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POETRY Exploring the Genre In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the ear as the meaning is to the mind. -- Marianne Moore Poetry: Exploring the Genre ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Exploring the Genre

In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the
ear as the meaning is to the mind. -- Marianne
Poetry Exploring the Genre
  • Whether telling a story, capturing a single
    moment, or describing nature in a whole new way,
    poetry is the most musical of all literary forms.

Poetry Exploring the Genre
  • Definition
  • Main Entry poetry
  • Pronunciation \'po-?-tre, -i-tre also
  • Function noun
  • Date 14th century
  • 1 a metrical writing verse b the
    productions of a poet poems
  • 2 writing that formulates a concentrated
    imaginative awareness of experience in language
    chosen and arranged to create a specific
    emotional response through meaning, sound, and
  • 3 a something likened to poetry especially in
    beauty of expression b poetic quality or aspect
    ltthe poetry of dance
  • Source Merriam-Webster

  • The Basics

Poetry The Basics
  • Knowing a little something about the way
    different types of poems are organized and about
    common elements of poetry can help you know what
    to look at when you are reading. There is no
    simple formula for what a poem should or should
    not look like. In some poems, the sound and rhyme
    are important in others, the imagery or
    figurative language is striking. The following
    outlines some of the basics you will need to know
    when trying to read poetry. As we explore
    different types of poems, we will dig deeper into
    each of these elements.

Poetry Basics Lines and Stanzas
  • A line in poetry is like a sentence in prose.
  • A stanza in poetry is like a paragraph in prose.
    They are a group of lines set off by blank lines.
    Stanzas are important in poetry because they give
    a poem shape and help create meaning.

Poetry Basics Free Verse
  • This type of poetry is written without rhyme. It
    typically is used to mimic ordinary conversation.

No Rhyme No Rhythm No Meter This is free verse.
Poetry Basics Idioms
  • An idiom is a common phrase made up of words that
    cannot be understood by their literal or ordinary
    meaning. Look at the following examples
  • Its raining cats and dogs.
  • Do not pass the buck.

Poetry Basics Imagery
  • But the slowly wrought words of love
  • And the thunderous words of heartbreak
  • These we hoard.
  • The poet wants you to imagine hearing the soft,
    deliberate words of love exchanged between two
    people and then the BOOMING thunder of heartbreak.
  • Imagery is language that appeals to the five
    senses touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight.
    It helps to create a picture in your mind.

Poetry Basics Allusion
  • An allusion is a reference to something with
    which the reader is likely to be familiar, such
    as a person, place, or thing from history or
  • She hath Dians wit(from Romeo and Juliet).
  • This is an allusion to Roman mythology and the
    goddess Diana.
  • The three most common types of allusion refer to
    mythology, the Bible, and Shakespeares writings.

Poetry Basics Figurative Language
  • Figurative language is made up of all the tools
    that a poet uses to create a special effect or
    feeling. It includes metaphor, simile,
    alliteration, personification, and onomatopoeia.

Poetry Basics Repetition
  • This means to repeat something. It is the use
    of any element (sound, word, phrase, or sentence)
    more than once.

Poetry Basics Rhyme
  • End Rhyme
  • End rhyme is the repetition of similar sounds at
    the ends of lines of poetry.
  • Internal Rhyme
  • Internal rhyme occurs within a line when two
    words have similar sounds.

Poetry Basics Rhyme Scheme
  • A repeated regular pattern of rhymes usually
    found at the ends of the lines of poems.

Poetry Basics Symbolism
A word or image that signifies something other
than what is literally represented.
Examples Dark or black images in poems are
often used to symbolize death. Light or white
images are often used to symbolize life.
Poetry Basics Tone and Voice
  • Tone is the attitude the writer takes toward the
    audience, the subject, or a character.
  • The voice, or speaker, is the character or
    perspective that is taken on by a writer or poet.
    Often, the voice is not identified by name.

Poetry Basics Denotation and Connotation
  • A words connotation is the definition found in
    the dictionary.
  • The connotation of a word is the emotional
    response or suggestions that a word triggers
    within you.
  • Often, words can have positive or negative
    feelings associated with them.

Poetry Strategies for Reading
  • Reading poetry is like solving a mystery. The
    poet provides you with clues in the form of words
    and phrases. Studying the clues carefully helps
    you put pieces together to form a complete
    picture. Use these strategies to help you in your
    poetic detective work (Prentice Hall 705).

