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CHECK YOUR GRAMMAR! Sessions 3 and 4 Campbell/Parr Why Teach Grammar? Standard English is the mark of an educated person , and formal school systems believe it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Sessions 3 and 4
  • Campbell/Parr

Why Teach Grammar?
  • Standard English is the mark of an educated
    person, and formal school systems believe it
    should be added to their students repertoires
    (not to replace their own dialects, but to add
    book language to their repertoire).
  • There is a strong connection between using
    correct grammar and maintaining clarity when
  • Parents expect that grammar will be taught.
  • Grammar instruction is part of the Ontario

What is Grammar?
  • The formal, internal patterns of language.
  • The linguistic science concerned with
  • Linguistic etiquette or school grammar
  • One component of language instruction.

Energizer Checking Your Grammar
  • Once term and definition cards have been
    distributed, find your partner. Rehearse your
    term, brainstorm examples, if none are provided.
    Develop a quick, energetic presentation, to
    review your term with the rest of the class.
  • Resources used in preparation of game
  • Punctuation Poster, Mark Twain Media
  • Scholastic Guides Checking Your Grammar

Parts of Speech Nouns
  • A noun is a word that names a person, animal,
    place, thing, or idea.
  • Examples Hannah (proper noun) zebra (common
    noun) The Wall
  • lake relativity

Parts of Speech Pronouns
  • A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a
    noun. Almost anything a noun can do, a pronoun
    can do, too. Pronouns are handy little words
    because when you use them, you dont have to keep
    repeating nouns all the time.
  • Possessive pronouns take place of possessive
    nouns (nouns that show ownership). Examples my,
    your, its, our, hers, theirs.

Parts of Speech Possessive Pronouns
  • Possessive pronouns take place of possessive
    nouns (nouns that show ownership).
  • Examples my, your, its, our, hers, theirs.

Parts of Speech Verbs
  • A verb is a word that shows action or being.
    Whatever youre doing can be expressed by a verb.
    Without a verb, a group of words cannot be a
    sentence. A sentence can be as short as one word
    long, as long as that one word is a verb.
  • Examples to jump, to twist, to shout, to walk

Parts of Speech Adjectives
  • An adjective is a word that tells us more about
    the noun or a pronoun. An adjective describes or
    modifies (limits the use of) a noun.
  • Examples, big/small, short/tall, yellow/green

Parts of Speech Adverbs
  • An adverb is a word that tells us more about 1) a
    verb 2) an adjective or 3) another adverb. We
    sometimes say that an adverb describes or
    modifies (limits the meaning) of these words.
    Adverbs answer three questions about the verbs
    they describe 1) how? 2) when? and 3) where?
    Adverbs usually answer the question how? when
    they describe adjectives. When adverbs describe
    other adverbs they often answer the questions
    how? or, more exactly, by how much?
  • Examples quickly, far, there, slowly

Parts of Speech Conjunctions
  • A conjunction is a word that joins other words or
    parts of sentences together. Conjunctions are
    like glue.
  • Examples are and, but, after, because,
    either/or, and however.

Parts of Speech Contractions
  • A contraction is one word that was once two. When
    you make a contraction, you squeeze together (or
    contract) two words into one. Contractions help
    speed up your speaking and make it sound more
    natural. You can also use contractions in your
    writing, especially in a letter to a friend or
    when you write conversations, dialogue, or direct
    quotations. However, try not to use contractions
    too much in reports, research papers, and more
    formal writing.
  • Examples It is Its can not cant
  • they are theyre

Parts of Speech Interjections
  • Interjections are special words that show strong
    feelings or emotions like excitement, happiness,
    horror, shock, sadness, pain, anger, and disgust.
    Interjections usually come at the beginning of a
    sentence. You use them to add punch or energy to
    stories. Dont use them too much. When you overdo
    interjections, the lose their power. Sometimes
    interjections are just sounds, shouts, gasps, or
    exclamations, more like noises than regular

