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Introduction to New Media

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Introduction to New Media What is New Media? intro to new media New Spaces of Interaction and Encounter Definitions & claims What is this thing we have encountered? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to New Media


1
Introduction to New Media
  • What is New Media?

intro to new media
New Spaces of Interaction and Encounter
2
Lecture notes posted toMS1304 module blog
  • http//ms1304.blogspot.com/

3
Aim of the lecturesTo provide context to new
spaces of interaction
YOU
  • To introduce students to models, theories and
    concepts relating to new media
  • To apply these models, theories and concepts to
    the subject of new media
  • To build an intellectual platform from which
    students can contemplate, contextualize and
    discuss new media

4
Aims of Todays Lecture
  • New Media not just about unquestionable
    technological invention and progress
  • New Media about people, culture, societies,
    economics
  • Helps determine, to some extent, what people can
    and cant do
  • Plays a role in the distribution of social and
    personal power

5
What is New Media?
6
Where do we start?
7
Where do we start?Structure
  1. Definitions claims
  2. Historical perspectives narratives
  3. Analysis The essay

8
Definitions claims
  • What is this thing we have encountered?

9
Old definitions of new media (technical
descriptions of multimedia date back to 1960s,
but proliferate after digitisation in the 1990s)
  • The sum of its parts
  • "Any combination of text, graphic art, sound,
    animation, and video that is delivered by
    computer"
  • Multimedia is the seamless integration of data,
    text, images of all kinds and sound within a
    single, digital information environment"

Feldman, T (1997) An Introduction to Digital
Media, London Routledge
Vaughan, T, (1993), Multimedia Making It Work
(first edition) Berkeley Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
10
(No Transcript)
11
From multimedia to the new
  • New media came into prominence in the
    mid-1990s, usurping the place of multimedia it
    portrayed other media as dead or old it was not
    mass media, specifically television. It was
    fluid, individualized connectivity, a medium to
    distribute and control freedom an interactive
    medium
  • Wendy Chun (2006) New Media/Old Media London
    New York Routledge, p. 1

12
Ways of thinking about the term NEW
  • New impossible to describe moment it comes
    into being it isnt new anymore.
  • Yet new is used to describe an encounter
  • The new categorizes and prescribes the
    encounter.
  • The wonderful new
  • Something that should be treated differently from
    the old
  • New media, the New World, New Labour
  • Forget the past, this is different
  • Wendy Chun (2006) New Media/Old Media London
    New York Routledge, p. 3

13
(No Transcript)
14
Definitions Claimsonline and offline
15
Definitions Claimsonline and offline
  • The new media are a combination of offline and
    online media, such as computer networks and
    personal computers a combination of transmission
    links and artificial memories (filled with text,
    data, images and/or sounds) that can also be
    installed in separate devices.
  • Jan van Dijk (2006) The Network Society. London
    Sage, pp. 4-5

16
Being Online
  • Alex Galloway and Eugene Thacker (2007) The
    Exploit, Minneapolis University of Minnesota
    Press p. 126.
  • We have traditionally thought of ourselves as
    either online or offline
  • Dial-up culture
  • This is a changing circumstance
  • In work we are online (accountable) offline
    (unaccountable)
  • Broadband, wireless, mobile connectivity make us
    increasingly online in the bathroom,
    unconscious
  • Bots run all day and night text messages,
    online gaming 24 hours online culture

17
New Experiences
  • The body becomes a medium of perpetual
    locatability, a roving panoply of tissues,
    organs, cells orbited by personal network
    devices.
  • Alex Galloway and Eugene Thacker (2007) The
    Exploit, Minneapolis University of Minnesota
    Press p. 126.