Poetry Strategies for Reading
  • 1. Interpret Figurative Language
  • Figurative language is language not meant to be
    taken literally.
  • Helps to create vivid, clear mental pictures.
  • Think What is the writer trying to SHOW you
  • 2. Read lines according to punctuation
  • Keep reading when a line has no punctuation at
    the end.
  • Pause at commas, dashes, and semicolons.
  • Stop at end marks, like periods, question marks,
    or exclamation points.

Poetry Strategies for Reading
  • 3. Paraphrase
  • Look up any words that you do not know and
    replace them with familiar synonyms.
  • Use the language you use in everyday speech in
    place of formal language.
  • REREAD the passage to see if your new
    interpretation makes sense when read with
    surrounding text.
  • Use your senses
  • Poets LOVE to use sensory details!!

A Reading Plan for Poetry
  • On a first reading, read for enjoyment.
  • -Get a feeling for the poems words.
  • 2. On a second reading, read for meaning.
  • Look for clues that help you understand what the
    poem is saying.

A Reading Plan for Poetry
  • 3. On the third reading, study the structure and
    the language of the poem.
  • What kind of poem is it? Does it have a rhyme
    scheme? How many stanzas are in it?
  • Examine the images, organizations, and sounds.
    Think about how they add to the poems message.
  • 4. On a fourth reading, read for feeling.
  • What are the mood and tone of the poem? How does
    the poem make you feel as you read it?

Poetry Narrative and Lyric
  • The Cremation of Sam McGee
  • Washed in Silver
  • Winter

Poetry Narrative Poetry
  • Narrative Poetry
  • Poetry that tells a story. Like a story,
    narrative poetry has a plot, characters, and a
  • Unlike a story, a narrative poem makes use of
    sound devices, such as rhythm and repetition.

Poetry Lyric Poetry
  • Lyric Poetry
  • Verse that expresses a poets thoughts and
    feelings about a single image or idea.
  • Lyric poetry is written in vivid, musical language

Poetry Common Figures of Speech
  • A comparison between two unlike things using like
    or as
  • Example The old man walked as slowly as a turtle
    creeping uphill.
  • Example She sang like an angel.

Poetry Common Figures of Speech
  • A comparison between two unlike things without
    using like or as
  • Example The horses coat was a sheet of velvet.
  • Example Life is a broken-winged bird that
    cannot fly.

Poetry Common Figures of Speech
  • Exaggeration meant to produce a particular
  • Example I tried a thousand times.
  • Example The guard was twelve feet tall with
    muscles of steel.

Poetry Common Figures of Speech
  • Giving human characteristics to a nonhuman
  • Example The tree waved happily at us as we
    walked along the road.
  • Example The washing machine danced across the

The Cremation of Sam McGee
  • The only society I like is that which is rough
    and toughand the tougher the better. Thats
    where you get down to bedrock and meet human
  • Robert Service
  • (1874-1958)

The Cremation of Sam McGee
  • Robert Service was born in England and raised in
  • He was sent to the Yukon Territory by the bank he
    worked for.
  • There, he came face to face with the rough world
    of fur trappers and gold prospectors.
  • Soon, he began to write poems about these lively
    rough and tumble characters.
  • Eventually, Service left the bank for a full
    time life of writing. He traveled to the Yukon
    and other Artic areas for eight years recording
    his adventures.

The Cremation of Sam McGee
  • Historical Background
  • In 1896, George Carmack, Tagish Charlie, and
    Skookum Jim discovered gold on the Bonanza Creek.
    This discovery marked to beginning of the
    Klondike Gold Rush.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYFflJCrZtGE -

The Cremation of Sam McGee
  • This is a narrative poem.
  • Like a narrative written in prose, The Cremation
    of Sam McGee will follow the events of the plot
  • This poem will use exaggeration, humor, and
    fantasy to tell the tale of two gold prospectors
    and the promises made, promises kept.

The Cremation of Sam McGee Review and Assess
  • 2a. What problem does Sam McGee have with his
  • Sam McGee hates the cold temperatures of the
  • 2b. What do Sams fears reveal about his
  • Sam has little ability to withstand the
    discomfort of the Yukon elements.
  • 2c. Why doesnt Sam go home?
  • He wants to find gold in the Yukon territory.

The Cremation of Sam McGee Review and Assess
  • 3a. Who is the speaker, and what does he promise
    to Sam?
  • Cap is the speaker. He promises to Sam he will
    cremate him if he dies.
  • 3b. Why is the speaker so determined to keep his
  • Cap believes that promises are like debts

The Cremation of Sam McGee Review and Assess
  • 4a. How does the speaker behave towards the
    corpse before he can cremate it?
  • Cap complains about lugging it around, yet he
    sings to Sams body during his journey.
  • 4b. What does this behavior reveal about the
    speakers conflicting emotions about fulfilling
    his promise?
  • Cap feel obligated to Sam and misses his friend,
    yet he resents the extra load.

