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THE CIVIL WAR

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He had the plans for the next battle at Antietam Creek. Antietam Creek ... He used the Battle at Antietam (the bloodiest battle of the war) as his 'win' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CIVIL WAR


1
THE CIVIL WAR
  • The Union Dissolves
  • Chapter 11
  • Section 1

2
Crittenden Compromise
  • As a last ditch compromise, Sen. Crittenden
    proposed drawing the Missouri Compromise line to
    the Pacific.
  • Lincoln rejected this since it would expand
    slavery

3
Confederate States
  • The South was excited about forming their new
    country
  • They held rallies and shot off fireworks.

4
Secession
5
Southern Secession
  • Lincoln believed that it was illegal to secede
    from the Union
  • If a state had to apply for admittance, he
    thought states should also have to ask for
    permission to leave.

6
Fort Sumter
  • Located at the mouth of the Charleston harbor,
    the South wanted to keep this strategic fort
  • Lincoln would not allow the South to take federal
    property

7
Fort Sumter
  • When the fort ran low of supplies, Lincoln
    alerted the SC governor that unarmed supply ships
    would be entering the port
  • Confederate soldiers fired upon the fort for 34
    hours.

8
Fort Sumter
  • Union Major Anderson surrendered on April 14,
    1861
  • Lincoln asked the Union states to provide troops
  • They were asked to enlist for just 3 months

9
Choosing Sides
  • Southern states that had not yet seceded had to
    decide what to do
  • Virginia actually split in two
  • Once war broke out, many men had to decide for
    which cause to fight
  • Families separated over the war

10
Advantages/Disadvantages
  • North
  • South
  • 9 million incl 3.5 million slaves
  • Few factories
  • 9,000 miles of track
  • Trained leaders
  • Little money
  • Fighting on own land
  • Defensive war
  • 22 million people
  • 85 manufacturing
  • 22,000 miles of track
  • Lacked generals
  • Many resources
  • Supplies carried into enemy territory

11
Advantages/Disadvantages
  • North
  • South
  • Pig iron in VA only
  • 110,000 workers
  • 1,800 factories
  • Few firearms
  • 20 Xs more pig iron
  • 1,300,000 workers
  • 110,000 factories
  • 32 Xs firearms

12
Resources of the North and South
13
Robert E. Lee
  • Perhaps the biggest southern advantage was Gen.
    Robert E. Lee
  • Asked by Lincoln to lead the Union Army, Lee
    refused to turn his back on his home, Virginia

14
Filling the Ranks
  • At the beginning of the war in 1861, the Northern
    Army more than twice as large as the Southern
    Army
  • Men had to pledge that they were over the age of
    18 to fight, but boys as young as 9 acted as
    drummer boys

15
Filling the Ranks
  • The South enacted legislation to prevent large
    landowners from leaving their plantations (and
    slaves) to fight.
  • This left most of the ranks filled with poor
    farmers.

16
Strategies
  • The South took their cue from the success of the
    American Revolution and chose to fight a
    defensive war, wearing the North down until they
    gave up.

Stars and Bars
17
Strategies
  • The North had a 3 pronged approach called the
    Anaconda Plan
  • Block southern ports to all imports/exports
  • Control the Mississippi River splitting
    the confederacy in two
  • Take Richmond, the confederate capital

18
Anaconda Plan
19
1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
  • Most Civil War battles are called by 2 different
    names
  • The North named the battle after the nearest
    river
  • The South named the battle after the nearest town
  • The first battle of the war was near the town of
    Manassas and Bull Run River

20
1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
  • The North (in blue) and South (in grey) met on a
    clearing in northern Virginia
  • Confederate General Thomas
    Stonewall Jackson routed
    the Yankee army, causing
    them to run in fear
  • They trampled picnickers who had gathered to
    watch the battle.

