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Foreign Policy

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Foreign Policy Soviet Union foreign policy is a puzzle inside a riddle wrapped in an enigma, and the key is Russian nationalism. Winston Churchill What is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Foreign Policy


1
Foreign Policy
2
  • Soviet Union foreign policy is a puzzle inside a
    riddle wrapped in an enigma, and the key is
    Russian nationalism.
  • Winston Churchill

Bill Clinton's foreign policy experience stems
mainly from having breakfast at the International
House of Pancakes. -Pat Buchanan
Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy,
because human rights is the very soul of our
sense of nationhood. -Jimmy Carter
Whatever it is that the government does,
sensible Americans would prefer that the
government does it to somebody else. This is the
idea behind foreign policy. -P.J. O Rourke
Domestic policy can only defeat us foreign
policy can kill us -JFK
3
What is foreign policy?
  • Foreign policy is defined as the diplomatic
    policy of a nation in its interactions with other
    nations, but there are many aspects to a nations
    foreign policy, and many specific terms used.

4
Superpower
  • A superpower is a state with a leading position
    in the international system and the ability to
    influence events and project power on a worldwide
    scale.
  • US, USSR, British Empire (before Cold War)
  • Brazil, China, EU, India, Russia (after Cold War)

5
Nonaligned
  • A country not allied with any other nations,
    neutral

6
Balance of Power
  • The distribution of power in which no single
    nation is able to dominate or interfere with
    others

7
Arms Race
  • A competition between nations to have the most
    powerful armaments.

8
Neutrality
  • The state or policy of being non partisan,
    especially during war

9
Isolationism
  • National policy of abstaining from political or
    economic relations with other countries.

10
Monroe Doctrine
  • (1823) US doctrine proclaiming the British had
    no right to interfere and colonize with the
    affairs of the newly independent nations of the
    Americas.

11
Roosevelt Corollary
  • (1904) Declaration made by Teddy Roosevelt which
    authorized US intervention in the affairs of
    neighboring American countries in order to
    counter threats posed to the US security and
    interests.

12
Containment
  • US strategy in the early years of the Cold War
    to prevent Communism from spreading.

13
Domino Theory
  • Theory promoted by the government that if one
    region came under Communist influence, then the
    surrounding regions would also.

14
  • Finally, you have broader considerations that
    might follow what you would call the "falling
    domino" principle. You have a row of dominoes set
    up, you knock over the first one, and what will
    happen to the last one is the certainty that it
    will go over very quickly. So you could have a
    beginning of a disintegration that would have the
    most profound influences.
  • -Dwight D. Eisenhower

15
Domino Theory Continued
  • Past
  • Present

16
Foreign Policy The Presidential Campaign
17
John McCain on foreign policy in Iraq
  • "Increasing U.S. troop levels will expose more
    brave Americans to danger and increase the number
    of American casualties. When Congress authorized
    this war, we committed America to a mission that
    entails the greatest sacrifice a country can
    make, one that falls disproportionately on those
    Americans who love their country so much that
    they volunteer to risk their lives to accomplish
    that mission. And when we authorized this war, we
    accepted the responsibility to make sure those
    men and women could prevail. Extending combat
    tours and accelerating the deployment of
    additional troops is a terrible sacrifice to
    impose on the best patriots among us, and they
    will understandably be disappointed when they are
    given that order. Then they will shoulder their
    weapons and do everything they can to protect our
    country's vital interests in Iraq."

18
Hillary Clinton on foreign policy in Iraq
  • Non-interference. Working with the U.N.
    representative, the group would work to convince
    Iraq's neighbors to refrain from getting involved
    in the civil war.
  • Mediation. The group would attempt to mediate
    among the different sectarian groups in Iraq with
    the goal of attaining compromises on fundamental
    points of disputes.
  • Reconstruction funding. The members of the group
    would hold themselves and other countries to
    their past pledges to provide funding to Iraq and
    will encourage additional contributions to meet
    Iraq's extensive needs.

19
Barack Obama on foreign policy in Iraq
  • Bringing Our Troops HomeObama will immediately
    begin to remove our troops from Iraq. He will
    remove one to two combat brigades each month, and
    have all of our combat brigades out of Iraq
    within 16 months. Obama will make it clear that
    we will not build any permanent bases in Iraq. He
    will keep some troops in Iraq to protect our
    embassy and diplomats if al Qaeda attempts to
    build a base within Iraq, he will keep troops in
    Iraq or elsewhere in the region to carry out
    targeted strikes on al Qaeda.

20
Barack Obama continued
  • Press Iraqs Leaders to ReconcileThe best way to
    press Iraqs leaders to take responsibility for
    their future is to make it clear that we are
    leaving. As we remove our troops, Obama will
    engage representatives from all levels of Iraqi
    society in and out of government to seek a
    new accord on Iraqs Constitution and governance.
    The United Nations will play a central role in
    this convention, which should not adjourn until a
    new national accord is reached addressing tough
    questions like federalism and oil revenue-sharing.

21
Barack Obama Continued
  • Regional DiplomacyObama will launch the most
    aggressive diplomatic effort in recent American
    history to reach a new compact on the stability
    of Iraq and the Middle East. This effort will
    include all of Iraqs neighbors including Iran
    and Syria. This compact will aim to secure Iraqs
    borders keep neighboring countries from meddling
    inside Iraq isolate al Qaeda support
    reconciliation among Iraqs sectarian groups and
    provide financial support for Iraqs
    reconstruction.

