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Measurement and Evaluation of Human Performance

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Title: Measurement and Evaluation of Human Performance


1
Measurement and Evaluation of Human Performance
2
Fitness consists of two parts 1. Health
Related Factors 2. Skill Related Factors Both
are required in all activities but the importance
of each may vary. Examples Runner, Tennis
3
I. Health related fitness Physiologically based
and determines the individuals ability to meet
the physical demands of an activity.
4
Components of Health Related Fitness
  1. Strength the ability of a muscle (group) to
    exert a force to overcome a resistance.
  2. Local Muscular Endurance a muscle groups
    ability to perform sustained work. (marathon)

5
3. Cardio-respiratory fitness stamina the
ability of the body to supply enough energy to
sustain sub-maximal levels of exercise.
  • Benefits of Cardio. Fitness
  • improved fat metabolism
  • efficient delivery of oxygen
  • faster removal of wastes
  • decreased levels of stress

6
4. Flexibility the movement available by our
joints, usually controlled by the length of our
muscles
  • Benefits of Flexibility
  • prevents injury
  • improves posture
  • maintains healthy joints
  • increases speed and power of muscle contraction
  • improves balance during movement

7
5. Body Composition The amt. of fat compared to
lean body mass (muscle, bone, connective tissue).
  • Healthy Fat
  • males 15-18
  • females 20-25
  • Risks of high fat
  • heart disease
  • strain on muscle and joints
  • excess energy expenditure

8
II. Skill/Motor Related Fitness based on the
neuromuscular system and determines how
successful and individual can perform a certain
skill.
  • Speed
  • The ability to put body parts into motion
    quickly.
  • The max. rate a person can move over a
  • specific distance.
  • genetically determined by fast twitch muscle
  • fibers.

9
2. Power the ability to exert maximum muscular
power instantly in an explosive movement.
  • combination of speed and strength
  • Ex. -golf swing
  • -shot put
  • -field events

10
3. Agility the ability to change direction and
position of the body quickly and effectively.
  • Factors Influencing Agility
  • speed
  • coordination
  • flexibility
  • balance

11
4. Balance the maintenance of the center of mass
over the base of support while static or dynamic.
  • coordinated by the actions of our sensory
    functions (eyes, ears and proprioceptive organs
    in our joints).

12
5. Coordination the ability to use the body
parts and senses together to produce smooth
efficient movements.
  • Ex.
  • serving a tennis ball
  • swimming

13
6. Reaction time the interval of time between
the presentation of a stimulus and the initiation
of a muscular response to that stimulus.
  • reaction time is overall inherent, but response
    time can be improved with practice by
  • -detecting cues
  • -controlling anxiety
  • -warm up

14
III. Study Design in Sport and Exercise
  • A. Reasons for Fitness Testing
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses of an athlete
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of a training
    program
  • To measure fitness levels following injury or
    offseason
  • To assist in setting goals

15
B. Principles of Fitness Testing
  • 1. Specificity the test must assess the
    individuals fitness for the activity or sport in
    question.
  • Ex. An endurance running test would not be used
    to assess improvement in cycling endurance.

16
Principles of Fitness Testing
  • 2. Reliability refers to the degree to which a
    test is consistent and stable in measuring what
    it is intended to measure.
  • test should produce the same results if repeated.

17
Principles of Fitness Testing
  • 3. Validity refers to the degree to which the
    test actually measures what it claims to measure.
    Conclusions made on the basis of test scores are
    appropriate.

18
Principles of Fitness Testing
  • 4. Accuracy is incorporated into test validity
    and reliability and covers the accuracy to which
    measurements can be recorded.

19
Factors Which May Affect Fitness Tests
  • time of day
  • weather conditions
  • environment (surface, noise, people)
  • different. assessor
  • athletes emotion, health, hydration
  • time of last meal
  • medication

20
C. Testing Human Performance
  • 1. Laboratory Testing
  • advantages
  • controlled environment
  • sport specific equipment
  • simulate sports demands

b. disadvantages
not always accessible limited value assessing
team sports not conducted in the sport
environment
21
2. Field Tests
  • a. advantages
  • specific to the sport
  • conducted in the sporting environment
  • b. disadvantages
  • environment can alter test results
  • much planning in testing administration

22
3. Submaximal Tests the athlete works below
maximum effort and data is extrapolated to
estimate maximum capacity. (ex. Step test)
  • advantages
  • prevents injury over exertion
  • b. disadvantages
  • depends on extrapolation
  • small measurement inaccuracies can result in
    large discrepancies.

