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THE HISTORY OF OCEAN EXPLORATION AND MARINE SCIENCE

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Marine Science consists of 4 branches of oceanography Biological Diversity of marine organisms The ocean s role as their habitat Chemical Chemistry of seawater ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE HISTORY OF OCEAN EXPLORATION AND MARINE SCIENCE


1
THE HISTORY OF OCEAN EXPLORATION AND MARINE
SCIENCE
  • Oceanography is the science of recording and
    describing the
  • oceans contents and processes.

2
Marine Science consists of 4 branches of
oceanography
  • Biological
  • Diversity of marine organisms
  • The oceans role as their habitat
  • Chemical
  • Chemistry of seawater
  • Geological
  • Composition of marine sediments rocks
  • Undersea geology
  • Physical
  • Water movement
  • How oceans influence weather climate

3
3 reasons humans began to explore the ocean
  • Obtain food
  • Discover new lands
  • Develop trade

4
The History of Marine BiologyPart 1 Ancient
uses explorations
  • Egyptians 2750 B.C.
  • Phoenicians 1200 B.C.
  • Ancient Polynesians 2000 and 500 B.C.

5
  • Ancient Greek Exploration
  • The first to use mathematical principles and
    developed sophisticated maps for seafaring.
  • Greek Pytheas could predict the tides based on
    the moon cycles.
  • Eratosthenes calculated the earths circumference
  • Began map making

6
Part 2 The Middle Ages (800A.D.-1400)
  • Also called the Dark Ages
  • The Vikings continue to explore
  • A.D. 995 Leif Eriksson

7
  • Chinese Explorations Discoveries
  • Magnetic compass around 1125 A.D.
  • Chinese seafaring well established by about 1000
    A.D.
  • By the mid 1400s they were well established
    shipbuilders.

8
  • Stop here to show Navigation video up to Henry
    the Navigator
  • Begin worksheet

9
Part 3 European Voyages of Discovery (1400-1700)
  • The Renaissance brought the Europeans into the
    world of exploration.
  • Notable explorers
  • Christopher Columbus 1492
  • Magellan 1519

10
Part 4 The Birth Growth of Marine Science
  • James Cook (1700s) was one of the first
    explorers to make scientific observations.
  • Used a chronometer
  • United States Exploring Expedition is also called
    the Wilkes Exploration (1838-1842)
  • Most noted destination Antarctica

11
  • Matthew Maury
  • Considered to be the Father of Oceanography
  • US Naval Officer, an established authority who
    published many works on sea navigation and his
    journeys.
  • Published the first textbook on modern
    oceanography, The Physical Geography of the Sea.

12
  • Darwin the H.M.S. Beagle
  • By the 19th century naturalists were common on
    vessels. The most famous of these were Charles
    Darwin.
  • Beginning in 1831 Darwin sailed around the world.
  • The main mission was to map
  • Some of Darwins special interests were
    barnacles, plankton and how atolls are formed

13
  • The Challenger Expedition
  • The first major oceanographic expedition.
  • In December of 1872 the HMS Challenger set off on
    a 4 year voyage to gather detailed and consistent
    observations.
  • Accomplishments
  • The Challenger set many scientific standards for
    studying the ocean.
  • First soundings deeper than 4000m
  • Captured biological samples from mid-water
  • Cataloged and identified many new genera and
    species

14
  • The oceanography explosion
  • By 1900 the Industrial Revolution had helped to
    expand oceanography as a science with the
    invention of the steam engine and iron ships.
  • War has been a major contributing factor in the
    oceanography explosion.
  • Technology is a material system that produces
    intended results.

15
  • Three Important Expeditions
  • The German Meteor expedition (1925) is most noted
    for its mapping of the Atlantic seafloor with
    echo-sounding technology.
  • The U.S. Atlantis expedition (1931) first ship
    designed and built specifically for ocean
    studies.
  • The H.M.S. Challenger II (1951) began a 2 year
    voyage to measure the depths of the Atlantic,
    Pacific, and Indian oceans.

16
Submersibles
  • Bathysphere the 1st submersible
  • Bathyscaphe the only submersible to voyage to
    the Challenger Deep
  • Today scientists use deep-diving submersibles
    which are much easier to maneuver

Bathysphere
Alvin
17
Self-contained Diving
  • Earliest self-contained apparatus dates back to
    about 375 A.D.
  • Augustus Siebe introduced the hard hat diving
    equipment in 1840
  • Henry Fleuss introduced the 1st workable scuba in
    1878

18
Jacques Cousteau
  • Introduced the first practical scuba in 1943.
  • The technology for the scuba was invented by
    Emile Gagnan to use compressed air instead of
    pure oxygen.

19
ROVs and Electonic Navigation
  • Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)
  • Developed in the 1970s
  • Widely used as a crossover between scuba and
    submersibles
  • Electronic navigation
  • Emerged in the late 1960s
  • 2 types
  • LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation)
  • Increased the ability to navigate however it
    still had its limitations
  • GPS (Global Positioning System) developed during
    the 1990s
  • Overcame limits of the Loran systems

20
  • Stop watch video from Henry the Navigator to the
    end.
  • Turn in worksheet.

21
Latitude/Longitude
  • Latitude lines run east-west
  • Never intersect
  • 0o parallel is the equator
  • The poles are at 90o
  • Measures distances north and south of the equator
  • Longitude lines run north-south
  • Begin at one pole and end at the other
  • 0o meridian (Prime Meridian) runs through
    Greenwich, England
  • Both are numbered in degrees, minutes, and
    seconds.

22
Oceanographic Tools
  • Seine - collection of organisms from the shore
    bottom
  • Cast net - collection of organisms
  • Plankton net - collection of plankton

23
  • Secchi disc - measure water clarity
  • Core sampler -view soil samples
  • Dredge - drag along ocean floor to collect
    specimens

24
  • Thermometer- measure temperature of water
  • Dip net - collect organisms
  • Hydrometer - measure specific gravity or salinity
    of water
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