Parts of Speech Prepositions
  • A preposition is a word that shows the
    relationship of one word in a sentence to another
    word. The four things that prepositions tell are
    1) where something is (location) 2) where
    something is going (direction) 3) when something
    happens (time) and 4) the relationship between a
    noun or a pronoun and another word in a sentence.
  • Examples between, under, over

Compound Words
  • A compound word is made up of two or more words.
    Sometimes one word isnt enough to express an
    idea, name an object, or say what a speaker or
    writer is trying to express, so people make up
    compound nouns and adjectives. Compounds come in
    three ways 1) closed written as one word 2)
    open words written separately and 3)
    hyphenated words joined by a hyphen.
  • Examples sailboat, schoolhouse, weekend

  • Homonyms, or homophones, are words that are
    spelled differently, have different meanings, but
    are pronouned alike. Usually, they come in pairs.
    Sometimes they come in triplets.
  • Examples The most common errors to be aware of
    include 1) principal, principal 2) there,
    their, theyre 3) through, threw 4) to, too,
    two 5) whether, weather 6) which, witch 7)
    its, its.

Punctuation Period.
  • A period means a declarative sentence has ended.
    It tells the reader it is time to stop and take a

Punctuation Parentheses ()
  • Parentheses always come in pairs. They often
    enclose a bit of information that may not be
    directly related to the main sentence (for
    example, a clause like this).

Punctuation Apostrophes
  • An apostrophe shows possession. It tells you
    something belongs to someone or something, like
    Joes Diner or Rovers ball. It is also used in
    contractions, such as lets or dont.

Punctuation Commas,
  • A comma tells the reader to slow down or pause
    but not to stop. Commas are often used to
    separate words in a list if there are three or
    more in a list, one must use a comma before and
    or or.

Punctuation Exclamation Points!
  • Exclamation points are used at the end of
    exclamatory sentences. They show excitement or
    strong emotion

Punctuation Dashes --
  • Dashes always come in pairs -- like this -- to
    let you know something needs to be set aside from
    the rest of the sentence.

Punctuation Question Marks?
  • A question mark is used to end interrogative
    sentences, which are also known as questions.

Punctuation Quotation Marks
  • Quotation marks always come in pairs. They begin
    when the direct words of a person are being
    quoted and end when the person stops speaking.

How do we teach grammar?
  • Research shows that formal, isolated teaching of
    grammar has negligible or even harmful
    effects on the improvement of writing (Hillocks
    Smith, 1991, Weaver, 1996)
  • Integrating grammar study with reading and
    writing produces best results (Noguchi, 1991,
    Noyce Christie, 1983).
  • Grammar is primarily a tool for writers and is
    best integrated with the revising and editing
    stages of the writing process.

How do we teach grammar?
  • One approach is the minilesson approach, taught
    in the context of the Readers Workshop or the
    Writers Workshop, where student needs are best
    assessed and teaching/learning is best
  • Hint You dont need special worksheets use
    excerpts from the books you and the students are
    reading, or even better, the students own
  • Use a problem-solving approach during the
    editing stage of the writing process (not as
    threatening as correcting their talk, which is
    more personal). Students should be encouraged to
    find and correct their own errors, but teachers
    must often provide the corrections, saying We
    usually write it this way. Use models from
    books being read in the classroom. (Students can
    accept that book language is a different kind of

In-Class Minilessons Parts of Speech
  • small groups to identify a part of speech, or all
    parts of speech (designated for the grade level)
    from the books they are reading or from their own
    writing. E.g., parts of speech from
    Chrysanthemum, Tough Boris, I went to the Zoo,
    There were Monkeys in my Kitchen
  • Create a class book using words (pictures
    optional) collected.