21
1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
  • Northern troops, according to legend, commented
    that Gen. Jackson sat upon his horse like a
    stone wall
  • The nickname stuck
  • The southern victory assured the
    South that this would be a quick war fought
    against inferior troops
  • They were wrong on both accounts

22
1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
  • The first civilian casualty occurred at Bull Run.
  • Judith Henry, was
    killed by a cannon
    ball as she laid in
    bed

23
1st Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
  • Wilmer McCleans home was on the battlefield at
    Bull Run
  • He wanted to get
    away from the warfare and
    moved to a small town in
    southern Virginia, Appomattox Court House

24
Union Leadership
  • Lincoln chose Irwin McDowell to lead the Unions
    Army of the Potomac.
  • He was replaced 3 days after his defeat at Bull
    Run with Gen. George McClellan

25
Union Leadership
  • McClellan meets Gen, R. E. Lee at the Peninsular
    Campaign
  • His was nicknamed the Creeper because he was so
    hesitant to attack, always
    fearing he was out-numbered

26
Union Leadership
  • After 5 months of fighting, McClellan withdrew
    even though he out-numbered and out-powered the
    confederate army
  • One of his men found Lees plans wrapped around
    some cigars.
  • He had the plans for the next battle at Antietam
    Creek

27
Antietam Creek
  • Even with the plans, McClellans hesitancy costs
    him the battle
  • He could never break through Confederate lines
  • It was the bloodiest single day of the Civil war
    with about 22,000 dead and wounded.

28
Victory in the West
  • While the North was losing badly in
    the east, Gen. Ulysses S.
    Grant was winning decisive victories along
    the Mississippi River.
  • After the battle at Ft. Henry he earned the
    nickname of Unconditional Surrender because he
    refused to speak of terms of surrender with the
    South

29
Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing
  • The South surprised Union troops at Shiloh on
    April 6, 1862
  • Their rebel yell was eerie
  • As they ran in retreat, they met Union
    reinforcements
  • Under Gen. Grant, they regrouped
  • It ended in a draw with almost 25,000 casualties
    in the 2 day battle.

30
Admiral Farragut
  • As part of the Anaconda Plan, Gen. Farragut took
    the navy up the mouth of the Mississippi River
  • He took New Orleans and Baton Rouge, cutting the
    Confederacy in half.

31
1861-1862
32
Filling the Ranks
  • The North allowed Blacks to enlist but did not
    allow them to fight
  • By 1863, after the Emancipation Proclamation,
    pressure was on to allow Black units to train and
    fight.
  • They were killed in greater numbers and paid less
    for their efforts

33
Filling the Ranks
  • Wealthy people, in both North and South, could
    pay a substitute to take their place in the Army.
  • Conscription, forced service, was first used in
    the South.
  • The North began conscription in 1862

34
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35
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36
Filling the Ranks
  • Slaves could not help the southern army fight but
    were used for manual labor.
  • The Civil War was called, a rich mans war but a
    poor mans fight.

37
Filling the Ranks
  • Conscription was so resisted in the North, riots
    broke out
  • It became especially violent after the
    Emancipation Proclamation.

38
Filling the Ranks
  • Desertion was a common problem on both sides,
    with over 300,000 soldiers leaving their troops
  • Because states offered a signing bonus, many men
    enlisted, deserted, enlisted someplace else,
    deserted,

39
Filling the Ranks
  • By the end of the war, the South was so short of
    men they openly enlisted young boys.

40
Filling the Ranks
  • Women could not openly enlist but some disguised
    themselves as men and fought the entire war.
  • Others became spies, nurses, and cooks

41
Filling the Ranks
  • Elizabeth Blackwell, Americas first female
    physician, helped run the US Sanitary Commission
  • Clara Barton tended to the wounded and founded
    the American Red Cross.

42
Filling the Ranks
  • Although hundreds of men and women tended to the
    sick and injured, more soldiers died from illness
    and infection than of battle wounds.

