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Culture Regions

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Culture Regions Political culture regions Political diffusion Political ecology Politico-cultural integration Political landscapes Politico-cultural integration The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture Regions


1
Culture Regions
  • Political culture regions
  • Political diffusion
  • Political ecology
  • Politico-cultural integration
  • Political landscapes

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3
Politico-cultural integration
  • The nation-state
  • Characteristics
  • A type of independent country which results when
    people have a common heritage, homeland, and
    culture
  • The people speak the same language and/or share a
    particular religion
  • They possess a desire for nationhood and achieve
    political independence
  • Nationality is culturally defined
  • The raison dêtre lies in the cultural identity
  • The more people have in common culturally, the
    more stable and potent is their nationalism

4
The nation-state
  • Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have
    characterized much of human history and might be
    linked to instinctual territoriality
  • Examples of modern nation-states that have
    culturally homogenous populations, with only
    small minority groups
  • Germany
  • Sweden
  • Japan
  • Greece
  • Armenia
  • Finland

5
The nation-state
  • Many other countries function as nation-states
    because power is held by a dominant,
    nationalistic cultural group
  • Contain sizable ethnic minorities treated as
    second-class citizens
  • Minorities represent centrifugal forces
  • Israel is trying to cope with a sizable Arab
    minority
  • New nation-states contain large, territorially
    compact ethnic minorities former Soviet Union
    and Yugoslavia

6
The nation-state
  • Nation-states, at least on a regional level, have
    characterized much of human history and might be
    linked to instinctual territoriality
  • Examples of modern nation-states that have
    culturally homogenous populations, with only
    small minority groups
  • Germany
  • Sweden
  • Japan
  • Greece
  • Armenia
  • Finland

7
The multinational country
  • Make up the majority of independent countries and
    are not nation-states
  • Usually have federal rather than strong central
    governments examples include
  • Switzerland
  • Canada
  • The United Kingdom
  • South Africa
  • Belgium
  • All are older multinational countries

8
The multinational country
  • A much larger number have arisen in recent
    decades
  • Result of the collapse of European-based
    colonialism
  • Most in Africa
  • Political boundaries drawn without regard to the
    integrity of cultural or tribal groups

9
Ethnic separatism
  • We live in an age of rising ethnic nationalism
  • One ethnic minority after another demands
    independence or autonomy

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12
Ethnic separatism
  • Results of rising ethnic nationalism
  • Old stable multinational countries are feeling
    the effects Canada, the United Kingdom
  • Some multinational countries have splintered
    the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,
    Czechoslovakia
  • Ethiopia discarded its unitary government and
    adopted an ethnic-based federalism in hopes of
    preserving unity

13
Ethnic separatism
  • The impact ranges from
  • Simple unrest to insurgencies
  • Forced deportations
  • Attempted genocides
  • Secessions

14
The problem in Quebec, Canada
  • Contains most of Canadas approximately 7 million
    French Canadians
  • Constitute a cultural-linguistic minority seeking
    autonomy or even secession
  • Descended from French colonists who immigrated in
    the 1600s and 1700s
  • Lived under English or Anglo-Canadian rule from
    1760 until well into the twentieth century

15
The problem in Quebec, Canada
  • Laws of Quebec retain a predominantly French
    influence
  • French is the sole legal language
  • The visible use of English, illegal until
    recently, was expunged
  • In several elections, a sizable minority voted
    for independence
  • Many Anglo-Canadians have emigrated from Quebec

16
Quebec, Canada
  • Canada has two official languages, French and
    English.
  • All provincial signs are supposed to be in both
    languages, yet this sign, welcoming visitors to
    Quebecs capital, is in French only.

17
Quebec, Canada
  • Contrary to national policy, Quebec has
    French-only laws and all signage, by provincial
    law, must be in French.
  • Although the separatist Parti Quebecois was voted
    into power in 1994, the majority did not vote to
    separate.

18
Quebec, Canada
  • This implies that, at least for now, most
    Francophones want to actively preserve and
    promote their unique cultural heritage within the
    Canadian federal system.

19
Politico-cultural integration
  • The international political map has taken on a
    linguistic-religious character
  • Border wars and forced migration of minorities
    could become common in the future

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The cleavage model
  • Originally proposed by Stein Rokkan and Seymour
    Lipset
  • Proposes that persistent regional patterns in
    voting behavior can usually be explained in terms
    of tensions pitting
  • National core area versus peripheral districts
  • Urban versus rural
  • Capitalists versus workers
  • Power-group culture versus minority culture

22
The cleavage model
  • Commonly, tensions coincide geographically, with
    the result that the core area
  • Monopolizes power and wealth
  • Is more urbanized
  • Links government to the ruling elite culture
  • Ethnic minorities often live in peripheral,
    largely rural, and less affluent areas

