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Module 00101-04 Basic Safety

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Title: Module 00101-04 Basic Safety


1
Module 00101-04 Basic Safety
  • NCCER Core

2
Transparency 1
Objectives
 Upon completion of this module, you will be able
to do the following 1. Explain the role that
safety plays in the construction crafts.   2.
Describe the meaning of job-site safety.   3.
Describe the characteristics of a competent
person and a qualified person.   4. Explain
the appropriate safety precautions to take around
common job-site hazards.   5. Demonstrate the
use and care of appropriate personal
protective equipment (PPE).   6. Properly don
and remove personal protective equipment
(safety goggles, hard hat, and personal fall
protection). 7. Follow the safety procedures
required for lifting heavy objects. 8. Describe
safe behavior on and around ladders and
scaffolds. 9. Explain the importance of Hazard
Communications (HazCom) and material safety
data sheets (MSDSs). 10. Describe fire
prevention and firefighting techniques. 11. Defi
ne safe work procedures to use around electrical
hazards.
3
Understand why safety is important
  • Results of Causes of injuries.
  • 88 of shop injuries are involved with equipment
    use.
  • 38 Caused by Misuse of Equipment.
  • 4 Caused by Equipment Malfunction.

4
Understand why safety is important
  • Leading injuries caused by equipment
  • Lacerations 71
  • Burns 6
  • Abrasions 5
  • Equipment that causes lacerations, burns
    abrasions
  • Table saw 15
  • All other saws 15
  • Band saw 13
  • Welding machine 4

5
Understand why safety is important
  • Impact of injuries
  • Pain Suffering
  • Loss of Limbs
  • Loss of School or Work Time
  • Cost
  • Effect on Grades
  • Effect on Athletics in the School

6
Causes of Accidents
  • Communication
  • Poor Work Habits
  • Drug Alcohol Abuse
  • Lack of Skill
  • Intentional Acts
  • Unsafe Acts

7
Causes of Accidents
  • Poor Work Habits
  • Procrastinating- Delayed Repair, Delayed or
    Improper Cleaning, etc.
  • Never put off tomorrow what you can do today.

8
Causes of Accidents
  • Poor Work Habits
  • Horseplay

9
Causes of Accidents
  • Drug Alcohol Abuse
  • Legal Illegal Decreased Awareness

10
Causes of Accidents
  • Lack of Skill
  • Lack of Proper Training
  • Failure to Read Operators Manual
  • Intentional Acts
  • People purposefully causing dangerous situations.

11
Causes of Accidents
  • Unsafe Acts
  • Not wearing Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)
  • Improper use of tools
  • Taking an improper working position

12
Causes of Accidents
  • Failure to Control Fire Sources
  • Fuel
  • Heat
  • Oxygen

13
Figure 1 - Communication tags/signs
  • Safety Colors
  • Red Danger
  • Orange Warning
  • Yellow Caution
  • Blue Information
  • Green Safety
  • Black Yellow Diagonal Stripes Radioactive
  • White Traffic areas
  • White Black Stripes Traffic Markings
  • Gray - Floors

14
Other signs
  • White background and a red panel with white or
    gray letters
  • DO NOT START
  • DO NOT OPERATE

15
Transparency 4
Figure 3 - How many violations can you identify?
  • Many states have laws that prevent workers from
    collecting insurance benefits if they are injured
    while under the influence of alcohol or illegal
    drugs.

16
Good House Keeping Guidelines
  • Keep aisles and exits clear
  • Clean up spills
  • Dispose of waste often and combustibles
  • Remove scrap with nails out of work area
  • Containers for flammable and harmful refuse must
    be covered
  • Store all tools and equipment when youre
    finished using them

17
OSHA Act of 1970
  • OSHA Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration Mission
  • is to save lives, prevent injuries, and protect
    the health of Americas workforce.
  • The General Duty Clause summarizes the intent of
    the OSHA ACT OF 1970

18
Differences between.
  • Incidents
  • Anything that could have caused an injury or
    damage if it hadnt been caught in time
  • Accidents
  • Anything that causes an injury or property damage
  • Injury
  • Anything that requires treatment, even minor
    first aid.