The Cremation of Sam McGee Review and Assess
  • 5a. What does the speaker find when he opens the
    furnace door?
  • Cap finds Sam alive, well and warm.
  • 5b. What reaction does the poet, Robert Service,
    expect you to have to this unexpected occurrence?
  • Service probably expects readers to be surprised
    and amused by the ending.

Washed in Silver
  • James Stephens grew up in a poor neighborhood in
    Dublin, Ireland.
  • He was a veracious reader and read everything he
    got his hands on.
  • His writing and poetry often includes his love of
    Irelands powerful legends and fairy tales.
  • Washed in Silver captures the magical quality
    of Irish legends.

  • Nikki Giovanni (b. 1943) is a world-renowned
    poet, writer, commentator, activist, and
  • Over the past thirty years, her outspokenness, in
    her writing and in lectures, has brought the eyes
    of the world upon her.
  • One of the most widely-read American poets, she
    prides herself on being "a Black American, a
    daughter, a mother, a professor of English."
  • Giovanni remains as determined and committed as
    ever to the fight for civil rights and equality.
  • The author of some 30 books for both adults and
    children, Nikki Giovanni is a University
    Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech in
    Blacksburg, Virginia.

Comparing Literary Works
Comparing Literary Works
The Cremation of Sam McGee
Simile cold like a driven nail
Explanation The cold feels like a stab
Metaphor a promise made is a debt unpaid
Explanation Comparing a promise made to another to paying off money owed
Hyperbole chilled clean through to the bone
Explanation It is extremely cold
Personification the heavens scowled the stars came out and they danced about
Explanation Scowling is a human attribute Dancing is a human attribute.

Literary Analysis Washed in Silver
Washed in Silver
Simile X
Explanation X
Metaphor washed in silver
Explanation Comparing moonlight to silver
Hyperbole blazing in silver
Explanation The sea is reflecting the moon
Personification the moon drives royally
Explanation Driving is a human skill
Literary Analysis
Plot Characters Setting
Sam and Cap are looking for gold. Cap promises to cremate Sam if he dies. Sam dies and Cap cremates him. Cap then finds Sam alive and warm in the fire though he is really dead. Sam McGee and Cap The Yukon Territory Dawson Trail
Literary Analysis Questions
  • 2. The central conflict is Caps promise to
    cremate Sam even when he is tired from carrying
    the body and doesnt have any fuel to start a
    fire with.
  • 3. The poem is different from a story in that it
    is structured like a poem and it rhymes.

Literary Analysis Questions
  • 4. Winter and Washed in Silver both focus on
    nature. The feelings that are expressed in each
    poem are also similar in that they both
    communicate a feeling of awe about their
  • 5. Answers will vary--be sure you provide an

Literary Analysis Form in Poetry
  • Form refers to the physical structure of the
    poem. It also refers to the rules the poet
    follows to achieve a particular structure.
  • There are many different forms of poetry
    including stanza, concrete poem, and haiku.

Literary Analysis Form in Poetry
  • Stanza
  • A group of lines that might be thought of as
    corresponding to a paragraph in prose. Most
    traditional English poems are divided into

Literary Analysis Form in Poetry
  • Concrete Poem
  • A poem in which the shape of the words suggests
    its subject. The poet arranges the letters and
    lines to create a visual image.

Literary Analysis Form in Poetry
  • Haiku
  • A traditional form of Japanese poetry. A haiku
    always has three lines and seventeen syllables.
    There are 5 syllables in the first and third
    lines and 7 syllables in the second.

Poetry Concrete and Haiku
  • Seal
  • The Pasture
  • Three Haiku

  • Born in Louisiana, William Jay Smith (b. 1918)
    has had a very busy life--teaching college
    students, writing poetry and essays, translating
    Russian and French, and even serving in the
    Vermont State Legislature.
  • Many of Smiths poems are made for young people
    and can be described as being pure, simple, and

Concrete Poetry
  • A poem in which the shape of the words suggests
    its subject.
  • The poet arranges the letters and lines to create
    a visual image.
  • In Seal, the poet uses a seals shape to
    describe the animal as he dives and swims through

The Pasture
  • Born in 1874, Frost spent most of his life in New
  • At different times in his life, he worked as a
    framer and as a part time teacher.
  • Frost had a long and distinguished career as a
    poet, winning the Pulitzer Prize four time--more
    than any other poet.
  • In The Pasture, the speaker describes spring
    cleaning on a farm. Instead of avoiding his
    duties, the speaker looks forward to the signs of
    the new season.

