal and
  • to demonstrate an interest in teachers'
    performance and development

3.3.2 Developing the appriasal system
  • An credible appraisal system should be
    produced collaboratively and represent all points
    of views.
  • Criteria for the recognition of good
    teaching have to be developed that recognise the
    complexity of teaching as well as the fact that
    it is a uniquely individual activity.

  •  In language teaching, there are no
    universally accepted criteria for assessing
    teacher effectiveness and several different kinds
    of appraisal approaches are used.
  • Criteria are generally eastablished on an
    institutional basis, drawing on general
    principles for teacher effectiveness and factors
    specific to the type of program in which the
    teachers work.

3.3.3 The focus of appraisal
  • Lesson plans
  • Teacher-made classroom materials
  • Course outlines and handouts
  • Class assignments
  • Participation in profession development activities

3.3.4 Conducting the appraisal
  • Appraisal by a supervisor
  • Appraisal by a colleague
  • Self appraisal

  • Lesson reports
  • teaching journal
  • Audio/vidoe recording
  • Student appraisal

4. The learning process
  • 4.1 Understanding of the course
  • 4.2 Views of learning
  • 4.3 Learning styles
  • 4.4 Motivation
  • 4.5 Support

4.1 Understanding of the course
  • It is important to ensure that the learners
    understand the goals of the course, the reason
    for the way it is organised and taught, and the
    approaches to learning they will be encouraged to

4.2 Views of learning
  • Learners enter a course with their own views of
    teaching and learning and these may not be
    identical to those of their teachers.

  • How do they see the roles of teachers and
    learners? What do they feel about such things as
    memorisation,group work, the importance of
    grammar, and pronunciation?

  • What roles are learners expected to play during
    the course? a variety of different learner roles,
    such as manager of his or her own learning
    independent learner needs analyst collaborator
    and team member peer tutor. How happy are
    learners with the roles expected of them?

4.3 Learning styles
  • Concrete learners
  • Analytical learners
  • Communicative learners
  • Authority-oriented learners

Concrete learners
  • These learners preferred learning by games,
    pictures, filsm and video, talking in pairs,
    learning through the use of cassettes, and going
    on excursions.

Analytical learners
  • These learners liked studying grammar,
    studying English books, studying alone, finding
    their own mistakes, having problems to work on,
    learning through reading newspapers.

Communicative learners
  • This group liked to learn by observing and
    listening to native speakers, talking to freinds
    in English, watching TV in English, using English
    in shops, and so one, learning English words by
    hearing them and learning by conversations.

Authority-oriented learners
  • These students liked the teacher to explain
    everything, writing everything in a notebook,
    having their own textbook, learning to read,
    studying grammar, and learning English words by
    seeing them.

4.4 Motivation
  •  Why are the learners in the course and how will
    it affect their lives?
  • What do they want from it?
  • Which aspects of it are they most interested in?
  • It may be that learners have very different

4.5 Support
  • These include the kinds of feedback learners will
    get about their learning and opportunties that
    are provided for faster or slower learners.

  • Self-access components might be provided to allow
    learners to address specific learning needs and

  • The instructional materials and resources that
    teachers use in the classroom.

Discussion questions and activities
  • 1. How would you charactrerise the organisational
    culture and structure of a language teaching
    institituion you are familiar with? To waht
    extent is the organisation culture a positive
    one, in your opinion?

  • 2. Consider a teaching context that you are
    familiar with. What factors in the school or
    institution you are familiar with? What factors
    do not? Suggest three changes that you think
    would improve the quality of the teaching?

  • 3.To what extent is a concern for quality
    reflected in the practice of your school or an
    institution you are familiar with? What quality
    measures are or should be in place?
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