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FACS Unit 4: Clothing and Textiles

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FACS Unit 4: Clothing and Textiles Mrs. Judy Moore 45 class periods 4.1 Match the terms related to clothing and textiles See handout 4.2 List the factors to consider ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FACS Unit 4: Clothing and Textiles


1
FACS Unit 4 Clothing and Textiles
  • Mrs. Judy Moore
  • 45 class periods

2
4.1 Match the terms related to clothing and
textiles
  • See handout

3
4.2 List the factors to consider in clothing
selections
  • Individual wants and needs
  • Resources
  • Lifestyle
  • Climate
  • Suitability of garment for the individual
  • Peer Influence
  • Fashion Trends
  • Advertising
  • Cultural Traditions

4
4.2.1 Determine factors that affect clothing
selections
  • Planning a wardrobe
  • Wardrobe--all the clothing you have to wear
  • Accessory--shoes, purses, ties, scarves, hats,
    gloves, jewelry
  • Building a wardrobe
  • Replace basic items that are worn-out
  • Add mix and match garments
  • Update with accessories
  • Build up a weak area of wardrobe

5
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Design
  • Express personal identity
  • Outward personality
  • bold colors
  • large/exciting prints
  • bold/many accessories
  • tend to wear fad items

6
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Classic personality
  • tailored clothing
  • small patterns
  • minimum accessories
  • Classic, understated dress often indicates that
    a person is secure and self-confident. Classic
    dress works well for a job interview.

7
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Natural Personality
  • neutral colors
  • soft lines
  • minimum accessories
  • Persons with athletic ability and/or interest
    in the outdoors often choose natural styles.

8
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Choose clothing appropriate for special occasions
  • work, school, social occasions, climate,
    community
  • keep in mind the nonverbal message your clothing
    is sending to others

9
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Quality
  • Are all stitches straight and even?
  • Are seam edges finished to prevent raveling?
  • Is the fabric cut with the grain?
  • Are plaids, stripes, and large designs matched at
    the seams?
  • Are points of strain reinforced?
  • Are interfacings used for proper shape?
  • Do buttonholes appear sturdy and free of raveling?

10
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Quality, continued
  • Are zippers inserted neatly, and do they work
    smoothly?
  • Are buttons and accessories suitable for garment?
  • Are the seam allowances and hems wide enough for
    future adjustments?
  • Are the hemming stitches inconspicuous on the
    right side of the garments?

11
Determine factors that affect clothing selections
  • Clothing Care
  • Proper care of clothes helps assure a neat
    personal appearance.
  • Take care not to damage or soil your clothing
  • Open fasteners so that clothing slips off easily
    without putting strain on any part of the
    garment.
  • Launder properly

12
LAUNDERY TECHNIQUES
  • Read labels
  • contain correct procedures for regular
    maintenance
  • required by Federal law
  • Sort clothes
  • Done to prevent damage to other clothing articles
  • Sort by color, fabric, surface texture and degree
    of soil
  • Prepare clothes for laundering
  • Remove excess soil
  • Check pockets
  • Fasten fasteners
  • mend any rips to prevent them from becoming
    larger
  • Pre-treat stains and heavy soil
  • treat promptly
  • rinse from the back side to push stain out
  • test products on underside of hem or facing to
    prevent discoloration

13
Laundry Techniques
  • Laundry Products
  • Soap--are made with fats
  • react with the mineral in hard water
  • form white cloudy curds which float through
    water
  • these curds cling to fabrics making clothing look
    dull and dingy
  • Detergents--petroleum products
  • may be low sudsing or high sudsing
  • easier to get brighter wash than by using soap
  • dont use on wool--digests protein in wool
  • Chlorine bleach--used to remove stains in whites
    and to disinfect
  • can cause damage if poured directly on fabric