18
Social Media
Facebook nearly as large as U.S. population
19
  • What happens to a population when it goes online?

20
A new form of collective intelligence and
sensation
  • Digital media technologies are revolutionising
    our sensory perceptions and cognitive experiences
    of being in the world
  • Everett and Caldwell (2003) , New Media, London
    New York Routledge, p. xi

21
Too Much Connectivity
Information Commodity Overload, Spam and Social
Contagion
22
Ubicomp
23
  • The Internet of Things
  • Makes the point that whereas once the user
    interacted with a system, it is now the user that
    becomes the subject of interaction

24
(No Transcript)
25
New Creative Tools(Create Mediascapes)
26
New Area of Creative Pursuit
27
A Work of Art
  • Computer programming, graphical human-computer
    interface, hypertext, computer multimedia,
    networking have actualized the ideas behind the
    projects by artists.
  • Painters, composers, sculptors have been usurped
    by the new media artist.
  • The web itself is a vast work of art.

Lev Manovich, 2000 The Language of New Media
28
New Spaces of Interaction
  • Websites
  • CD-ROM
  • DVD
  • Audio visual
  • Games
  • Installations
  • Interactive television
  • Interactive toys
  • Mobile phones (GPS)
  • PDAs
  • Simulations
  • Ubi-Comp

29
A Brief History of the New Media
30
When did the new begin
  • New media the result of the convergence between
  • modern media
  • the computer

31
  • Computing
  • Charles Babbage (London 1833)
  • The Analytical Engine
  • George Boole (Oxford 1854)
  • Boolean logic
  • Turing machine theory (Cambridge 1936)
  • Theory of computable numbers
  • Von Neumann (1940s in the US)
  • Processor/memory
  • The processing of mass information (input)
  • Votes
  • Records
  • Analogue media
  • Photographic camera (France 1839)
  • Cinema (France 1895)
  • Radio (1901 - UK)
  • Television (1920s)
  • Mass dissemination of information (output)
  • Texts
  • Images
  • Sounds

32

New Media Politics
The Cold War And Counter Culture
33
Modern Computing and its Cold War (1945-1989)
Origins
1930s Turing the theory of computable numbers
1940s - von Neumann the architecture of the
machine Shannon the bits and bytes of information
  • Bush - 1945
  • As We May Think - 1950-60s
  • Licklider - 1960
  • Human Computer Symbiosis
  • Baran 1961
  • Packet switching
  • Engelbart - 1962
  • Interactive tools
  • State funded/commercial development of
  • The Microchip
  • The Internet

34
Packet switching(a network able to withstand
nuclear attack?)
35
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36
D is for Defence (Defence) Advanced Research
Projects Agency
When in the late 1970s, ARPA (Advanced Research
Projects Agency) changed to DARPA, the D standing
for defence it meant finally that only projects
with a direct military value would be funded from
then on (Manuel DeLanda, 1991 p.169).
37
Counterculture
38
Counterculture
  • High tech military spending concentrated in the
    Bay area in San Francisco
  • Centre of counter culture movement in the 60s
  • Now the site of Silicon Valley

Wise, R 2000. Multimedia A Critical
Introduction, London Routledge.. pp 25-41
39
Counterculture
  • Stresses the democratic potential of the computer
    and
  • Computer as spiritual and intellectual evolution
  • Counter culture relation with technology
  • 60s-70s
  • electric guitar
  • 80s-90s
  • the computer

Wise, R 2000. Multimedia A Critical
Introduction. Routledge. London. Pp 25-41
40
counterculture
  • 60s-70s
  • LSD
  • 80-90s
  • Cyberspace
  • Tim Leary (turn on, tune in drop out) on W
    Gibson (Science fiction writer)
  • provider of the underlying myth of the next
    stage of human evolution
  • Link with psychedelic and computer counter
    culture
  • High Frontiers
  • Reality Hackers
  • Mondo 2000
  • Grateful Dead
  • Electronic Freedom Foundation

Wise, R 2000. Multimedia A Critical
Introduction. Routledge. London. Pp 25-41
41
1965
Ted Nelson
42
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43
Counterculture_a DIY media
  • Old media tools and content were tied together
  • The models worked on the audience
  • There is thus a mystical authority established
  • Audience
  • Broadcaster

Rushkoff, D (1994) Cyberia life in the trenches
of hyperspace, London Harper Collins.
http//www.rushkoff.com/cyberiabook.html
44
counter culture A DIY media
  • New media gave the tools to the audience
  • the remote
  • the joystick
  • the application
  • the network
  • Thus the mystical authority is broken by
    interactivity
  • We have control over the pixel
  • The DNA of new media...