43
Filling the Ranks
  • More often, women took over mens civilian jobs
    while they were gone to war.

44
Generals of the Army of the Potomac
  • Irwin McDowell 1861
  • George McClellan 1861
  • John Pope 1861
  • George McClellan 1862
  • Ambrose Burnside 1862
  • Ulysses S. Grant 1863-1865

45
The Civil War
  • Politics of War
  • Chapter 11
  • Section 2

46
Britains Neutrality
  • The South was depending on Britain and/or France
    to come to their aid and renew the cotton trade
  • Britain found other sources for cotton and
    stockpiled surpluses before the war began

47
Britains Neutrality
  • Food crops, wheat and corn from the North, had
    replaced cotton as Americas most important
    exports
  • For these reasons, Britain chose to remain
    neutral in the war between the states.

48
Trent Affair
  • Shortly after the war began, the Confederates
    (Rebels) sent 2 diplomats to Britain to ask for
    their support
  • James Mason and John Slidell traveled on the
    British ship, Trent
  • The Union warship, San Jacinto, stopped and
    boarded the Trent

49
Trent Affair
  • Mason and Slidell were arrested
  • Britain took this as an act of war and moved
    troops to Canada for a possible war with the
    Union
  • Lincoln averted war by pardoning the men

50
Emancipation
  • Lincolns original strategy did not involve
    freeing slaves
  • After 1862, he realized that slaves aided the
    Southern cause by providing labor
  • He used this to change the purpose of the war
    from preserving the Union to also freeing the
    slaves

51
Emancipation
  • Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation,
    freeing all slaves in the seceded states (not
    occupied or border states)
  • It also prevented
    all European
    countries who had abolished
    slavery from aiding the
    South.

52
British cotton consumption increased but they did
not rely on the South for production
53
Emancipation
  • Lincoln did not want to issue the proclamation
    publicly until the North had a successful battle
  • He used the Battle at Antietam (the bloodiest
    battle of the war) as his win
  • It took effect Jan. 1, 1863

54
Emancipation Reaction
  • Not everyone was happy with the decision to free
    the slaves.
  • Northern Democrats thought it would make the war
    longer
  • Some soldiers deserted, refusing to fight for
    this cause

55
Emancipation Reaction
  • The South renewed their effort to save their way
    of life
  • The Emancipation Proclamation had no effect on
    slaves
  • Free northern blacks enlisted in the Union army,
    but served as laborers, not soldiers
  • Slaves provided the same type of labor for the
    South

56
Lincoln Takes Charge
  • Lincoln sent Union troops and occupied the border
    states from the beginning of the war
  • He also suspended habeas corpus, legal authority
    to detain a person
  • Confederate sympathizers in the North were
    arrested and telegrams were seized

57
Lincoln Takes Charge
  • Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney said
    that Lincoln had overstepped his
    authority, but he continued to use his
    presidential powers to the fullest
    extent
  • Setting a precedent, all wartime presidents have
    taken Lincolns lead to protect the American
    people

58
Copperheads
  • Anti-war Democrats were called copperheads a
    deadly, venomous snake

59
Conscription
  • In 1862 and 1863 the Confederacy and the Union
    respectively instituted conscription, military
    draft
  • The South recruited all able white men over 18
    (17 by 1864 but they took even younger)
  • Large slave holders and the wealthy did not serve

60
Conscription
  • The South called it a rich mans war and a poor
    mans fight
  • The Union recruited young men 20-45 although
    younger men enlisted
  • Blacks, free and slave, were used as cooks, for
    construction and heavy labor

61
Conscription
  • Both sides allowed wealthy men to pay
    commutation,
  • Bonuses were paid for Union soldiers who
    enlisted, some enlisting numerous times,
    collecting the bonus money, deserting, and
    enlisting again

62
Conscription
  • In New York City the Irish rioted over
    conscription, burning an orphanage for black
    children
  • 117 people were killed
  • The Irish did not condone slavery but did not
    want the added competition for jobs

63
As 1862 Ends
  • The ironclads appear
  • Both sides made ships made of
    iron, capable of repelling cannon balls
    and fire
  • The Monitor, a new ship, fought the Merrimac, now
    called The Virginia, fought for 5 hours tied
  • The Merrimac was sunk to prevent it going into
    Northern hands

64
The Civil War
  • Chapter 11
  • Section 3
  • Life During Wartime

65
Mary Chesnut
  • Mary Chesnuts diary is frequently referred to
    when researching civilian life during the Civil
    War.