14
Laundry Techniques
  • Oxygen bleach--removes stains and whitens clothes
    through use of ultraviolet dyes
  • safe for all washable fibers
  • should be used regularly to keep clothes white
    and bright
  • Water softeners--neutralize calcium and magnesium
    ions found in hard water
  • a ring around the bathtub or sink after water is
    drained is a sign of hard water
  • water softener keeps clothes from looking dull
    and gray
  • softener may be added before the soap or
    detergent is added
  • Fabric Softeners--makes fabrics soft and fluffy
  • helps control wrinkling
  • controls static electricity
  • can be a liquid used in rinse cycle or sheet
    added to dryer
  • read infants clothing before adding/can change
    flammability rating

15
Laundry Techniques
  • Using washing machine
  • distribute items evenly for good cleaning action
  • dont overfill
  • select a wash cycle suitable for the wash load
  • select temperatures that will accommodate all
    articles in wash
  • Using dryer
  • items can be dried on line
  • not recommended in smoggy areas
  • suitable method of most fabrics/may need to iron
  • Drying flat--reduces stretching and prevents
    shrinking
  • Tumble drying--gas or electric dryers
  • permanent press--moderate heat to reduce wrinkles
  • regular cycle--for items not heat sensitive
  • air fluff--used to freshen items

16
Laundry Techniques, continued.
  • Ironing--a process of moving an iron across
    fabric to smooth wrinkles.
  • Done after a garment has been laundered
  • Pressing--a process of lifting the iron up and
    down to apply pressure in one area of a garment
    at a time.
  • Pressing is done as you sew to mold a garment to
    fit the curves of your body
  • Done to touch up areas of garments after they
    have been laundered

17
Laundering Techniques, continued.
  • Pressing rules
  • use proper setting for fabric type to prevent
    scorching or melting
  • test on underside if not certain of proper
    temperature
  • iron along the lengthwise grain of fabric to keep
    from stretching garment out of shape
  • use a pressing cloth on wool, velvet or any other
    fabric that might develop a shine.

18
Laundering Techniques, continued
  • Dry Cleaning
  • used for delicate items
  • tell dry cleaner about stains and spots so they
    can pre-treat
  • can request that sizing be added to a limp
    garment
  • water repellent can be restored (only recommended
    method of cleaning of water repellent items)
  • specific technique required for cleaning leather
    (can be costly)
  • need to consider cost of cleaning method before
    buying clothing because cleaning method adds to
    final cost of garment

19
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in
clothing selection by using the elements and
principles of design
  • Elements of Design
  • Vertical lines--make the body seem taller
  • Horizontal lines--lead the eye across body,
    making it seem broader
  • Bulky textures--add apparent size
  • Smooth texture --takes away from apparent size
  • Shiny texture--gives the illusion of increased
    size
  • Subtle pattern--gives the illusion of a solid
    color
  • Bold Patterns--draws attention and adds size
  • Round or square shapes--increase size
  • Tubular shape--taller and slimmer
  • Cool colors--reduce size
  • Warm colors--increase size

20
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in
clothing selection by using the elements and
principles of design
  • Round or square shapes--increase size
  • Tubular shape--taller and slimmer
  • Cool colors--reduce size
  • Warm colors--increase size

21
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in
clothing selection by using the elements and
principles of design
  • Principles of Design
  • Proportion--If you make one part of body look
    long, wide, or large, then another section will
    appear shorter, narrower or smaller.
  • Emphasis--is the point of interest that your eyes
    see first. Use to draw attention to your best
    feature.
  • Harmony--the feeling that all parts of a design
    belong together
  • must have something in common such as style,
    shape, color or size.