23
4. Maximal Tests athlete works at maximum effort
or to exhaustion. (ex. Beep test)
  • Advantages
  • measurements can be more accurate
  • b. Disadvantages
  • risk of injury and over exertion
  • difficult to ensure the athlete is working to
    max. effort
  • depends on athletes motivation

24
D. Types of Fitness Testing
  • Aerobic Capacity
  • multistage fitness test (Beep. Bleep, legers )
  • Coopers 12 min. run
  • Harvard Step Test

25
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 2. Flexibility
  • Sit and Reach Test

26
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 3. Muscle Endurance
  • max. sit-ups
  • max. push-ups
  • flexed arm hang

27
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 4. Strength
  • Hand Grip Dynamometer
  • Squats Test

28
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 5. Body Composition
  • Body mass index (BMI)
  • Anthropometry
  • Underwater weighing

29
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 6. Agility
  • Illinois agility test
  • 505 agility test
  • T-drill test

30
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 7. Speed
  • 40 meter sprint

31
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 8. Balance
  • Standing Stork Test

32
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 9. Coordination
  • Hand ball toss

33
Types of Fitness Testing
  • 10. Reaction Time
  • Drop Test
  • 11. Power
  • Vertical jump and Broad jump

34
Describe a normal day of practice/ training for
any sport that you are involved in.
Beginning to end
35
  • 1.Warm-up light cardio (5-10min)
  • dynamic stretching
    (10min)
  • sport specific

2. Training (FITT principle) Types Factors
Involved Monitoring Endurance
progressive overload HR training
zone Interval specificity
Karvonen HR Circuit
reversibility/detraining Borg
Scale Resistance recovery
Flexibility adaptation
variety
periodization
3. Cool Down
36
IV. Principles of Training Program Design
  • Essential Elements of a Training Program
  • A. Warm-Up prepares the body for exercise and
    prevents injury and muscle soreness.

37
Benefits of a Warm-Up
  1. Increased speed of contraction and relaxation of
    warmed muscles.
  2. Reduces muscle stiffness (dynamic exercise)
  3. Increase in muscle temp. reduces blood viscosity
    and speeds nerve impulse rate.
  4. Increase in oxygen uptake by muscles
  5. Increase in enzyme activity to breakdown
    glycogen.
  6. Increases heart rate to a workable rate for
    exercise.

38
Stages of a Proper Warm-Up
  • Increase the body temp. to facilitate blood
    delivery to working muscles.
  • 5-10 min. jog

39
Stages of a Proper Warm-Up
  • Dynamic stretching exercises for 10 mins.
  • Ex. Shoulder rolls, neck rolls, leg swings and
    half squats.

40
Stages of a Proper Warm-Up
  • 3. Sport specific and skill related drills for
    10-15 minutes to work the neuromuscular
    mechanisms.

41
  • The FITT Principle
  • F frequency (How often)
  • I intensity (How hard)
  • T time (How long)
  • T type (What activity)

42
B. Endurance Training objective is to develop
the energy production systems to meet the demands
of the event.
  • Aerobic Endurance is developed using
    continuous and interval training.
  • 1. Continuous Training steady state involves
    an individual maintaining a steady rate for a
    long period of time. Should be over 20 min. in
    the aerobic target zone (70-85 of max. heart
    rate).

43
ranking sport rating (/10)
1 Cycling Distance  9.63
1 Track and Field Distance  9.63
3 Swimming (all strokes) Distance  9.25
4 Skiing Nordic  9.00
5 Boxing  8.63
6 Rowing  8.13
7 Water Polo  7.88
8 Soccer  7.75
9 Speed Skating  7.63
10 Basketball  7.38
11 Ice Hockey  7.25
11 Tennis  7.25
13 Canoe/Kayak  6.75
13 Field Hockey  6.75
13 Rugby  6.75
16 Lacrosse  6.63
16 Wrestling  6.63
18 Figure Skating  6.38
19 Racquetball/Squash  6.13
20 Track and Field Middle Distance  6.00
Endurance as a major component
44
2. Interval Training is described as having a
structured period of work followed by a
structured period of rest.
  • 1 or ½ unit of rest for every unit of work.
  • (Work 4 min./Rest 2 min.)