45
Control over the Pixel?
What do you notice about Dave?
46
Control over the pixel
47
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48
Photoshop as a political tool?
49
(No Transcript)
50
New Media Paradigm
  • A new media that is not necessarily constrained
    by the dominant characteristics of mass media
    (Jankowski and
    Hanssen, Contours of Multimedia 1996)

51
The actor Alec Baldwin has boycotted the Emmy
awards after the event's broadcaster, Fox News,
refused to air a joke he made about the
phone-hacking scandal at News International.
52
The End of Authority?
  • Hypertext blurs the roles of author reader
    (Landow)
  • Internet threatens established power structures

53
(No Transcript)
54
New Media Goes Corporate
55
New Media Contagions
56
Blackberry, Twitter and Facebook questioned over
the English Summer Riots
57
(No Transcript)
58
(No Transcript)
59
New communication paradigm?
  • Old paradigm (mass communication) one to many -
    sender to receivers
  • New paradigm (networked media) many to many -
    sender to receivers???

60
mass media?
new media?
  • mass
  • passive
  • linear
  • user-inaccessible
  • interactive
  • (demassified)
  • non-linear
  • user-responsive
  • networked


61
New Media Field of Study
DIGITALISATION COVERGENCE INTERACTIVITY MODELS
OF INTERACTIVITY NON-LINEAR COMMUNICATION INFORMAT
ION ARCHITECTURE INFORMATION SPACE INFORMATION
AGE HYPERSPACE HYPERTEXT HYPERMEDIA HYPERFICTION N
AVIGATION DESIGN INTERFACE DESIGN
VIRTUALITY NETWORKS SIMULATIONS ONLINE COMMUNITY
CYBERCULTURE HACKING SPAM OPEN SOURCE TACTILE
MEDIA CODE/SCRIPTS MOBILE UBICOMP
USE THE USER EXPERIENCE SOCIAL MEDIA NEW MEDIA
POLITICS NETWORK ECONOMY SOCIAL
POWER CONTAGIONS AFFECT COGNITION
62
Analysis of New Media(unpicking/breaking down
problems)theories/concepts/models/methods
  • 1. Is the new media really new?
  • 2. Is the experience of a virtual community  any
    different from the experience of a real
    community?
  • 3. How does interactivity change the way in
    which we communicate with authority?

63
  • IS THE NEW MEDIA REALLY NEW?
  • Things to consider in your answer What does
    new mean in this context? What are the
    arguments put forward concerning a paradigm shift
    in media history? What examples help to either
    support or undermine these claims? Is new media
    over hyped or is there really something
    revolutionary about it?

64
  • IS THE EXPERIENCE OF A VIRTUAL COMMUNITY ANY
    DIFFERENT FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF A REAL
    COMMUNITY?
  • Things to consider in your answer Ideas
    concerning what community means. How can we
    define virtual? What are the differences
    between belonging to a community based on
    physical proximity and those that are linked
    virtually like Facebook? Use examples of both
    virtual and real and compare and contrast.

65
  • HOW DOES INTERACTIVITY CHANGE THE WAY IN WHICH WE
    COMMUNICATE WITH AUTHORITY?
  • Things to consider in your answer models of
    communication, models of interactivity, examples
    of interactive experiences in which individuals
    communicate with authorities, for example, local
    government, the police or any institution that
    has an element of control over an individuals
    life. Does interactivity change these relations,
    and if so how are they transformed? Give
    consideration to communication through social
    media, email and mobile.

66
Prep reading for next week
  • Reading and viewing the Global Village
  • Marshall McLuhan's Global Village By Benjamin
    Symes
  • Danah Boyd, (2007) Viewing American class
    divisions through Facebook and MySpace
  • Mark Wigley Network Fever in Wendy Chun (ed.)
    (2006) New Media/Old Media (London New York
    Routledge, pp. 375-397
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