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Quality Tools

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Key Contributors to Quality Management Key Contributors to Quality Management Total Quality Management A philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quality Tools


1
  • Quality Tools

2
Key Contributors to Quality Management
3
Key Contributors to Quality Management
4
Total Quality Management
  • A philosophy that involves everyone in an
    organization in a continual effort to improve
    quality and achieve customer satisfaction

5
Process Improvement
  • A systematic approach to improving a process
  • Overview of the approach
  • process mapping
  • analyze the process
  • redesign the process

6
The PDSA Cycle
7
The Process Improvement Cycle
8
Process Improvement Tools
  • There are a number of tools that can be used for
    problem solving and process improvement
  • Tools aid in data collection and interpretation,
    and provide the basis for decision making

9
Seven Basic Quality Tools
  • Check sheets
  • Flowcharts
  • Scatter diagrams
  • Histograms
  • Pareto analysis
  • Control charts
  • Cause-and-effect diagrams

10
Check Sheet
Monday
Billing Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount A/R
Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount
11
Flowchart
Process
Process
Process?
OK?
OK
Process
Identify value added steps, rework loops, flow
loops, etc.
12
Scatter Diagram
Variable B
Variable A
13
Histogram
frequency
A
B
C
D
E
14
Pareto Analysis
80 of the problems may be attributed to 20 of
the causes.
15
Control Chart
16
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
17
Tracking Improvements
18
Methods for Generating Ideas
  • Brainstorming
  • Quality circles
  • Interviewing
  • Benchmarking
  • 5W2H

19
What is Six Sigma?
  1. Customer Focus Focus on what is critical to
    customers
  2. Data Driven Extensive use of statistical tools
  3. Robust Methodology Tools plus implementation
    methods to make success more likely

20
What is Six Sigma?Key Concepts
  1. Critical to Quality What attributes are most
    important to the customer? (CTQ, CTC, CTD)
  2. Defect Failing to deliver what the customer
    wants / expects (DPMO)
  3. Variation The level of unpredictability the
    customer experiences

21
What is Six Sigma? Key Concepts
  1. Process Capability What your process can deliver
    consistently
  2. Stable Operations Stable ops are predictable
  3. Design for Six Sigma Designing to meet customer
    needs and process capability

22
DMADV - DMAIC
Existing Processes
New Processes
23
Define Phase - Tools
  • Project Charter
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Affinity Diagram
  • SIPOC
  • Voice of the Customer
  • CT Tree
  • Kano Model
  • SWOT Analysis
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
  • Supplier Segmentation
  • Project Management

24
Charter
  • Problem statement
  • Business case
  • Goals, milestones, success criteria,
    deliverables
  • Project scope / boundaries
  • Roles responsibilities
  • Stakeholder support / approval needed

25
Business Case
Potential Improvement Potential Impact
Improve quality Reduce cost, inventory
Improve OTD Shortages ?, inventory ?
Select better suppliers Q, , LT, reduce inventory
Implement rating system Improve supply efficiency, better suppliers
Reduce price Reduce cost
26
Define Phase - Tools
  • Project Charter
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Affinity Diagram
  • SIPOC
  • Voice of the Customer
  • CT Tree
  • Kano Model
  • SWOT Analysis
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
  • Supplier Segmentation
  • Project Management

27
Define Outputs
  • Once completed, the Define Phase should answer
    the following questions
  • 1) Who is the customer?
  • 2) What matters?
  • 3) What is the scope?
  • 4) What defect am I trying to reduce?
  • 5) What are the improvement targets?

28
The Measure Phase
  • Purpose
  • To collect current performance of the process
    identified in the Define phase
  • This data is used to determine sources of
    variation and serve as a benchmark to validate
    improvements

29
Measure - Key Concepts
  • Measurement
  • Variation
  • Exists naturally in any process and is the reason
    Six Sigma projects are undertaken
  • Data
  • Data Collection Plan
  • Measurement System Analysis
  • Ensures measurement techniques are reproducible
    and repeatable

30
Data Collection Plan
  • What data will be collected?
  • Why is it needed?
  • Who is responsible?
  • How will it be collected?
  • When will it be collected?
  • Where will it be collected?