22
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in
clothing selection by using the elements and
principles of design
  • Rhythm--the feeling of movement, leads the eye
    around the garment
  • repeating color or shape in accessories or design
    features
  • Balance--feeling of equal weight
  • Symmetrical balance--like a mirror reflection of
    the other side
  • Asymmetrical balance--two sides of the garment
    are different in size, form, texture, color
  • Scale--refers to the overall size of a design
    detail or its size compared to other details
  • small prints for small person
  • larger prints for larger person

23
4.4 List the factors to consider in evaluating a
garment according to basic construction techniques
  • Correct stitch length is used
  • Stress areas are reinforced
  • Buttonholes are well-made
  • Fasteners should be applied to at least three
    layers to keep them from pulling out
  • Stripes and plaids match
  • Seams should be smooth and flat
  • Garment should be free of imperfections
  • Hem is straight and even

24
4.5 State the guidelines for selection and use
of clothing accessories
  • Enhance personal features
  • Adds interest to garment
  • Reflects fashion trends
  • Too many accessories make a garment look busy

25
4.6 Describe care and storage techniques for
clothing and accessories
  • A. Storage for in-season clothing
  • NoteIn-season clothes are those worn at the
    present time.
  • Avoid overcrowding closets and drawers
  • Group similar items together in closets and
    drawers.
  • ExamplesSocks, underwear, shirts, pants,
    jackets.
  • Use drawer dividers, silverware trays, and shoe
    boxes to organize drawer space.
  • Double closet space by hanging one rod above
    another
  • Hang similar lengths together

26
Accessories, storage
ExampleGloves,scarves,caps Mount small hook or
tie rack on closet door or walls to hold small
items. ExampleTies, belts, scarves,
necklaces Store small items in storage bags
pockets. ExampleSocks, belts,(rolled up), shoe
polish supplies, care labels, extra buttons and
yarns that come attached to garments. Store
seldom-worn items in boxes under the bed or on
top shelf of closet.
27
4.7 Chart the natural and synthetic fibers with
sources of each
  • Natural Fibers
  • Cotton
  • Wool
  • Flax ( Linen)
  • Ramie
  • Silk

28
4.7 Chart the natural and synthetic fibers with
sources of each
  • Note there are many types of manufactured
    fibers, these are the most common types
  • Acetate
  • Acrylic
  • Modacrylic
  • Nylon
  • Olefin
  • Polyester
  • Rayon
  • Spandex
  • Triacetate

29
4.8 State the factors to consider when selecting
a pattern
  • Determine type of garment to be constructed.
  • Examples Casual, formal, warm weather
    garment, cool weather garment.
  • Study pattern catalogs to become familiar with
    sections and information provided.
  • Examples Measurement charts, pattern
    illustrations for different figure types, skill
    development sections.
  • Select correct pattern type and size.
  • Choose a pattern with design lines that enhance
    ones body shape.

30
  • Select a pattern suitable for personal sewing
    skills.
  • Example Select an easy-to-sew pattern for
    beginning projects.
  • Choose more complicated patterns as sewing skills
    become more advanced.
  • Note Trying to use patterns that are too
    difficult often causes one to feel discouraged
    and displeased with the finished garment.


31
4.9 Name the steps in determining pattern type
and size
  • A.Take body measurements.
  • B.Select figure type.
  • C.Select pattern size.

32
4.10 Designate the specific information found on
a pattern envelope
  • Envelope front
  • Figure Type (optional)
  • Pattern Size
  • Price of Pattern
  • Pattern number
  • Front view(s) of pattern
  • Name of pattern company

33
B. Envelope back Figure type Pattern
number Number of pattern pieces in envelope
Detailed description of finished garment.
Sketches of back views of pattern Body
measurements and size charts Amount of
fabric required for each pattern size.
Suggested fabrics for pattern
34
Specific instructions for different types of
fabric Examples Extra yardage needed for
napped fabrics not suitable for
diagonals,checks, strips,and plaids. Notions
needed for each view Examples
Buttons,zippers,snaps,hooks and
eyes,trims,thread,elastic,cording Name of
pattern company
35
4.11 State questions to consider when choosing
fabric for selected pattern
  • A. Is fabric suitable for selected pattern?
  • Note A list of suitable fabrics is found on each
    pattern envelope.
  • B. Is fabric appropriate for individual?
  • Examples Color enhances personal clothing
    lines, prints, and textures, are suitable for
    body size and shape.