66
Black Troops
  • African American soldiers never fought for the
    South, but their slave labor was used by southern
    soldiers
  • The North also
    used African American
    labor
  • That changed after the
    Emancipation Proclamation.

67
Black Troops
  • The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves in
    the non-occupied states, which mean it freed none
  • But it also meant that Blacks joined the northern
    army and fought against the South
  • The South refused to return any
    Black prisoner - contraband

68
Black Troops
  • Black troops fought in segregated units led by
    white officers
  • They were paid less than white soldiers

69
Black Troops
  • They died in greater numbers but not because they
    were assigned to more dangerous job.
  • Working in close proximity to one another, they
    caught diseases
  • They were more likely to
    be killed when captured
    rather than taken as
    prisoner/contraband

70
Fort Pillow
  • Over 200 African American and some white soldiers
    were killed after they surrendered
    to Southern troops
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest led the
    slaughter
  • After the war he and others form
    the Ku Klux Klan

71
Fort Pillow
  • Over 200 African American and some white soldiers
    were killed after they surrendered to Southern
    troops
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest led the slaughter
  • After the war he
    and others form
    the Ku Klux Klan

72
Slave Resistance
  • As northern troops neared plantations, the slaves
    gained strength and
  • Broke tools
  • Joined the
    troops
  • Neglected the
    livestock

73
War Affects the Economy
  • The South began to run out of men, food and
    supplies not soon after the war began
  • They printed so much currency that it had little
    value
  • The Northern blockade effectively stopped
    Southern trade with Europe

74
War Affects the Economy
  • Most of the fighting took place in the Shenandoah
    Valley, the Southern food production area
  • Lee took his troops to Gettysburg, PA to try to
    shift the damage to northern states during the
    growing season.
  • He failed

75
Why Printing Money is Bad
  • Currency, as paper, has no value
  • Generally we accept the face value on currency to
    be worth something
  • If more paper is printed, we want more of it for
    goods
  • Inflation occurs when there is too much
    money in the economy

76
Shortages of Everything
  • Some Southerners traded with the North
  • Cotton and food supplies exchanged hands

77
Northern Economy
  • The North suffered but not nearly as bad as the
    South
  • Inflation was worse in the North 80 by the end
    of the war
  • Industries that supplied the military boomed
  • Machinery took the place of workers drafted into
    the GAR

78
Women in the Workplace
  • Women took on many of the jobs and duties of the
    men who left to fight
  • They were paid less, one of many ways business
    owners made tremendous profits during the war
  • Northerners paid the first income tax to pay for
    the war

79
Soldiers Suffer
  • Soldiers rations included hardtack, beans, bacon
    fat and, if lucky, a few bones from which to suck
    the marrow
  • They had ticks, lice, dysentery, and diarrhea on
    a regular basis due to poor hygiene

80
Medical Care
  • A doctors kit looked more like it would be more
    useful in a episode of Home Make Over

81
Medical Care
  • Body wounds were ignored and the person was left
    to die
  • Good surgeons could remove a limb in 1 minute
  • They usually
    used ether to
    sedate the
    patient

82
Medical Care
  • Scalpels, saws and pliers were the doctors main
    tools

83
Medical Care
  • Once soldiers received care, the worst was to
    come
  • Not knowing about germs and bacteria, doctors and
    nurses regularly examined wounds without washing
    between patients
  • Gangrene, staph and other infections passed from
    man to man

