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Harvesting Wildlife

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Harvesting Wildlife Presentation to North Carolina State University University June 22, 2007 Greg Baxter School of Natural and Rural Systems Management – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Harvesting Wildlife


1
Harvesting Wildlife
  • Presentation to North Carolina State University
    University
  • June 22, 2007

Greg Baxter School of Natural and Rural Systems
Management The University of Queensland, Gatton
Campus
2
Wildlife includes living, wild harvested resources
  • Includes
  • animals and their products (e.g. skins, ivory)
  • plants and their products (e.g. seeds, wax,
    natural pigments)

3
Types of harvesting
  • Commercial
  • e.g. whales or kangaroos
  • profit driven
  • large numbers (roos gt2,000,000 p.a.)
  • harvest not always benefit to locals

4
Types of harvesting
  • Commercial
  • e.g. whales or kangaroos
  • profit driven
  • large numbers
  • Subsistence
  • to satisfy personal needs
  • can be large numbers, but local extent
  • now confined to Africa, S. America, parts of S.E.
    Asia

5
Types of harvesting
  • Commercial
  • e.g. whales or kangaroos
  • profit driven
  • large numbers
  • no benefit to locals
  • Subsistence
  • to satisfy personal needs
  • can be large numbers, but local extent
  • now confined to Africa, S. America, parts of S.E.
    Asia
  • Bush meat
  • to meet demands of poor urban immigrants
  • driven by taste and cost
  • huge, growing demand
  • transport of products

6
Types of harvesting
  • Commercial
  • Subsistence
  • Bush meat
  • to meet demands of poor urban immigrants
  • driven by taste and cost
  • huge, growing demand
  • transport of products
  • Cultural (including medicines)
  • e.g. dugongs by Aust. Aborigines, beluga whales
    by Inuit
  • small scale
  • local
  • can affect endangered/vulnerable species

7
Types of harvesting
  • Commercial
  • Subsistence
  • Bush meat
  • Cultural
  • Collector (including trophy hunting)
  • people want to own exotic animals/products
  • want hunting experience
  • national and international
  • huge volumes
  • consumer divorced from consequences of collecting

8
Each type of harvesting
  • has different driver
  • different aerial extent
  • different mode of operation

Therefore different modes of control/enforcement
are applicable
9
Different harvests require different controls
Areal Extent International Trade Drivers Economic Momentum Endangered
Commercial Large Yes Econ. Imperative Huge Taken, maybe not targeted
Subsistence
Bush Meat
Cultural
Collector
10
Different harvests require different controls
Areal Extent International Trade Drivers Economic Momentum Endangered
Commercial Large Yes Econ. Imperative Huge Taken, maybe not targeted
Subsistence Local widespr-ead No Subsist-ence Nil Taken
Bush Meat
Cultural
Collector
11
Different harvests require different controls
Areal Extent International Trade Drivers Economic Momentum Endangered
Commercial Large Yes Econ. Imperative Huge Taken, maybe not targeted
Subsistence Local widespread No Subsist-ence Nil Taken
Bush Meat V. widespread Yes Increasing Tradition, taste econom. Large growing Taken
Cultural
Collector
12
Different harvests require different controls
Areal Extent International Trade Drivers Economic Momentum Endangered
Commercial Large Yes Econ. Imperative Huge Taken, maybe not targeted
Subsistence Local but widespread No Subsist-ence Nil Taken
Bush Meat V. widespread Yes Increasing Tradition, taste econom. Large growing Taken
Cultural Local but widespread Yes Tradition econ. Small, except medicine Often targeted
Collector
13
Different harvests require different controls
Areal Extent International Trade Drivers Economic Momentum Endangered
Commercial Large Yes Econ. Imperative Huge Taken, maybe not targeted
Subsistence Local but widespread No Subsist-ence Nil Taken
Bush Meat V. widespread Yes Increasing Tradition, taste econom. Large growing Taken
Cultural Local but widespread Yes Tradition econ. Small, except medicine Often targeted
Collector Global Yes Desire/ fashion Huge Often targeted
14
Mode of harvest varies
Mode
Commercial Firearms, live lethal traps, mustering, lassoing
Subsistence Firearms, lethal traps, snares
Bush Meat Firearms, lethal traps, snares
Cultural Firearms, lethal traps, snares
Collector Live traps (transport), hand
15
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18
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international

19
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international
  • Policing and enforcement insufficient

20
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international
  • Policing and enforcement insufficient
  • Must address poverty

21
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international
  • Policing and enforcement insufficient
  • Must address poverty
  • Must address cultural issues

22
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international
  • Policing and enforcement insufficient
  • Must address poverty
  • Must address cultural issues
  • Understand there powerful vested interests

23
Different harvesting requires different controls
  • Must be international
  • Policing and enforcement insufficient
  • Must address poverty
  • Must address cultural issues
  • Understand there powerful vested interests
  • Recognise economic and conservation outcomes can
    be achieved

24
Controlling Harvest
  • Quotas
  • Regulating effort
  • Spatial control

25
Quotas
  • Preselected proportion of population(s) taken

Requires
  • Accurate precise population estimate EACH
    harvest
  • Regular population monitoring (absolute
    abundance)
  • Good control over non-quota (illegal) take

26
Obtaining an estimate of absolute abundance
  • Time consuming
  • Costly
  • Complex

An example from the kangaroo industry (Acknowledge
ment to Gordon Grigg)
27
Regulating Effort
  • Limit how and/or when harvest can occur

e.g. nest mesh size, rifle calibre, closed
season(s)
Requires
Does Not Require
  • Compliance with regulations
  • Appropriate effort is specified
  • Monitoring of population trend
  • Estimate of absolute abundance

Control is self-tracking with changes in
population size
28
Spatial Control





  • Limit WHERE animals can be taken, not how many,
    or how

places where animals can be harvested
29
Spatial Control





  • Harvest between 0 100 in black
    squares

Animals disperse into hunting areas
Then, monitor trend in non-hunted areas
30
Monitoring in Spatial Control






If population in non-hunted areas is about
constant, maintain situation
31
Monitoring in Spatial Control






If population in non-hunted areas is decreasing,
restrict hunting areas
32
Monitoring in Spatial Control






If population in non-hunted areas is increasing,
increase hunting areas
33
Spatial Control
Requires
Estimate of relative abundance easy, cheap,
repeatable
Used
Fisheries, marine parks e.g. GBRMPA
34
How is harvest set for quotas?
Assumes sustainable harvest
Must understand the link between harvest size and
population size and know what population size is
35
How is harvest set
Sustained Yield (SY)
Population Size
36
How is harvest set
Sustained Yield (SY)
Population Size
37
Harvesting at MSY is dangerous
Even a small error in population size estimate
will lead to over-harvest Population usually
discounted by 15 and population harvested there
Sustained Yield (SY)
A
A 15
Population Size
38
Can harvest have a conservation benefit?
  • If the following conditions are met
  • Benefit accrues to the land owner/occupier
  • Exploitation does not endanger the species (or
    look alikes)
  • Populations are monitored and managed
  • Exploitation enhances habitat

39
Questions ?
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