36
  • C. Is fabric suitable for expectations of
    garment.
  • Examples Durable,washable fabrics for active
    sportswear knitted fabric for active wear
    firmly woven, medium weight fabrics for
    professional suits.
  • D. Is fabric washable?
  • E. How much will fabric cost?
  • F. Will fabric be easy to handle?

37
  • G. Are woven fabrics on-grain or easy to
    straighten?
  • Woven fabrics is on-grain when lengthwise and
    crosswise yarns fall at right angles to each
    other,
  • H. Is fabric durable?
  • Fabric should be strong enough for intended use.
  • I. Will fabric be comfortable?
  • NoteFabrics characteristics such as absorbency,
    breath ability, and stretch ability, affect
    wearing comfort.
  • J. Is Fabric free of flaws?
  • Note Check before yardage is cut.

38
4.12 Explain the procedure for calculating
yardage for a specific garment
  • A. Determine size of pattern to be used.
  • B. Choose view of pattern to be constructed.
  • C. Determine fabric width.
  • Note Fabric width is the distance across the
    fabric from one selvage to the other. Typical
    fabric widths are 36-inch, 45-inch, and 60-inch.
  • D. Refer to chart on back of pattern envelope to
    determine needed yardage.

39
4.12.1 Calculate yardage for a variety of sewing
projects
40
4.13 List the factors to consider when choosing
notions
  • A. Refer to back of pattern envelope for list of
    needed notions.
  • B. Purchase notions when fabric and pattern are
    purchased, when possible.
  • C. Check labels to be sure that care requirements
    for notions and fabrics are the same.
  • D.Check yardage chart on back of pattern envelope
    to determine needed yardage for notions to be
    purchased by the yard.

41
  • E. Choose notions suitable for weight of fabric.
  • F. Select notions suitable for fashion fabric and
    garment design.
  • Sewing Machine thread
  • Serger thread
  • Zippers
  • Trim
  • Interfacing
  • Buttons
  • Elastic
  • Snaps and hooks-and-eyes.

42
4.14 Identify basic sewing equipment and use of
each
  • A. Measuring
  • Tape measure- Used to take body measurements.
  • French curve-Used for drawing curves areas when
    making or altering patterns
  • Dressmakers ruler-Measures and marks short,
    straight lines
  • Seam-Gauge--Used for measuring short distances.

43
Skirt marker- Used to measure and mark hemlines
of garments with either chalk or pins. Hem
gauge-Used for measuring and pressing hems. B.
Pinning Pins-Used for laying out pattern pieces,
holding two layers of fabric together while
stitching, and marking hemlines. Pin
cushions-Hold pins and needles that are inserted
into the padded area. Magnetic pin holder-Holds
pins magnetically on an open surface.
44
C. Cutting Dressmaker shears-Used for cutting
large pieces of fabric. Pinking shears- Used to
finish seam edges on firmly woven fabric. Sewing
scissors-Used to trim an grade seams, clip
curves, and cut into corners. Appliqué
scissors-Used to grade seams and trim close to
edge stitching. Embroidery scissors-Used for
detail work such as cutting threads, ripping
stitches, and opening buttons. Seam ripper-Used
for ripping out stitching.
45
Thread clippers-Used to clip thread ends for
stitches. Rotary cutter-Cuts fabric, leather,
vinyl, film, and paper as it is rolled along the
cutting board. D. Marking Tailors Chalk-Use for
making fabric. Marking pen-Makes marks on fabrics
similar to ink marks. Tracing paper-Used with
tracing wheel to transfer pattern markings to
fabric. Tracing wheel-Used with tracing paper to
transfer pattern markings to fabric.
46
  • E. Stitching
  • Needles-Use for hand sewing.
  • Thimble-Used to push needle through fabric and
    protect finger while sewing by hand.
  • Needle threader-Used to facilitate the process of
    threading a needle.