84
Medical Care
  • Surgery was usually done outdoors

85
Medical Care
  • For every soldier that died on
    the battlefield, 2 died in
    the wartime hospitals
  • Women served the military as nurses
  • Clara Barton, founder of the Red Cross, and Sally
    Tompkins helped improve medical care

86
Medical Care
  • Many men did not think it appropriate for women
    to see men in such poor condition
  • Dorthea Dix required
    that all
    nurses be
    plain looking
    and be at least
    30 years old

87
Prisoners
  • Until the Union began using black soldiers, both
    sides regularly exchanged soldiers rather than
    keep them in camps
  • When the Confederacy refused to swap black
    soldiers, the North stopped the exchange program
  • Neither side was equipped to keep thousands of
    prisoners

88
Prison Camps
  • Both sides treated their captives terribly
  • Ft. Delaware and Elmira prisons in the North and
    Libby and Andersonville prisons in the South saw
    mortality rates over 25
  • Poor nutrition and poor hygiene led to scurvy,
    dysentery and other fatal diseases

89
Prison Camps
  • Union camp at Point Lookout, MD
  • Built to hold 10,000, it had almost 50,000
    Confederate troops
  • 4,000 died

90
Andersonville Prison, GA
  • Henry Wirz was placed in charge of the camp at
    Andersonville
  • Built to handle
    10,000,
    it eventually had
    over 33,000
    prisoners
  • Their only water was a stream which ran through
    where the horses grazed, filled with manure

91
Andersonville Prison, GA
  • There were no buildings to house prisoners, only
    tents and lean-tos
  • Guards, some as young as 12, surrounded the camp
    on watchtowers
  • Anyone who got near the
    fence, the dead
    zone, was
    shot immediately

92
Andersonville Prison, GA
  • Although he camp was operational for less than a
    year, over 12,000 died

93
Andersonville Prison
  • Survivors were transferred from the camp to other
    camps in the South

94
Andersonville Prison
  • The Commandant, Henry Wirz, was tried for war
    crimes in 1865
  • The North really wanted him to provide
    information about Gen. Lee and Pres. Davis
  • He did not

95
Andersonville Prison
  • Wirz was hung in Washington DC
  • After his death, he was treated as a martyr

96
The Civil War
  • Chapter 11
  • Section 4
  • The North Takes Charge

97
1863
  • In 1863, the war shifted in favor of the North
  • Gen. Grant leads Army of the Potomac
  • Important victories in the East
  • Total war
  • South will not receive help from Europe
  • War of attrition

98
Chancellorsville
  • As Lees troops moved to northern Virginia,
    Stonewall Jackson stopped for 9 days to visit his
    wife and infant daughter
  • He would be dead in 3 weeks by his own men

Statue of Jackson at Bull Run
Gravesite of Jackson
99
The Civil War
  • Chapter 11
  • Section 5
  • The Legacy of War

100
The War Ends
  • With the end of the war changes will affect
  • The economy
  • Social structure
  • Labor market
  • Politics
  • Technology

101
Political Changes
  • The federal government assumed control over the
    seceded states and no state has seceded again
  • The war increased the power of the federal
    government and the president

102
Political Changes
  • The war increased the power of the federal
    government and the president
  • Income tax
  • Suspending habeas corpus
  • Regulated currency paper
  • Conscription requirement

103
Economic Changes
  • The federal government took additional
    responsibility for subsidizing railroads
  • National Bank Act, 1863, which chartered banks,
    set requirements for loans and required banks to
    be inspected

104
Economic Changes
  • Conscription caused a labor shortage in the
    North, filled by machines
  • Northern industries had to re-focus to compete in
    a peacetime economy

105
Economic Changes
  • The South lost its labor force and trading
    partners
  • Since most of the fighting took place in the
    South, land was destroyed, livestock wiped-out
    and their railroads

106
Economic Changes
  • The economic gap between North and South was
    wider than before the war began
  • 1860 the South controlled 30 of the nations
    wealth
  • 1870 the South controlled 12 of the nations
    wealth