31
Measurement System Analysis
  • After Data Collection Plan is complete, it needs
    to be verified before actual data is collected
  • MSA is performed on a regular basis
  • MSA ends when a high level of confidence is
    reached that the data collected accurately
    depicts the variation in the process

32
Analyze Phase
  • The analyze phase allows the Project Team to
    target improvement opportunities by taking a
    closer look at the data.

33
Analyze Phase
  • Capability Analysis - establishing current
    performance level
  • Graphical Analysis - a visual indication of
    performance using graphs
  • Root Cause Analysis developing a hypothesis
    about the causes of variation
  • Root Cause Verification verifying that the
    planned action will generate the desired
    improvement

34
Elements of Improve Phase
  • Generate Improvement Alternatives
  • Create a Should Be Process Map
  • Conduct FMEA
  • Perform Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Pilot
  • Validate Improvement

35
Control PhaseWhy is it important?
  • The Control Phase begins as the project team
    tries to eliminate errors by Mistake Proofing
    their improvement alternative.
  • Mistake Proofing attempts to eliminate the
    opportunities for error.

36
Control PhaseWhy is it important?
  • Mistake Proofing tries to make it impossible for
    an operation to be performed incorrectly, and/or
    correct errors before they are passed to the next
    worker, where they might become a defect.

37
Control Phase 2
  • During the Control Phase the Project team will
  • 1) Develop a plan to make sure the measurement
    system will remain relevant over the long term.
  • 2) Establish Control Charts the process owner
    will use to manage the process.
  • 3) Create a Reaction Plan to address situations
    that might cause the process to move out of
    control.

38
Control Phase 3
  • The Control Phase ends when
  • 1) Standard Operating Procedures have been
    updated.
  • 2) Process Operators, the people who do the
    job, have been trained for the new process.
  • Once completed, the Control Phase should sustain
    the gains the project made while implementing
    ongoing process controls.

39
Control Phase 4
  • When is a project complete?
  • 1) When other Black Belts can see the ongoing
    controls work
  • 2) When the customer sees the results
  • 3) When the business sees the money.

40
Stakeholder Analysis
People or Groups People or Groups People or Groups
Level of Commitment Buy Mfg Eng
Enthusiastic Support
Help it work
Compliant
Hesitant X
Indifferent
Uncooperative X
Opposed
Hostile X
41
SIPOC Example
Suppliers Inputs Processes Outputs Customers
Ops Mgt Supplier Perf. Supplier Evaluation Survey Ops Mgt
Buyers Complaint Supplier Evaluation Rating system Buyers
Engrg. Tech Reqts Supplier Evaluation Improved Supplier Perform. Engineering
Mfg. Rating system Supplier Evaluation Commit. to suppliers Mfg.
Suppliers Supplier Complaint Supplier Evaluation Commit. to suppliers Suppliers
42
SWOT Analysis
Positive Negative
Internal Strengths Weaknesses
External Opportunities Threats
43
Quality Awards
Baldrige Award
Deming Prize
44
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (1 of 2)
  • Began in 1987
  • Recognizes achievements of excellent
    organizations and provide examples to others
  • may give two awards in each category
  • manufacturing
  • small business
  • service
  • health care
  • education

45
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (2 of 2)
  • Establishes criteria for evaluating quality
    efforts
  • Provides guidance for other American companies

46
2001 MBNQA Categories and Scoring System
  • 1.0 Leadership 120
  • 2.0 Strategic Planning 85
  • 3.0 Customer and Market Focus 85
  • 4.0 Information and Analysis 90
  • 5.0 Human Resource Focus 85
  • 6.0 Process Management 85
  • 7.0 Business Results 450
  • 8.0 Global Market Development and
    Competitiveness (optional) 100

47
Quality CertificationISO 9000
  • Set of international standards on quality
    management and quality assurance, critical to
    international business
  • ISO 9000 series standards, briefly, require firms
    to document their quality-control systems at
    every step (incoming raw materials, product
    design, in-process monitoring and so forth) so
    that theyll be able to identify those areas that
    are causing quality problems and correct them
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