47
  • G. Miscellaneous
  • Point turner-Used for pushing out points of
    collars, cuffs,etc.
  • Bodkin-Used for inserting elastic or drawing in
    casings.
  • Collar point and tube turner-Used for turning
    points quickly.
  • Loop turner-Used to turn bias tubing or cording
    for decorative trim

48
4.15 Identify basic pressing equipment and use
of each
  • Pressing Equipment
  • Iron-Use for pressing and ironing.
  • Ironing board-Used under an iron for ironing or
    pressing garments.
  • Press cloth- Placed between iron and fabric to
    protect fabric from shine and the iron from
    fusible resins.

49
  • Blocking board-Used as a surface for
    straightening fabric, cutting out garment pieces,
    and pressing.
  • Sleeve board-Used for pressing narrow areas which
    cannot fit over end of ironing board.
  • Point presser- Used for pressing corners and
    points.
  • Tailors ham-Used to press curved areas of a
    garment such as curved seams and darts.

50
Seam roll- Used for pressing seams open so seam
allowance does not show through to right side of
fabric. Press mitt-Used, as it fits over the
hand, for pressing hard-to-reach areas. Pounding
block-Used to flatten seam edges on bulky
fabrics. Needle board-Used as a surface for
pressing fabric with a pile.
51
4.16 Identify the basic parts of a sewing machine
and function of each
  • Bobbin-Small spool that holds the lower thread.
  • Bobbin case-Holds bobbin and regulates tightness
    or looseness or lower thread.
  • Bobbin winding spindle-Holds bobbin while it is
    being wound with thread.
  • Feed dog-Grips fabric and moves it toward the
    back of the machine during stitching.

52
  • Feed dog drop-Releases feed dog to allow fabric
    to stay in place.
  • Hand wheel-Turns by hand to control movement of
    the needle and the thread take up lever.
  • Needle-Carries top thread through fabric to
    connect with bobbin thread to make a stitch.
  • Needle clamp screw-Tightens to hold needle
    securely in place.
  • Presser foot-Holds fabric in place for sewing.

53
  • Presser foot lever-Raises and lowers the presser
    foot.
  • Pressure control dial-Adjusts amount of pressure
    on the presser foot.
  • Reverse stitch control-Allows machine to stitch
    backwards.
  • Spool spins-Holds spools of thread.
  • Stitch length control-Lengthens or shortens
    stitches.
  • Stitch pattern panel-Sets machine for various
    decorative stitches.

54
  • Stitch selector-Sets machine for various stitch
    patterns.
  • Stitch width selector-Adjusts width of zigzag
    stitch.
  • Take up lever-Causes upper thread to move up and
    down with needle to make stitches.
  • Tension control-Regulates tightness or looseness
    of upper thread.
  • Thread guides-Guide upper thread from spool pin
    to needle.
  • Throat plate-Covers area around feed dog.

55
4.16.1 Identify the basic operating guidelines
for operating the sewing machine
  • A. Changing the needle.
  • Refer to manufactures instruction manual for
    specific instructions on changing the needle.
  • Turn hand wheel until needle is in its highest
    position.
  • Loosen needle clamp screw.
  • Remove old needle.
  • Place flat side of new needle in the direction it
    should face according to directions.

56
  • B.Threading the machine
  • Refer to manufactures instruction manual for
    specific instructions on threading the needle.
  • Wind and insert bobbin.
  • Thread top of machine.
  • Pull up bobbin thread.
  • C. Machine stitching
  • Forward stitching
  • Backstitching

57
  • D. Adjusting tension
  • Adjust tension on top of thread.
  • Adjust tension on bobbin thread.
  • E. Adjusting stitch length
  • Locate stitch length control on machine.
  • Set stitch length at 10-15 stitches per inch for
    medium-weight fabrics.
  • Increase stitch length for heavy or
    highly-textured fabrics.
  • Decrease stitch length for lightweight, sheer
    fabrics.