19
Making a Report
  • All injuries and incidents must be reported.

20
Welding Safety
  • Oil or grease in contact with compressed oxygen
    will cause an explosion
  • Flash burn are caused by exposing your eyes to
    ultraviolet light

21
  • A regulator is attached to a cylinder valve to
    reduce the high cylinder pressure to the required
    lower working pressure

22
A confined space has limited amount of
ventilation.
Figure 13 - Permit-required confined space
23
Carbon Monoxide
  • All internal combustion engines give off a deadly
    odorless, tasteless, invisible gas called Carbon
    Monoxide

24
Preventing Fires
  • Work in well ventilated areas
  • Do Not smoke or light matches when working near
    combustibles.
  • Keep oily and greasy rags away from heat sources.
  • Store combustibles in approved containers

25
Extinguishing Fires
  • Classes of Fires and Fire Extinguishers
  • Class A Ordinary Combustible (Wood, Paper)
  • Class B Grease, Liquid, Gasses
  • Class C Electrical
  • Class D Metal

26
Preventing Accidents
  • How can general safety procedures be applied to
    classroom / lab / farm situations?

27
Lab Safety
  • A. Always wear proper eye protection.
  • B. Observe all warning signs.
  • C. Use the proper tools for the job.
  • D. Be aware of your surroundings.
  • E. Know where your fire extinguishers are.
  • F. Wear gloves for your protection.
  • G. Use properly grounded tools.

28
Classroom Safety
  • A. Always wear proper eye protection.
  • B. Report any injuries to instructor.
  • C. No Running or Horseplay.
  • D. Report defective tools to instructor.
  • E. Observe all warning signs.

29
Sources
  • Textbooks
  • Herren, Ray V., Cooper, Elmer L., Agriculture
    Fundamentals Applications, Albany, NY, Delmar
    2002-2004
  • Core Curriculum Introductory Craftskills,
    Columbus, OH, Prentice Hall, 2004 NCCER Chapter 1

30
Session II Basic Safety
  • Construction Job Site Hazards
  • Section 3.0.0
  • Pages 1-12ltgt1-18

31
Welding
  • You do not have to be the welder to sustain an
    injury
  • Material handlers must use extreme caution when
    transporting and storing oxygen and acetylene
    cylinders.
  • Never look at welding
  • If you are in the proximity you must have
    personal protective equipment.
  • Keep the work area clean and free from
    potentially combustible materials.

32
When you are welding, use the proper personal
equipment
  • Snug-fitting cutting goggles that have filter
    lenses
  • And appropriate long-sleeve shirt with the collar
    buttoned
  • A cap with the bill worn backwards to prevent
    sparks from falling down the back of your shirt.
  • Earplugs to prevent flying sparks from entering
    your ears

33
  • All leather, gauntlet-type welders gloves
  • High-top leather boots to prevent slag from
    dropping inside your boots
  • Cuffless trousers that cover your ankles and boot
    tops
  • A respirator, if necessary

34
Precautions
  • Set up welding shields
  • Make sure everyone in the proximity wears flash
    goggles
  • Have a helper or monitor to watch the surrounding
    area in case of a fire or other emergency.
  • Rope off the area to keep other construction
    workers away from the area

35
Warning
  • Welded material is hot. Mark it with a sign and
    stay clear until cool enough to touch
  • Even a brief exposure from ultraviolet light can
    damage your eyes badly.
  • Never wear contact lenses while you are welding.
  • If you think you have a flash burn seek medical
    help

36
Welder/Operator must check three things
  • Hoses
  • Use proper hoses know the color codes and use
    only correct hoses for each situation
  • Check for leaks, burns, worn places or other
    defects
  • Remove talc from new hoses
  • Never tape over a hose burn