In-Class Minilessons Forms of Punctuation
  • small groups to identify forms of punctuation, or
    sentence types from the books/poems they are
    reading or from their own writing. E.g., Where
    the Wild Things Are, The Creature in Classroom,
    Who Has Seen the Wind?
  • Create a class book using a variety of sentences
    copied from literature that demonstrate the type
    of punctuation collected.

Types of Sentences
  • Declarative Sentences (statements)
  • There will be a grammar test next class.
  • Interrogative Sentence (questions)
  • Are you ready for the grammar test?
  • Imperative Sentence (requests and commands)
  • Dont forget to review your notes and course
  • Exclamatory Sentence (exclamations)
  • Study!

  • Day 2 Agenda
  • In-Class Review
  • Nature One-Liners Pre-Assessment
  • Additional Minilessons
  • Grammar through Drama and Movement
  • Quiz

Nature One Liners
  • EDUC 4114
  • Monday March 10,
  • Tuesday March 11

Nature One Liners
  • A series of photographs will be presented.
  • Using first person (in role), write one line that
    demonstrates known facts or observations about
    the photograph.

My tender green branches sag and hurt under the
weight of the snow.
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In-Class (Review) Minilessons
  • Nouns (handouts)
  • Adverbs Walk the Walk Charades (handouts)

Additional Minilessons Grammar Concept Books
  • Grammar Concept books - (A Snake is Totally Tail
    for adverbs)
  • May be modelled after Scholastic Books by Ruth

Additional Minilessons Sentence
  • Fill in sentences where specific part of speech
    is left blank
  • The snake slithered__________________ the rock
  • Over Around
  • Under To
  • Use books to teach concepts of common and proper
    nouns and pronouns
  • _________________ knew more safety tips than
  • anyone else in Napville.
  • Officer B. He
  • The police officer the man

Additional MinilessonsSentence Expansion
  • Expand Theres a frog on the log by adding
    modifiers (use selection of 5 Ws plus one who,
    what, when, where, why, and how)
  • Sentence Theres a frog on the log.
  • What kind? Small, green
  • How?
  • Where? Half-sunk log in the middle of the bog.
  • Why?
  • Expanded sentence becomes
  • Theres a frog on the log in the middle of the
    bog. A small, green frog on a half-sunk log in
    the middle of the bog. (Literature link A Frog
    in the Bog by Karma Wilson, Joan Rankin)

Additional Minilessons Sentence Manipulation
  • Take a sentence, then play with it by adding,
    deleting, substituting, and rearranging.
  • e.g., Children play games at home.

Additional Minilessons Combining Sentences
  • Give basic sentences, experiment with different
    combinations by joining or embedding. For
  • Sylvester found a red pebble.
  • The pebble was magic.
  • C1 S. found a red pebble that was magic.
  • C2 S. found a magic red pebble.
  • (this is best taught using childs own writing)

Additional MinilessonsSentence Frames
  • Using the structure in repetitive books, young
    children can create their own versions.
  • e.g., Brown Bear, Brown Bear (E. Carsle) change
    to Teddy Bear, Teddy Bear, What do you Like?)

Teaching Sentence Building
  • Simple Sentences made up of one principal
    clause. It can be short or long. It is simple
    even if the subject or predicate is plural.
  • e.g., Sections 1 and 6 read their course pack and
    their text.
  • Compound Sentences made up of two or more
    principal clauses. These clauses are joined by a
    comma and a conjunction. The most frequently used
    conjunctions are and, or, and but.
  • e.g., It was a lot of reading, but they did it
  • Complex Sentences made up of one principal
    clause and one subordinate clasues. The two
    clauses are joined by a conjunction.
  • e.g., Whenever I come to class, I must remember
    to be on time.

Teaching Subject-Verb Agreement
  • The subject and verb in a sentence must be the
    same (agree) in person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd) and in
    number (singular or plural).
  • Rules
  • A first person subject takes a first person verb.
  • A second person subject takes a second person
  • A third person takes a third person verb.
  • A singular subject takes a singular verb.
  • A plural subject takes a plural verb.
  • A collective noun (My class) is usually followed
    by a single verb.
  • Compounds (joined by and) are usually followed by
    a singular verb, joined by or , the verb matches
    the subject followed by or.
  • Note Peanut butter and jam is a sandwich.
  • Spaghetti and meatballs is on the menu.