23
The cleavage model
  • Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist
    movements that have moved beyond unrest to
    violence or secession
  • Involve groups living away from core areas
  • Seceded republics from the former U.S.S.R.lie
    outside Russia
  • Slovenes and Croats occupied border territories
    in Yugoslavia
  • Northern Ireland lies on the periphery of the
    United Kingdom
  • Kurdistan is on the edge of Iraq, Iran, Syria,
    and Turkey who now rule Kurdish lands

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26
The cleavage model
  • Nature of the majority of ethnic separatist
    movements that have moved beyond unrest to
    violence or secession
  • Restive Tibet is on the margin of China
  • Arab West Bank-Gaza districts under Israeli rule
    are peripheral
  • Slovakia, poor and more rural than the Czech
    Republic was remote from the center of power at
    Prague

27
The cleavage model
  • In fewer cases, the secessionist peripheries were
    actually more prosperous than the political core
    area
  • Federalist government reduces core versus
    periphery tensions
  • Reduces appeal of separatist movements
  • Switzerland has been able to join speakers of
    German, French, Italian, and Raeto-Romansh into a
    single, stable country

28
The cleavage model
  • Canada developed under Francophone pressure
    toward a Swiss-type system
  • Russia has been obliged to adopt a more
    federalist structure to accommodate demands of
    ethnic minorities
  • Has 31 ethnic republics within
  • One republic, Chechnya has fought and won
    de-facto independence

29
Sakba Republic
  • Located in Russias Siberia province
  • Example of rising ethnic demands
  • Forms one-fifth of Russias land area and
    contains about one million people
  • Roughly 35 percent of population is ethnic Sakha
    or Yakutpeople of Turkic origin
  • Russians, who outnumber Sakha are concentrated in
    ten urban areas

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Sakba Republic
  • Sakha dominant in rural/small-town core of
    republic
  • Demands of Sakha led to declaration of state
    sovereignty in 1990
  • Has its own elected president and parliament
  • Has its own flag, coat-of-arms, and a
    constitution
  • Has attained some measure of genuine economic
    independence

32
Sakba Republic
  • A 1995 survey revealed 72 percent of all ethnic
    Yakuts felt more loyalty to Sakha than to Russia
  • A third of all Russians expressed same loyalty to
    Sakha over Russia
  • Sakha had not yet tried to seek independence
  • Autonomy represents embryo of a nation-state
  • Ongoing Russian emigration from Sakha complicates
    the matter

33
Cleavage model
  • Political imprint on economic geography
  • In the cleavage model economic contrasts clearly
    reveal the internal spatial arrangement of the
    countrys economic influence

34
Cleavage model
  • Laws differing from one country to another often
    impact on economic land use giving political
    boundaries an economic character
  • United States-Canadian border in the Great Plains
  • Crosses an area of environmental and cultural
    sameness
  • Different laws and regulations, foster
    differences in agricultural practices
  • In the United States, an act passed in the 1950s
    encouraged sheep raising by guaranteeing an
    incentive price for wool
  • In Canada, farmers devoted more attention to hogs

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Cleavage model
  • Borders also usually cause economic disruptions
  • Highway networks become fragmentary in border
    zones
  • Need to control border crossings
  • Some countries close borders stopping the flow of
    goods

37
Austrian-Czech border
38
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • This military post not only guards the
    Indian-Tibetan border, but is also the source of
    the Sutlej River.
  • Irrigation water from this Himalayan river is
    critical for survival in both India and Pakistan.

39
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • The blue sign (in Tibet) says Welcome to the
    Land of God.
  • The English reflects the colonial influence.
  • Since it is very difficult to clearly demarcate
    borders in mountainous regions, such areas are
    often disputed.

40
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • India has deliberately constructed roads into the
    border regions to ensure control.
  • Because of snow, these roads are only open three
    or four months a year and are frequently
    destroyed by landslides and floods.

41
Sumdo, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • Under army supervision, local and migrant labor
    is employed to repair the damage.
  • Work is done by men, women and children.

42
Culture Regions
  • Political culture regions
  • Political diffusion
  • Political ecology
  • Politico-cultural integration
  • Political landscapes

43
Imprint of the legal code
  • Laws regulating the land-survey system can be
    quite noticeable
  • Often require that land be divided into specific
    geometric patterns
  • Political boundaries as a result, become highly
    visible
  • Quebec encourages land survey in long, narrow
    parcels
  • Most English-speaking provinces of Canada adopted
    a rectangular system

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45
Imprint of the legal code
  • Legal decisions made long ago by a vanished
    government can remain imprinted on the landscape
  • Example of former Danish provinces of Schleswig
    and Holstein now German
  • Danish laws broke up farm villages and dispersed
    rural populations in isolated farmsteads
  • Many fragmented landholding were combined into
    unit-block farms
  • In nearby German-ruled provinces different laws
    prevailed
  • Over a century later the old border is still
    visible