107
Economic Changes
108
Economic Changes
  • No part of society was untouched

109
Societal Changes
  • Slavery is over
  • Congress passed the 13th Amendment outlawing
    slavery
  • Matthew Brady chronicled the war with hundreds of
    photos, beginning photojournalism

110
Societal Changes
  • Jefferson Davis was arrested, tried and found not
    guilty
  • He lived to be an old man
  • Lee lost his family home when Montgomery Meigs
    turned it into Arlington National Cemetery

111
Societal Changes
  • Lee went on to become the president of Washington
    University, now Washington and Lee
  • Clara Barton took her war experience and founded
    the Red Cross
  • Grant was elected president in 1868.

112
Lincoln Assassinated
  • Lincoln and his wife, Mary Todd,
    went to Fords Theater to see
    My American Cousin
  • John Wilkes Booth shot him in
    the back of the head
  • He died within hours

113
Lincoln Assassinated
  • His body was taken by train to his gravesite in
    Springfield, IL

114
John Wilkes Booth
Booth and conspirators were captured, tried and
hung
115
Andrew Johnson
  • This was the first time a vice president assumed
    the presidency because of death
  • Johnson was sworn in as the countrys 17th
    president
  • Lincolns plans for reconstruction die with him

116
Comparisons
  • Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
    John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.
    Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
    John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.

117
Comparisons
  • The names Lincoln and Kennedy each contain seven
    letters.
  • Both were particularly concerned with civil
    rights.
  • Both wives lost their children while living in
    the White House.
  • Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.

118
Comparisons
  • Both were shot in the head.
  • Lincoln's secretary, Kennedy, warned him not to
    go to the theatre. Kennedy's secretary, Lincoln,
    warned him not to go to Dallas.
  • Both were assassinated by Southerners.

119
Comparisons
  • Both were succeeded by Southerners.
  • Both successors were named Johnson.
  • Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born
    in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy,
    was born in 1908.

120
Comparisons
  • John Wilkes Booth was born in 1839. Lee Harvey
    Oswald was born in 1939.
  • Both assassins were known by their three names.
  • Both names are comprised of fifteen letters

121
Comparisons
  • Booth ran from the theater and was caught in a
    warehouse. Oswald ran from a warehouse and was
    caught in a theater.
  • Booth and Oswald were assassinated before their
    trials.

122
Comparisons
  • Both successors were named Johnson.
  • Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born
    in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy,
    was born in 1908.
  • Lincoln was shot in the Ford Theatre and Kennedy
    was shot while in a Ford Lincoln.

123
Chancellorsville
  • Lee met Gen. Hooker at Chancellorsville, VA
  • The North was outmaneuvered by Lee
  • BTW The term hooker comes from the large
    number of women who followed Hooker from battle
    to battle Hookers girls

124
Gettysburg
  • Gen. Lee and Gen. A.P.
    Hill headed north for 2 reasons
  • They wanted to divert the fighting from the
    Shenandoah Valley and Hills troops needed shoes
  • They met Union troops, under Gen. Meade, at
    Gettysburg, PA

125
Gettysburg
  • The 3 day battle was costly for both sides.
  • Picketts Charge up Little Round Top was little
    better than a suicide mission
  • After 3 days
  • 23,000 Union casualties
  • 28,000 Confederate casualties

126
Gettysburg
  • Lee retreated, never to enter the North again
  • The Union victory at Gettysburg was the turning
    point of the war
  • They will continue to win important victories
    until the South capitulates

127
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863
  • Dead men and horses began to rot in the summer
    heat, drawing flies, rodents and other carrion
  • The smell carried to
    the town of
    Gettysburg
  • The towns women
    took on the task of
    burying the dead

128
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863
  • Southern soldiers were separated at buried in
    shallow graves away from town
  • Union soldiers were divided by state and buried
    in a series of
    semi-circles