37
Regulators
  • Regulators are attached to the cylinder valve
  • They lower (regulate) cylinder pressure to
    required working pressure
  • Never jar or shake regulators
  • Check that the adjusting screw is released before
    the valve is turned on
  • Always open cylinder valves slowly
  • Stand to one side when opening valves

38
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39
The Work Area
  • Check the area for fire hazards
  • Remove or cover flammable material
  • Have and approved fire extinguisher available
  • Work only in a well ventilated area
  • Be aware of fumes such as Zinc from galvanized
    coatings and brass
  • Pick up cutting scraps

40
  • Sweep up any debris from around work area
  • Return cylinders and equipment to the proper
    places
  • Make sure all metals and slag are cooled before
    disposing of them

41
Trenches and Excavations3.2.0 Page 1-15
  • Cave-ins and falling objects are hazards in these
    areas.
  • Never put tools, materials or loose dirt or rocks
    within 2 feet of the edge of a trench
  • Walk around a trench never jump over or straddle
    it.
  • Never jump into a trench use a ladder to enter
    and exit.

42
  • Put barricades around all trenches (see
    illustration 10 pg. 1-16)
  • Follow OSHA regulations for shoring up a trench
    to prevent a cave-in.
  • Never work beyond the shoring
  • Do not start work until a competent person has
    inspected the work area.
  • Never work in excavations that have standing
    water unless you have taken proper precautions.

43
Proximity Work3.3.0 Pg. 1-16
  • Working near a hazard but not in direct contact
    is called proximity work.
  • Take precautions not to come into contact with
    the nearby hazard.
  • In hazard situations use a monitor to watch you
    while you work t o be sure you do not touch the
    hazard.
  • Check regulations and policies to tell you
    minimum safe working distance from energized
    electrical conductors.

44
Pressurized or High-Temperature Systems 3.3.1 Pg.
1-17
  • Tanks, piping systems, and pumps may be
    pressurized or contain high-temperature fluids.
  • Touching containers may cause severe burns.
  • Damage containers may leak and should be avoided
    until checked by a qualified inspector.
  • All work around pressurized or high-temperature
    systems is proximity work.
  • Barricades or a monitor or both should be used
    for safety.

45
Confined Spaces3.4.0 Pg. 1-17
  • A confined space is a space large enough for a
    person to work in but has limited entry and exit.
  • Examples tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins,
    hoppers, vaults and pits.
  • Permit required confined space a space that has
    been evaluated and found to have actual or
    potential hazards.

46
Motorized Vehicles3.5.0 Pg. 1-19
  • Motorized vehicles include trucks, forklifts,
    backhoes, cranes and trenchers.
  • Operators must be aware of helpers or anyone else
    working nearby.
  • If used indoors, proper ventilation must be
    provided.
  • Internal combustion engines give off carbon
    monoxide in the exhaust.
  • Carbon monoxide has no smell or taste

47
Safety Guidelines
  • Always wear a seat belt
  • Ensure each passenger has a proper seat
  • Obey all speed limits
  • Look and sound horn before backing up
  • Use a signaler if rear vision is blocked
  • Shut off engine when refueling
  • Turn off engine and set emergency break before
    leaving vehicle.
  • Never remain in a truck that is being loaded
  • Keep windshields, rearview mirrors, and lights
    clean and functional

48
Basic Safety Session III. Safety is no accident
49
4.0.0 Pg. 1-23 Working Safely with Job Hazards
  • As long as everyone follows safety procedures,
    there is little risk of being hurt on the job
    site.

50
5.0.0 Personal Protective Equipment
  • Probably saved more lives and serious injuries
    than any single component of safety
  • The best protective equipment is of no use unless
    you use it.
  • Inspect it regularly
  • Use it properly and correctly
  • Never alter or modify it in any way.