22
Barack Obama Continued
  • Humanitarian InitiativeObama believes that
    America has a moral and security responsibility
    to confront Iraqs humanitarian crisis two
    million Iraqis are refugees two million more are
    displaced inside their own country. Obama will
    form an international working group to address
    this crisis. He will provide at least 2 billion
    to expand services to Iraqi refugees in
    neighboring countries, and ensure that Iraqis
    inside their own country can find a safe-haven.

23
Some questions to ponder
  • Do we support any nation that goes along with us,
    or only those that are reasonably free and
    democratic? (Pakistan, Argentina, Cuba, Russia,
    China)
  • Are we the worlds policeman? We did not
    intervene to prevent China from occupying Tibet,
    to end the massacre of thousands of Tutsis in
    Rwanda. But we did intervene to try to end a
    dictatorship in Haiti, to help starving people in
    Somalia, to turn back an Iraqi invasion of
    Kuwait, and to punish Serbs who were attacking
    KosovoWhy the bipolarity? Or are these
    decisions strategically made?

24
Kinds of Foreign Policy
  • Majoritarion politics (perceived to have widely
    distributed benefits and impose widely
    distributed costs)
  • War
  • Establishing military alliances with western
    Europe
  • SALT

25
  • Interest Group politics
  • Tariffs (help businesses, impose costs on other
    firms and unions)
  • Ex if the price of Japanese steel imported into
    this country is increased by tariffs, or quotas,
    it helps American steel companies and workers,
    but it hurts firms that had been purchasing the
    once-cheap Japanese steel.

26
  • Client Politics
  • Washington often provides aid to American
    corporations doing business abroad because the
    aid helps those firms directly without imposing
    any apparent costs on an equally distinct group
    in society.
  • Ex our policy toward Israel has in part
    reflected the fact that Jews in this country feel
    strongly about the need to support a Jewish state
    abroad and are well organized to make those
    concerns felt. our textbook

27
The Presidents Role
  • 1845 James K Polk sent troops into Mexico to
    defend newly acquired Texas
  • 1861 Abraham Lincoln blockaded southern ports
    and declared martial law
  • 1950 Harry Truman sent American troops into S.
    Korea to help them repulse an attack from N.
    Korea.
  • 1960s JFK and LBJ sent American forces into S.
    Vietnam without a declaration of war
  • 1983 Reagan sent troops to overthrow a
    pro-Castro regime in Grenada
  • 1989 George HW Bush ordered invasion of Panama
    to depose dictator Manuel Noriega
  • 1990 Bush ordered troops to Saudi Arabia in
    response to Iraqs invasion of Kuwait
  • 1999 Bill Clinton ordered the military to attack
    with bombs and cruise missiles Serbian forces
    that were trying to control Kosovo
  • 2001 George W. Bush sent US troops to liberate
    Afghanistan from the Taliban
  • 2003 The city of Baghdad was bombed

28
Worldviews and how they shape foreign policy
  • Worldviews (paradigms) are comprehensive mental
    pictures of the critical problems facing the
    United States in the world and of the appropriate
    and inappropriate ways of responding to these
    problems.

29
Four key worldviews in American Foreign Policy
  • Isolationism
  • Adopted after WWI because our efforts to help
    European allies had turned sour, lost thousands
    of American lives, and had not made the world
    safe for democracy as Woodrow Wilson had
    stated. This was very popular from the 1920s to
    late 30s.

30
  • Containment
  • Result of WWII/Pearl Harbor
  • An attempt to build a network of defensive
    alliances in Europe and Asia to intervene with
    the spread of communism/ other corrupt
    governments (Korea, Vietnam, Eastern Europe)

31
  • 3. Disengagement
  • aka Vietnam view, meaning entry into Vietnam,
    or any current entanglement, had/has led to a
    military defeat and a domestic political
    disaster.
  • Considered an elitist viewpoint thinking war is
    immoral and being reluctant to American military
    involvement elsewhere.

32
  • Human rights
  • Idea that the US should intervene in other
    countries affairs when human rights are being
    violated.
  • Geneva conventions provide guidelines
    http//www.spj.org/gc-texts.asp

33
Other things that shape foreign policy
  • Economy (current recession)
  • Environment (Kyoto protocol)
  • Personal dogmas
  • The United Nations (NATO, SALT, other
    international agreements/alliances)

34
What do you think?
  • These are a few highlights from John Perkinss
    book Confessions of an Economic Hit Man.
    According to the author, economic hit men are
    highly paid professionals who cheat countries
    around the globe out of trillions of dollars.
    They play a games as old as Empire but one that
    has taken on terrifying dimensions during this
    time of globalization.

35
  • 1974- Saudi royal family agrees to invest
    billions of dollars of oil income in US
    securities and to allow the US Dept. of Treasury
    to use the interest from those investments to
    hire US firms to build power and water systems,
    highways, ports, and cities in the kingdom. In
    exchange, the US guarantees the royal family will
    continue to rule.

36
  • 1981- Ecuadorian president Jaime Roldos (who is
    against American oil interests) and Panamanian
    president Omar Torrijos (wants Panama Canal to be
    strictly under their rule) die in fiery airplane
    crashes that have markings of CIA assassinations.
    So events like this have shaped our foreign
    policy

37
Or maybe
  • The US should not negotiate with communist
    countries such as Cuba, Colombia, and should also
    avoid relationships with unstable countries such
    as Iran and North Korea that want nuclear
    proliferation.
  • The US was attacked out of the blue on 9/11 and
    had every right to invade Afghanistan to find and
    eradicate Taliban and Al Qaeda.
  • In a continuing effort to secure the nation, the
    government believed that a pre-emptive strike was
    necessary in Iraq, a volatile dictatorship that
    has been known for its support of terrorist
    groups such as the Taliban and Al Qaeda.
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