Three Haiku
  • Matsuo Basho is known as the first great poet in
    the history of haiku.
  • Basho's haikus are dramatic, and they exaggerate
    humor or depression, ecstasy or confusion. These
    dramatic expressions have a paradoxical nature.
    The humor and the despair which he expressed are
    not implements to believe in the possibility of
    the human being and to glorify it.
  • If anything, the literature of Basho has a
    character that the more he described men's deeds,
    the more human existence's smallness stood out in
    relief, and it makes us conscious of the
    greatness of nature's power.

  • A traditional form of Japanese poetry. A haiku
    always has three lines and seventeen syllables.
    There are 5 syllables in the first and third
    lines and 7 syllables in the second.
  • The three haiku by Matsuo Basho express different
    images and feelings a view of a mountain path,
    mist on a mountain, the smell of flower blossoms.
    In addition to describing these images, the
    haiku evoke surprise and wonder.

Comparing Literary Works Seal, The Pasture,
Three Haiku
Comparing Literary Works Seal, The Pasture,
Three Haiku
  • Who do you think is being addressed as you in
    Seal and The Pasture? Name at least two
    details from each poem to support your answer.
  • Seal-the readeryou
  • you and your in lines 18 and 27 could be
    addressed to anyone
  • The Pasture-someone the speaker lives with
  • going out and shant be gone long
  • 2. What do you think Bashos favorite season was?
    Support your answer.
  • Spring because he talks about flowers and asks if
    spring has come

Poetry Rhythm and Rhyme
  • Annabel Lee
  • Martin Luther King

Rhythm in Poetry
  • Rhythm is a poems pattern of stressed () and
    unstressed (u) syllables.
  • It is the accents of the syllables in the words
    fall at regular intervals like the beat of music.
  • u u
  • He came/upon/an age
  • de dumm de dumm de dumm

Meter in Poetry
  • The meter of a poem is its rhythmical pattern.
  • The BEAT of poetry FEET is called its meter.
  • Feet in poetry is single units of stressed ()
    and unstressed (u) syllables
  • A poems meter is made up of what kind of feet
    are used and how many feet are in each line.
  • u u u
  • Beset/ by grief,/ by rage
  • This line of poetry has three feet.
  • Each foot has two syllables an unstressed
    followed by a stressed

Rhyme in Poetry
  • Rhyme is the repetition of a sound at the ends of
    nearby words
  • Example age/rage dame/same
  • Types of rhyme
  • SINGLE RHYME- love/dove
  • DOUBLE RHYME- napping/tapping
  • TRIPLE RHYME- mournfully/scornfully

Annabel Lee Martin Luther King
  • Both of these poems have a regular rhythm, but
    the number of feet in the lines creates a
    different effect in each poem.
  • Both poems also use pairs of rhyming words at the
    ends of lines but the arrangement is different.
  • Questions to Consider
  • How do the rhythm and rhyme schemes differ?
  • How do the rhythm and rhyme give both poems a
    musical quality?
  • Which poems sound is more appealing to you?

Annabel Lee
  • In Annabel Lee, Poe explores the unknown realm
    of death. The narrator mourns his lost love,
    Annabel Lee, who was taken from him at a young
    age, but whom he will never forget.

Martin Luther King
  • Raymond Richard Pattersons (1929-2001) poety
    shows his passion for sharing his knowledge of
    African American history.
  • In just ten lines, Martin Luther King captures
    the essence of Kings life and his contribution
    to America.

The Civil Rights Movement
  • The Civil Rights Movement sought to abolish the
    barriers caused by racism in America. The
    movement lasted from 1945 through the late 1960s.
    At that time, African-Americans were denied many
    rights and were segregated in public places
    including schools, restaurants, and public
    facilities. This movement focused on making
    change through nonviolent protests including
    marches and sit ins.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vIxEkj40bRII

Annabel Lee and MLK Comparing Literary Works
  • 1. Why can both poems be described as having a
    regular rhyme scheme?
  • Both poems have a rhyming pattern that is
    repeated throughout the poem.

Annabel Lee and MLK Comparing Literary Works
  • 2. How do the rhyme schemes differ? How do the
    rhythms of the poems differ?
  • Every other line rhymes in Annabel Lee. In
    Martin Luther King, each stanza consists of two
    lines that rhyme. Martin Luther King has the
    same pattern of stress in each line Annabel
    Lee does not.