58
  • F. Adjusting pressure on the presser foot.
  • Make adjustments to achieve light pressure when
    sewing on heavy fabrics or many layers of fabric.
  • Make adjustments to achieve firmer pressure when
    sewing on lightweight fabrics.
  • G. Lowering and raising the feed dog
  • Lower feed dog when fabric needs to be held in
    one place and not fed through the machine.
  • Raise feed dog when fabric is to be fed-through
    the machine.

59
4.17 Name the steps in constructing a simple
garment using a pattern
  • Select pattern
  • Select appropriate fabric and notions
  • Fit the pattern
  • Prepare the fabric
  • Preshrink and straighten
  • Position Pattern Pieces
  • circle the layout youre using
  • check the layout instructions
  • fold the fabric as shown in layout
  • position largest pieces first

60
  • Cut out the pattern
  • Mark the fabric
  • Baste the large pieces to fit garment
  • hand basting
  • pinning
  • Directional stitches
  • pattern tissues have arrows pointing to grain
    direction
  • stitch from the wide to the narrow part of
    garment
  • sew from the hem to the waist
  • Staystitches
  • to prevent stretching
  • Seams
  • right sides together
  • back stitch 3 stitches at the end of each seam
  • press seam flat before moving to next step

61
  • Interfacings
  • applied before the facing is attached to garment
  • used to prevent stretching
  • adds shape
  • 3 kinds of interfacing
  • sew-in
  • fusible
  • combination fusible and sew-in
  • temporary hold/washes out
  • Facings
  • grading--trimming the seam allowances in layers
  • notching--outward curves
  • clipping--inward curves

62
  • Sleeves
  • gathered
  • set-in
  • Casing--tunnel that holds elastic or drawstring
  • Hems--the bottom edge of garment
  • slip stitch
  • machine stitch
  • blindstitch
  • topstitch

63
4.17.1 Demonstrate transfer of pattern markings
to fabric
  • A.Center front line-Solid line indicating
    location of the center of the garment.
  • B.Circles- Symbols that indicate where two
    garment pieces are to be matched or joined
    together.
  • C.Buttonholes- Solid line that shows length and
    location to buttonhole.
  • D.Grain Line-Heavy solid line with arrows at both
    ends that shows grain of fabric.

64
  • E. Fold Line-Solid line showing where pattern is
    to be placed on the fold of the fabric.
  • F. Adjustment line-Double parallel lines
    indicating where pattern piece can be lengthened
    or shortened.
  • G. Hem line- Solid line showing the finished edge
    of garment and hem depth.
  • H. Dart-Solid line showing where the fold is to
    be and two broken lines with circles showing
    location of stitching lines and termination point.

65
4.17.2 Construct a simple garment using a pattern
  • BBQ apron

66
4.18 Describe specific hand sewing techniques
  • See hand out

67
4.18.1 Demonstrate hand sewing techniques
  • Video--Fear of Sewing
  • Hands on activities
  • threading a needle correctly
  • how to secure thread without a knot
  • buttons
  • snaps
  • basting
  • running stitch
  • backstitch

68
4.19 Describe clothing repair techniques
  • Stitch a ripped seam
  • re-stitch by machine or hand
  • use double stitching in areas of stress
  • Fix a snag
  • use a small crochet hook or snag fixer or a
    needle threader
  • grasp snag and pull back to underside
  • Mend a tear
  • straight tear can be mended with zigzag
  • Patch a hole
  • apply a patch by hand, machine or fusing

69
4.19.1 Demonstrate clothing repair techniques
70
4.20 Discuss the occupations related to clothing
and textiles
  • Account Executive Fashion Writer College Prof.
  • Creative Director Fashion Illustr.
  • Art Director Fashion Photographer
  • Photo Stylist Sewing Class Teacher
  • Fashion Promotion Specialist
  • Advertising Copywriter Runway Model
  • Fashion Reporter Fashion Editor
  • Vocational Teacher Textile Restorer
  • Costume Historian Photography Model

71
4.21 Identify the personality traits needed to
work in the area of clothing and textiles.
  • Reliable
  • Punctual
  • Get along with people
  • Good communication skills
  • Willing to learn
  • Flexible
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