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THE OPEN DOOR POLICY

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THE OPEN DOOR POLICY Objective: Define Open Door policy and its role in US Imperialism APK Importance The Open Door policy of 1899 was originally adopted so that the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE OPEN DOOR POLICY


1
THE OPEN DOOR POLICY
  • Objective Define Open Door policy and its role
    in US Imperialism

2
APK
3
Importance
  • The Open Door policy of 1899 was originally
    adopted so that the United States could
  • 1. restrict Chinese immigration.
  • 2. stop Japan from attacking China.
  • 3. gain equal trading rights in China.
  • 4. encourage the development of democracy in
    China.

4
CHINA THE OPEN DOOR POLICY.
  • U.S. INVOLVEMENT STARTS IN 1830S
  • THE CHINESE EMPIRE IS IN DECLINE.
  • Foreign powers in China were lured by huge
    Chinese market and missionary zeal
  • EUROPEAN SPHERES OF INFLUENCE
  • By late 19th c., Japan and western European
    powers had carved much of China into separate
    spheres of influence.
  • Within each sphere, a nation held economic
    dominance
  • 1899 BRITISH WANT A JOINT US /BRITISH DECLARATION
  • American manufactures feared Chinese markets
    would be monopolized by Europeans while American
    missionaries had a number of groups in China.
  • MCKINLEY REFUSES

5
SEC OF STATE JOHN HAY
  • CIRCULATES AN OPEN DOOR NOTE UNILATERALLY.(Summer
    of 1899)
  • Issued by Secretary of State John Hay
  • (US at a disadvantage geographically compared to
    Russia and Japan, and American feared they might
    get frozen out if they didnt act quickly.
  • DECLARES CHINESE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY SHOULD BE
    RESPECTED.
  • Urged all the Great Powers to announce that in
    their leaseholds or SO they would respect certain
    Chinese rights and ideal of fair competition In
    effect, when any GP dealt with a foreign trader,
    it would observe Open Door.
  • CHINA SHOULD BE OPEN TO ALL.
  • Open Door gained wide acceptance in US
  • Policy did not gain international acceptance as
    it was weak and relatively short-lived

6
THE BOXER REBELLION.
  • 1900 THE UNIVERSAL FIST OF HARMONY THE BOXERS.
  • DEMAND CHINA FOR THE CHINESE.
  • WANT TO EXPEL THE FOREIGN DEVILS.
  • 55 DAY AT PEKING.
  • ALLIED ARMY BREAK THE SIEGE.
  • Millions of Chinese enraged over Open Door Policy
  • Super Patriotic Boxers killed over 200
    missionaries and other whites a number of
    foreign diplomats besieged in Beijing
  • Multinational force of 18,000 arrived to put down
    rebellion
  • Included Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany
    and US troops (2.5K)
  • Victorious they assessed an indemnity of 333
    million (US got 24.5 mil), when Washington found
    sum excessive, remitted 18 million
  • Appreciative of US, Chinese gov set aside money
    to educate a select group of Chinese students in
    the US as a gesture of good will
  • Hay announced in 1900 that henceforth the Open
    Door would embrace territorial integrity of China
    in addition to its commercial treaty.

7
HAY ISSUES A 2ND OPEN DOOR NOTE.
  • U.S. IS TOO WEAK TO UNILATERALLY ENFORCE THE
    DEMAND.
  • BUT CLEVER DIPLOMACY WORKS.
  • Sought to eliminate carving up China with Boxer
    outrages as a pretext
  • Hay did not ask for formal acceptances
  • China thus spared partition during these years.
  • Outcomes
  • US maintained a lasting influence in Asia
  • Created a market for American goods to be sold

8
Importance
  • The Open Door policy of 1899 was originally
    adopted so that the United States could
  • 1. restrict Chinese immigration.
  • 2. stop Japan from attacking China.
  • 3. gain equal trading rights in China.
  • 4. encourage the development of democracy in
    China.

9
Closure
  • One lasting effect of the U.S. Open Door policy
    in China was that
  • 1. it set the stage for continuing U.S. influence
    in Asia.
  • 2. China and the United States always have
    enjoyed a history of good relations.
  • 3. Asian countries were forced to allow U.S.
    military bases there.
  • 4. the United States became reluctant to trade
    with other Asian countries.
  •  

10
Closure
  • In the early 1900s, China was important to the
    United States because
  • 1. the United States needed an ally in the fight
    against Japan.
  • 2. China had become a strong military power and
    could pose a threat.
  • 3. businesses wanted to export goods to China, a
    huge market.
  • 4. China was an important source of raw materials
    for U.S. factories.

11
Closure
  • What caused the United States to adopt the Open
    Door Policy?
  • 1. European powers threatened to invade the U.S.
  • 2. European powers were about to monopolize trade
    in China.
  • 3. European powers approached the U.S. about
    sharing China.
  • 4. China wanted the U.S. to come and rescue them
    from the European powers.

12
Closure
  • The rapid growth of industry in the United States
    helped fuel the U.S. Open Door Policy because
  • 1. America needed unspoiled places for its
    workers to vacation.
  • 2. Americans had more time to read about foreign
    places.
  • 3. the United States was producing more goods
    than its own people could buy.
  • 4. Americans wanted to take over foreign
    factories and learn their secrets.
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