Annabel Lee and MLK Comparing Literary Works
  • 3. Both Annabel Lee and MLK pay tribute to a
    person. In what ways are the poems different?
  • In Annabel Lee, the narrator mourns his lost
    love, who was taken from him at a young age, but
    whom he will never forget. Martin Luther King
    captures the essence of Kings life and his
    contribution to America.

Annabel Lee and MLK Literary Analysis
  • 1. Describe the love between the speaker and
    Annabel Lee. What words/images support your
  • The speaker and Annabel Lee were soul mates. They
    shared a love so strong that it seemed to last
    beyond this world. The speaker says that nothing
    can separate him from her.

Annabel Lee and MLK Literary Analysis
  • 2. How does the last stanza make the sense of
    sadness in the poem seem immediate and
  • The poet uses the present tense rather than the
    past. Also, he describes his grief as a feeling
    that goes on with no remedy in sight.

Annabel Lee and MLK Literary Analysis
  • 3. What two personal qualities did King bring to
    this age?
  • He brought love and passion.

Annabel Lee and MLK Literary Analysis
  • 4. What kinds of action resulted from these
    personal qualities?
  • Kings personal qualities resulted in people
    finding their worth and their freedom.

Poetry Sound Devices
  • Full Fathom Five
  • Onomatopoeia
  • Maestro

Sound Devices Onomatopoeia
  • Onomatopoeia
  • The use of words whose sounds suggest their
  • Example sputter, drip, whisper, hiss, hoot,
    meow, murmur
  • Crack an Egg
  • Crack an egg.
  • Stir the butter.
  • Break the yolk.
  • Make it flutter.
  • Stoke the heat.
  • Hear it sizzle.
  • Shake the salt,
  • just a drizzle.
  • Flip it over,
  • just like that.
  • Press it down.
  • Squeeze it flat.
  • Pop the toast.
  • Spread jam thin.
  • Say the word.
  • Breakfast's in .

Sound Devices Alliteration
  • Alliteration
  • Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of
  • Example
  • Full fathom five thy father lies
  • In a summer season, where soft was sun
  • Often the sounds and meanings of the words
    combine to create a mood.
  • Here, repetition of b and t stresses a feeling of
  • Hear the loud alarum bells--  
  • Brazen bells!
  • What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency
  • -Edgar Allen Poe, "The Bells"

Sound Devices Assonance
  • This selection uses the repetition of the o sound
    and then the a sound.
  • Slow things are beautiful
  • The closing of the day,
  • The pause of the wave
  • That curves downward to spray.
  • --Elizabeth Coatsworth, "Swift Things are
  • Assonance
  • The repetition of the same vowel sound in
    different words
  • Example would blend again and again
  • O harp and alter, of the fury fused

Sound Devices Consonance
  • Consonance
  • The repetition of similar final consonant sounds
    at the ends of words or accented syllables.
  • Examples
  • splatters, scatters, spurts

Full Fathom Five
  • Many people consider William Shakespeare to be
    the greatest writer in the English language. He
    wrote 37 plays many of which are still being
    performed today.
  • In this excerpt, a song from the play The
    Tempest, we learn that the young princes father
    has drowned and has undergone a change on the sea
    floor. He has become part of the coral life

  • Eve Merrimans facination with words began at an
    early age.
  • This poem describes the sounds and look of water
    flowing from a rusty faucet.

  • Pat Mora grew up in El Paso, Texas on the border
    between the USA and Mexico. Many of her writings
    speak of her experiences as a Mexican-American.
  • She has won many awards for her stories and
  • In Maestro when a musician bows to the audience
    after a performance, he hears not the clapping
    but only his mothers singing. He recalls the
    rich musical experiences of his childhood.

Comparing Literary Works Questions
Full Fathom Five Onomatopoeia Maestro
Onomatopoeia Ding dong Spurts, sputters, splatters, plash clap
Alliteration Full fathom five thy father lies Spigot, sputters Splatters, scatters He hears her
Assonance Five, lies (I sound) Slash, splatters, scatters (a sound) Would blend again and again (en sound
Consonance Ding, dong (d sound) Splatters, scatters, spurts (s sound) Rows of hands (s sound)
Literary Analysis Questions
  1. Full Fathom Five involves water drowning a man.
    Onomatopoeia involves water coming out of a
    rusty spigot.
  2. A man drowns and turns into part of the sea in
    Full Fathom Five. In Onomatopoeia, water
    comes out of a rusty spigot.
  3. Lunas, amor, voz, guiterra, and violin. Are the
    Spanish words used in the poem. The words give
    the reader a sense of the Mexican songs and
    cultural background that influenced the
    performers feelings toward music.
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