51
Examples of Personal Protective Equipment
includes
  • Hard Hats
  • Safety glasses, goggles, and face shields
  • Safety harness
  • Gloves
  • Safety toed shoes
  • Hearing protection
  • Respiratory protection

52
Lockout / tagout
53
4.1.0 Pg. 1-23 Lock Out Tag Out
  • Safeguards workers from hazardous energy while
    they work with machines and equipment.
  • Tags are placed on each switch, circuit breaker,
    valve, or other component to make sure that
    motors arent started, valves opened or closed
    that would endanger the worker.

54
Hazards that might require lock out/tag out
  • Acids
  • Air pressure
  • Chemicals
  • Electricity
  • Flammable liquids
  • High temperatures
  • Hydraulics
  • Machinery
  • Steam
  • Other forms of energy

55
Follow these rules for a safe lockout/tagout
system.
  • Never operate any equipment with a tag on it.
  • Use only tags that are approved for your job site

56
4.2.0 Barriers and Barricades
57
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58
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59
  • Any opening in a wall or floor is a safety
    hazard.
  • Two types of protection for these openings
  • 1. Guarded
  • 2. Covered
  • Covered is best when possible

60
  • Whenever the bottom edge of a wall opening is
    fewer than 3 feet above the floor
  • And would allow someone to fall 4 feet or more
    guards must be in place.

61
6.0.0 Safe Lifting
62
Safe lifting procedure
  • Step 1. Move close to the object you are going to
    lift.
  • Position your feet in a forward/backward stride,
    with one foot at the side of the object
  • Step 2. Bend your knees and lower your body,
    keeping your back straight and as nearly upright
    as possible.
  • Step 3. Place your hands under the object.

63
  • Wrap your arms around it, or grasp the handles.
  • To get your hands under an object that is flat on
    the floor, use both hands to lift one corner.
  • Slip one hand under that corner.
  • With one hand under, tilt the object to get the
    other hand under the opposite side.

64
  • Step 4. Draw the object close to your body.
  • Step 5. Lift by slowly straightening your legs
    and keeping the objects weight as much as
    possible over your legs.

65
Basic Safety Secession IV
66
7.0.0 Aerial Work Pg. 1-32
67
  • Construction work often requires workers to work
    in elevated locations
  • Serious injuries and deaths have been caused from
    falls
  • Elevated sites can be made safe with the proper
    equipment and attitudes

68
7.1.0 Ladders and Scaffolds
  • You can reduce risk of accidents by inspecting
    ladders and scaffolds before use.

69
Correct Ladder Placement
70
Warning
  • Always maintain a three point contact with the
    ladder at all times
  • Two hands, one foot.
  • Two feet, one hand.

71
Warning
  • Never overload ( exceed the maximum intended
    load) the ladder.
  • Maximum load is the sum of all weight including
  • Employees.
  • Equipment.
  • Tools.
  • Material.

72
General Knowledge Information
  • The highest safe standing level on an extension
    ladder is the forth rung from the top.
  • A type 1A ladder is rated for 300 lbs.
  • To step off a ladder onto a roof top or platform,
    the ladder should extend at least 3 feet above
    the point of contact.

73
8.0.0 Hazard Communication Standard
  • Established by OSHA under the rule known as
    Right to Know
  • MSDS sheets
  • Material Safety Dada Sheets
  • Must accompany every shipment of hazardous
    substance

74
MSDS Sheets Must Contain the Following
Information
  • The identity of the substance
  • Exposure limits
  • Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the
    substance
  • The kind of hazard the substance presents
  • Precautions for safe handling and use

75
  • The reactivity of the substance
  • Specific control measures
  • Emergency first-aid procedures
  • Manufacture contact for more information

76
Your Responsibility
  • Know where the MSDS sheets are on your job site
  • Report any hazards you spot on the job site to
    your supervisor
  • Know the physical and health hazards of any
    hazardous materials on your job site, and know
    the precautions needed to protect yourself from
    these hazards