Teaching Verb Tense Consistency
  • Tense mean time in grammar. The tense of the verb
    tells you when the action of the verb takes
    place. There are six main tenses
  • present means now
  • past means before now
  • future means not yet (but any time after now)
  • present perfect means started in the past and
    just recently finished or still going on
  • past perfect means finished before some other
    past action
  • future perfect means the action will be started
    and finished in the future

Teaching Verb Tense Consistency (contd.)
  • Most verbs are regular.
  • Regular verbs just add d or ed to change from
    the present to the past.
  • Irregular verbs form their past tenses in
    unpredictable ways. We must be aware of these.
  • Linking verbs link the subject to other words in
    the sentence. They do not show action (e.g., to
    be, to seem)

Teaching parts of a sentence
  • A sentence expresses a complete thought. It has a
    subject and a predicate. e.g., The principal
    closed the school because so many students are
    sick with the flu.
  • Subjects are nouns, pronouns, or phrases used as
    nouns. They tell what the sentence is about a
    person, thing, or idea. e.g., the principal
  • The predicate tells about the subject, what the
    subject does or did, is or was. e.g., closed the
    school because
  • A clause is a group of words that has a subject
    and a predicate.
  • A main clause can stand alone in sentence. e.g.,
    The principal closed the school.
  • A subordinate clause is used with the main clause
    to express a related idea. e.g., because so many
  • A phrase is a group of words that has not subject
    or predicate. It may be used as a noun, verb,
    adjective, or adverb. e.g., with the flu

Teaching correct usage
  • Correcting common errors in conversation, for
    example, Me and my friends went to are house.
  • Rephrasing and repeating the students words
    without explicitly pointing out the error
  • Effective modelling

Syntax Drama An Interesting Approach to Grammar!
  • Make words and sentences come to life. The
    students act out sentences each representing one
  • They must identify the type of word it is and
    what its function is as part of the sentence.

Syntax DramaThe young woman went directly to
the office.
  • Hi! My name is THE! Im an article. I go,
    YooHoo, theres a noun coming!. The noun is
    woman. Im standing on a chair because I begin
    with a Capital T.
  • Hi! My name is YOUNG! Im an adjective. I
    describe the noun woman.
  • Hi! My name is WOMAN! Im a noun because I name
    a person. I am a common noun. I am singular
    because there is only one of me.
  • Hi! My name is WENT! I am the verb to go. I am
    standing backwards because the action takes place
    in the past.
  • Hi! My name is DIRECTLY! I am an adverb. I
    describe the verb went.
  • Hi! My name is TO! I am a preposition. I begin
    the prepositional phrase to the office.
  • Hi! My name is THE! I am an article. I go,
    YooHoo, theres a noun coming!. The noun is
  • Hi! My name is OFFICE! Im a noun because I
    name a place. I am a common noun. I am singular
    because there is only one of me.
  • Hi! My name is PERIOD! Im a punctuation mark.
    I end the statement, The young woman went
    directly to the office.

Syntax Drama Create your own
  • In small groups, write two different sentences
    that you can use to perform a syntax drama. Try
    to use a variety of sentence types in addition to
    a variety of words.
  • Make sure every person has a role.
  • Practice your syntax drama.
  • Present them to the class.

  • Hunter Wallace,The Place of Grammar in Writing
  • Noguchi, Grammar and the Teaching of Writing
  • Scholastic, Checking Your Grammar
  • Tompkins, Literacy for the 21st Century
  • Twain Media, Punctuation

Nature One Liners
  • Choose your favorite one liner.
  • We will view photographs again and select a
    couple of one liners to represent each photograph.

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