45
  • Benefits of Interval Training
  • Improves competition -stress of race pace and
    conditions athletes for competition.
  • 2. Improves Neuromuscular Coordination - Your
    nervous
  • system gets used to
    running at a faster pace.
  • 3. Less lactic acid accumulation at a given pace
  • 4. Thermoregulatory system is not as stressed
  • Body heat does not accumulate as rapidly
    as during
  • continuous running.
  • 5. Runners of all abilities can use it.

46
  • 3. Circuit Training exercise that raises pulse
    rate and includes upper, lower and core
    exercises. Up to 6-10 exercises per circuit.

47
C. Resistance Training is used to develop
strength, strength endurance and explosive power.
  • Maximum Strength
  • Very high resistance and low repetition
  • Ex. 3 sets of 2-3 reps. _at_ 80 of 1 RM w/ full
    recovery (2 min. between sets)
  • or
  • 3 sets of 3-6 reps _at_ 80-100 of 1RM

48
Resistance Training
  • Strength Endurance
  • Greater reps. With lighter resistance
  • Ex. 3 sets of 20 reps. _at_ 50-60 of 1RM with full
    recovery between sets.

49
D. Plyometric Training- fast, powerful short
duration movements.
  • Designed to
  • Increase speed
  • Force of muscle contraction
  • Explosive sports/movements

50
E. Fartlek Training combination of interval
continuous training.
  • Swedish (Speed Play)
  • Not regimented- (intensity, duration, rest)
  • Regulated on how you feel
  • Hard to quantify.

51
F. Cross Training involves all methods
listed above.
  • Make general improvements in fitness
  • Used by many as an alternative to their normal
    training methods.

52
G. Flexibility Training improves the range of
movement of antagonistic muscles.
  1. Static Stretching involves gradually easing into
    the stretch position and holding.
  2. Assisted Stretching partner helps you ease into
    the stretch position when the stretch sensation
    subsides. Ex. PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular
    facilitation)

53
Tips for Flexibility Training
  • Think in Terms of Serious Flexibility Training,
    not just brief
  • stretching.

2. Consider Your Activities.
3. Pay Special Attention to Tight Areas
4. Listen to Your Body.
5. Get Creative.
6. Warm Up First.
7. Find a Flexibility Class That Works for You.
8. Stretch Yourself--Mind and Body.
9. Its Not Just for Wimps.
10. Do It Consistently.
54
PNF Stretching
Step 1 move slowly through your ROM with a
partner assisting the stretch (passive stretch).
Hold for a few seconds. Step 2 just before the
point of discomfort, isometrically contract the
muscle being stretched for 6-10 sec. Step 3
After holding relax the muscle and have your
partner stretch further into the ROM. A
proprioceptive sensory nerve ending embedded
among the fibers of a tendon,
often near the musculotendinous junction. This
stimulated the Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) to
further relax the muscle,
increasing the stretch.
GTO stretching
55
3. Dynamic Stretching consists of controlled leg
and arm swings that take you gently to the limits
of your range of motion.
4. Ballistic Stretching Repeated bouncing motion
at the peak of a stretch to force the muscle
tissue to lengthen. (NOT RECOMMEDED).
56
  • H. Cool Down light continuous activity to keep
    HR elevated.
  • Purpose keep metabolic activity high
    capillaries dilated in order to
  • bring oxygen to muscles
  • remove lactic acid
  • prevent blood pooling (cause
    dizziness)
  • limit DOMS
  • Finally- light stretching to improve
    flexibility.

57
I. Unsuitable Training
  • Undertraining failure to provide adequate
    stimulation.
  • Overtraining do more training than physically or
    mentally able to do over a long period of time.
  • Overreaching do more training than physically
    able to do in a short period of time. (temporary
    overtraining)

58
Overtraining syndrome (OTS)
  • Can go undiagnosed/ hard to diagnose
  • Signs symptoms are usually the same as many
    other illnesses.
  • Performance will decrease (gold standard sign)
  • Increased HR
  • Reduced immune function
  • Sleep disturbance/general fatigue
  • Loss of appetite

59
(No Transcript)
60
V. Key Principles to a Training Program
  • A. Progressive Overload when the body responds
    to stress caused by physical work. As the body
    adapts and plateaus, progressive overload is
    required to cause further change.