129
Gettysburg Address, Nov 1863
  • Lincoln came to dedicate the cemetery
  • He was the 2nd speaker that day, speaking for
    only about 2 minutes

130
Gettysburg Address, Nov 1863
  • He used the speech to re-focus attention to the
    Declaration of Independence all men are
    created equal

131
Siege of Vicksburg 1863
  • The summer of 1863 saw another important Union
    victory in the west, Vicksburg MS

132
Siege of Vicksburg 1863
  • Vicksburg is an overlook on the Mississippi River
  • It was one of the last areas that prevented the
    Union from controlling the entire river and
    successfully dividing the South
  • Grant laid siege to the town, firing into it for
    hours each day

133
Siege of Vicksburg 1863
  • The mostly women, elderly and children in the
    town sought refuge in the caves along the river
  • Their food supply gone, they ate dogs, horses,
    mules and rats before surrendering the day after
    the victory at Gettysburg, July 4

134
Conditions in the South, 1863
  • The South was quickly running out of men, arms,
    food, uniforms and other necessary supplies
  • They hoped that a long war would cause the North
    to stop fighting
  • The Gettysburg Address made it very clear that
    the North was not giving up

135
Conditions in the South, 1863
  • Southerners were asked to grow food crops rather
    than cash crops
  • Rebels deserted in greater numbers
  • Jefferson Davis and the Confederate Constitution
    left little room to lead effectively

136
Ulysses S. Grant
  • Lincoln, having gone 5 generals in 2 years,
    appointed Grant
  • He fought a war of attrition killing Southern
    soldiers that
    could not be
    replaced
  • It meant that he also
    suffered from heavy losses

137
Ulysses S. Grant
  • Grant confers with Gen. Meade

138
Gen. Sherman
  • Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman to lead
    the Union Army in the deep South
  • He believed in total war attacking civilians
    since they supplied
    goods for the
    southern war effort

139
Grant v. Lee
  • Grants war of attrition was devastating to the
    southern army
  • Grant knew that he could replace each of his dead
    soldiers, the South could not

140
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Gen. Sherman took his troops from Tennessee,
    through Atlanta, to Savannah
  • His men burned a path up to 60 miles wide, burned
    crops, poisoned wells, killed livestock and
    turned railroad ties into
    Shermans neckties

141
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Sherman sent news to Lincoln in December, 1864
    that his Christmas gift to the president was the
    city of Savannah
  • Then he turned north to help Grant defeat Lee

142
Election 1864
  • Democrats Gen. McClellan
  • Republicans Pres. Lincoln
  • Democrats were tired of war, the costs, and death
  • Republicans looked for a candidate who would
    appeal to Democrats, Andrew Johnson

143
Election 1864
  • Johnson was a Southerner who never owned slaves
  • He was raised extremely poor, resenting the
    planter class
  • He looked down upon the slave class

144
Election 1864
  • Other candidates

145
Election 1864
  • Lincoln needed a few victories before the
    election or he felt he would use.
  • Shermans sacking of Atlanta and Farraguts
    control of the Mississippi River accomplished
    that
  • Absentee ballots from the Union army put Lincoln
    over the top

146
1860 1865
  • The war took its toll on Lincoln

147
Appomattox Court House
  • In April 1865, Lee knew he had no choice but to
    surrender
  • His men begged him not to do this, but he replied
    that it would only kill them all if he continued
    to fight

148
Fall of Richmond
  • Jefferson Davis set fire to Richmond to prevent
    Grant from occupying it

149
Appomattox Court House
  • Lee said, There is nothing left me to do but to
    go and see General Grant, and I would rather die
    a thousand deaths. April 9, 1865
  • Grant was generous with his terms of surrender,
    allowing the rebels to take their animals and
    personal items with them

150
Appomattox Court House
  • The Union band played Dixie as the men marched
    away

Wilmer McLeans home in Appomattox Courthouse The
surrender agreement was signed in his parlor
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