77
  • Know what to do in case of an emergency
  • Know the location and content of your employers
    written hazard communication program

78
9.0.0 Fire Safety
  • Many materials used on construction sites are
    flammable
  • Many construction activities create sparks

79
9.1.0 How Fires Start
  • Three things are needed for a fire to start
  • Fuel (Anything that when combined with oxygen and
    heat that will burn)
  • Heat (Anything that will raise the fuels
    temperature to the flash point
  • Oxygen Always present in the air

80
9.2.0 Fire Prevention
  • Make sure the three elements needed for a fire
    are not all present at the same time
  • Work in well ventilated areas
  • Never smoke or light matches when working with
    flammable materials
  • Store combustible materials in approved
    containers only

81
  • Know where to find the fire extinguishers and
    what kind of extinguishers to use on each type of
    fire
  • Make sure all extinguishers are fully charged and
    in an operable condition

82
10.0.0 Electrical Safety
83
Electrical Facts
  • To create an electrical current, a path must be
    provided in a circular rout or circuit.
  • If this path is interrupted it will try to
    complete its circular path by following the path
    of the least resistance.
  • When current can not find a path it will attempt
    to go to the ground.

84
Basic Safety Guidelines
  • One of the most common safety grounding systems
    three-wire extension cords to protect you from
    accidental shock
  • Make sure panels, switches, outlets, and plugs
    are grounded
  • Never use bare electric wire
  • Never use metal ladders around any source of
    electricity

85
  • Never wear a metal hard hat
  • Always inspect electrical power tools before you
    use them
  • Never operate any piece of electrical equipment
    that has a danger tag or lockout device attached
  • Use only three-wire cords for portable power tools

86
  • Never use worn or frayed cables
  • Make sure all light bulbs have protective guards
    to prevent accidental contact
  • Do not hang temporary lights by their power cords
    unless they are specifically designed for this use

87
10.2.0 Working Near Energized Electrical Equipment
  • This is an example of proximity work
  • Keep a safe working distance
  • Check regulations and company policies for the
    minimum safe working distance
  • Know the safe working distance for each situation
  • Never allow any part of your body or the tools
    you are working to get closer than the safe
    working distance

88
10.3.0 If Someone Is Shocked
  • Immediately disconnect the circuit.
  • If you cannot disconnect, use a dry board, stick,
    rope, coat, blanket or any other nonconducting
    material to separate the victim from the circuit.
  • Do not use any object that might contain metal.

89
Safe Lifting
  • Back Injuries are the 2nd-most common workplace
    problem
  • A back injury costs an average of 11,645 in
    medical claims and lost time wages.
  • National Safety Council
  • Most back injuries can be prevented

90
Safe Lifting
Lever effect -- can magnify weight by factor of
up to 10
100 lbs.
10 lbs.
Maximum Safe Lifting Weight 51 lbs. National
Safety Council
91
Safe Lifting
Means using your head!
Use Your Head and Save Your Back!
  • Bend your knees - not your back!
  • Let your legs do the lifting
  • STAND close to the load

Get Help with heavy or awkward loads!
Use the right tools!
92
Safe Lifting
Carrying the load
  • Hold the load close so you can see over it.
  • Keep the load balanced.
  • Avoid twisting the body
  • Watch out for pinch points -- doorways, etc.
  • Face the way you will be moving.

93
Safe Lifting
For those Awkward Moments...
  • If you must lift or lower from a high place
  • Stand on a platform instead of a ladder
  • Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible
  • Push the load to see how heavy and stable it is.
  • Slide the load as close to yourself as possible
    before lifting up or down.
  • Get help when needed to avoid an injury.

94
Safe Lifting
From hard-to-get-at places...
  • Get as close to the load as possible
  • Keep back straight, stomach muscles tight
  • Push buttocks out behind you.
  • Bend your knees
  • Use leg, stomach, and buttock muscles to lift --
    not your back.
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