61
Overload can be progressed by increasing
  • 1. the resistance (adding weight)
  • 2. the number of reps and/or sets (duration)
  • 3. the intensity (reducing recovery period.)
  • 4. number of sessions per week (frequency)
  • do not change all at once.
  • increase with caution.
  • do not loose focus of training goals

62
B. Specificity when the exercise is specific to
the type of strength required and related to the
particular demands of the sport.
  • Focus on
  • 1. muscle groups used
  • 2. skills performed
  • 3. fitness components
  • 4. energy system used
  • Ex. A swimmer should spend most of her training
    in the water with some done on land.

63
C. Reversibility/Detraining when performance
deteriorates after training ceases or intensity
decreases
  • fitness reduces at approx. 1/3 of the rate of
    acquisition.
  • 7 weeks of inactivity causes
  • -27 loss of aerobic capacity
  • -30 decrease in stroke vol.
  • -decrease in muscle mass and strength

64
D. Recovery- rest period between training sessions
  • Needed to adapt to new training demands
  • Repair muscles

65
E. Adaptation-the way your body becomes
accustomed to increased or varied training loads
  • Training Effect the chronic, morphologic,
    physiologic and psychologic changes that result
    from repeated exposer to exercise.
  • Cardiovascular adaptations
  • Pulmonary adaptations
  • Body comp

66
F. Variety providing different activities and
drills while still addressing the aims of the
training program.
  • Benefits of variety
  • stimulates and challenges participants
  • changes the format (less boring)

67
G. Periodization
  • is an organized approach to training that
    involves progressive cycling of various aspects
    of a training program during a specific period.
  • The aim of periodization is to introduce new
    movements as one progresses through the training
    cycle to specify one's training right up until
    the start of the season.
  • Can be highly specific or general designed.
  • Has come under criticism lately.

Periodization Good or Bad??? Article
68
VI. Monitoring Exercise Intensity
  • Resting Heart Rate (RHR)
  • Lowest HR, least amount blood required.
  • Between 60 -100bpm.
  • Factors Affect Heart Rate
  • Temperatures ( humidity), pulse rate may
    increase, 5-10 bpm.
  • Body position can temporarily change elevate
    HR.
  • Emotions- can elevate HR.
  • Body Weight- obese people have a higher than
    normal RHR.
  • Medication- can raise or lower RHR.
  • beta blockers (block adrenaline) Thyroid meds
    increase RHR

69
VI. Monitoring Exercise Intensity
Target Heart Rate (THR)
  • HR your are trying to reach for a
    specific goal.

Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) formula 220-age
maximum heart rate that you can attain that is
based on your genetics. Should not train at
this rate. purpose used to create target
training zones to help you
improve your cardiovascular capacity and
progress the intensity of
your workouts.
70
VI. Monitoring Exercise Intensity
Alternate formulas
Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
MHR 206.3 - (0.711 Age) MHR 217 - (0.85 x
Age) MHR 206.9 - (0.67 x age) Male athletes -
MHR 202 - (0.55 x age) Female athletes - MHR
216 - (1.09 x age)
71
VI. Monitoring Exercise Intensity
Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
Alternate formulas
  • Use the Miller formula of
  • MHR 217 - (0.85 age) to calculate MHR
  • then
  • Subtract 3 beats for elite athletes under 30
  • Add 2 beats for 50 year old elite athletes
  • Add 4 beats for 55 year old elite athletes
  • Use this MHR value for running training
  • Subtract 3 beats for rowing training
  • Subtract 5 beats for bicycle training

72
VI. Monitoring Exercise Intensity
  • Heart Rate Training Zones are calculated by
    taking into consideration your max. heart rate
    and your resting heart rate.
  • MHR220-age

73
Training Zones
MHR estimation if you are breathing extremely
hard during a workout so that you cant talk at
all, youre probably within 5-10 bpm of your max
heart rate.
74
II. Karvonen Heart Rate Method
  • (Max. HR Resting HR) x RHR THR
  • Ex.
  • (179 60) x .8 60 155 (target heart rate)

75
III. Borg Scale method used to rate perceived
exertion (RPE) by the athlete.
Simple method of rating ones exertion Perceived
exertion is an individual's rating of exercise
intensity. Formed by assessing their body's
physical signs. (HR, breathing rate and
perspiration.)
76
Original Borg Scale
77
III. Borg Scale method used to rate perceived
exertion (RPE) by the athlete.
  • 0 - Nothing at all
  • 1 - Very light
  • 2 - Fairly light
  • 3 - Moderate
  • 4 - Some what hard
  • 5 - Hard
  • 6
  • 7 - Very hard
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10 - Very, very hard

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