46
Imprint of the legal code
  • Legal imprints can be seen in the cultural
    landscapes of urban areas
  • In Rio de Janeiro, building height restrictions
    resulted in a waterfront lined with buildings of
    uniform height
  • Most American cities have no height restrictions
    resulting in a jagged skyline

47
Rio de Janeiro - control
48
NYC no control
49
Physical properties of boundaries
  • Usually most visible where tight restrictions
    limit movement of people between neighboring
    countries
  • Between the United States, nearly invisible in
    many places
  • Even undefended borders are marked by boundary
    pillars and custom houses

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51
Physical properties of boundaries
  • Relic boundaries can persist for hundreds or
    thousands of years
  • Hadrians Wall in England built by the Romans
    parallels the modern border between England and
    Scotland
  • The Great Wall of China

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53
Physical properties of boundaries
  • Urban boundaries mark street gang territories
  • Use spray-painted graffiti to mark their turf
  • Gang core areas contain internally supportive
    graffiti
  • Gang territories can be mapped

54
The impress of central authority
  • Attempts to impose centralized government appear
    in many facets of the landscape
  • Railroad and highway patterns focus on the
    national core area
  • In Germany, the rail network developed before
    unification in 1871 resulting in no focal point
  • The superhighway of autobahns, encouraged by
    Hitler, tied the various parts of the Reich to
    Berlin and the Ruhr industrial district

55
Brasilia, Brazil
  • This is the Congresso Nacional of Brasilia,
    Brazils monumental planned capital built in
    1960.
  • Brasilia was intended to open up the sparsely
    settled interior, decentralize population away
    from

56
Brasilia, Brazil
  • the coast, and symbolize aspirations of
    development, modernization, and frontier
    conquest.
  • The dome houses the Senate while the more open
    bowl houses the Chamber of Deputies,

57
Brasilia, Brazil
  • perhaps symbolizing relative degrees of access.
  • The office towers were deliberately placed so
    that the sun rises between them on April 21st,
    inauguration day.

58
The impress of central authority
  • Military landscapes directly linked a countrys
    central authoritys defense
  • Often concentrated in border districts
  • Can result in sizable areas being cleared of
    permanent inhabitants
  • Provided space for defensive installations and
    maneuvers
  • Stable countries such as the United States permit
    display of provincial borders
  • Unstable countries often suppress visible sign of
    provincial borders

59
National iconography on the landscape
  • The cultural landscape is rich in symbolism
    visual metaphor
  • Political messages are often conveyed through
    symbolism
  • In the United States flags and eagles convey
    clear messages
  • Statues and monuments are important parts of the
    political landscape

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61
National iconography on the landscape
  • Sites of heroic resistances against invaders
    prompt feelings of nationalism
  • Some geographers feel iconography derives from an
    elite, dominant group within a country
  • Purpose is to legitimize or justify power and
    control
  • Often represents only one side of an issue
  • Example-Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of
    South Dakota

62
Seneca Falls, New York
  • Seneca Falls, founded in 1831, is known as the
    birthplace of womens rights because political
    activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and
    Harriet Tubman of underground railroad fame lived
    and worked here.

63
Seneca Falls, New York
  • In 1848, Stanton and others organized the First
    Womens Rights Convention at which the foundation
    for the suffrage movement was laid.

64
Seneca Falls, New York
  • The Hall of Fame was founded in 1969 and opened
    in this historic bank in 1979.
  • Classical architecture was traditional for banks,
    lending an aura of authenticity and
    trustworthiness.

65
Rome
  • The Arch of Titus was the first triumphal arch.
  • It was built in 81 AD by Emperor Domitian to
    celebrate his son Titus conquest of Jerusalem in
    70 AD.

66
Rome
  • A triumphal procession carrying the spoils from
    the Temple of Solomon is depicted on the interior
    of the arch.
  • Roman armies would depart the city marching
    through the arch and upon return

67
Rome
  • from battle, stand their bloodied spears against
    it as a symbol of glorious victory.
  • This arch became the model for others world wide
    and they can be found in most of the worlds
    capitals from Paris to New Delhi.

68
Summary
  • Political Culture Regions
  • Independent Countries
  • territoriality
  • boundaries
  • centrifugal and centripetal forces
  • Supranational Political Bodies
  • Electoral Geography

69
Summary
  • Political Diffusion
  • Country Building as Diffusion
  • Diffusion of Insurgencies and Innovations

70
Summary
  • Political Ecology
  • Folk Fortresses
  • The Heartland Theory
  • Halford Mackinder
  • Warfare and Environmental Destruction

71
Summary
  • Politico-Cultural Integration
  • The Nation-State
  • The Multinational Country
  • Ethnic Separatism
  • The Cleavage Model
  • Political Imprint on Economic Geography

72
Summary
  • Political Landscapes
  • Imprint on the Legal Code
  • border landscapes
  • Physical Properties of Boundaries
  • The Impress of Central Authority
  • National Iconography on the Landscape
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