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Teaching Strategies

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Teaching Strategies Chapter 9 Direct and Indirect Instruction Direct instruction task-oriented but relaxed environment with a clear focus on academic goals clear ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching Strategies


1
Teaching Strategies
  • Chapter 9

2
Direct and Indirect Instruction
  • Direct instruction
  • task-oriented but relaxed environment with a
    clear focus on academic goals
  • clear instructional goals and high teacher
    monitoring
  • structured learning activities
  • immediate academically oriented feedback

3
Direct and Indirect Instruction
  • Indirect instruction
  • teacher control of the learning process becomes
    shared with students
  • content presented holistically
  • student thinking, feeling, or interaction skills
    are built into learning experiences
  • individual nature of student abilities, interests
    and needs receive more consideration

4
Teaching Directly
  • Break down skills into manageable parts
  • Clearly describe and demonstrate exactly what the
    learner is to do
  • Design structured tasks for students to practice
    what is to be learned
  • Hold students accountable for the tasks that are
    presented
  • Evaluate students and their own teaching in terms
    of what students have learned

5
Teaching Indirectly
  • Design tasks that involve the student at a higher
    level of cognitive processing
  • Select large meaningful chunks of content
  • Involve the learner in the process of learning
  • Develop independent learning skills

6
The Teaching Strategy as a Delivery System
  • Teaching strategies organize instruction so that
    teaching functions are performed in different
    ways
  • selection of content
  • communication of tasks
  • progression of content
  • provision for feedback and evaluation

7
Selection of Content
  • How can content be made more appropriate for
    different students?
  • Should each student be doing the same thing at
    the same time?
  • Should content be different for different
    students?
  • What level of student engagement should the
    content seek to develop?

8
Communication of Tasks
  • How should the content be communicated to the
    learner?
  • verbally by the teacher
  • verbally by the student
  • written handouts/task cards
  • computer programs
  • audiovisual materials

9
Progression of Content
  • Intertask (skill to skill) and intratask (within
    a skill) development
  • How should students progress from one level to
    another?
  • Who decides when a student progresses?
  • Should criteria be established for performance?
  • Should criteria be established ahead of time?
  • Should criteria be communicated to students? How?

10
Provision for Feedback and Evaluation
  • Teacher observation
  • Peer feedback
  • Self-assessment
  • Environmental design
  • Formal testing
  • Videotaping

11
The Seven Teaching Strategies
  • Interactive teaching
  • Station teaching
  • Peer teaching
  • Cooperative learning
  • Self-instructional strategies
  • Cognitive strategies
  • Team teaching

12
Interactive Teaching
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

13
Interactive Teaching - Strengths
  • Teaching can be individualized based on
    alternative responses
  • New content can be presented and adjusted
    midstream
  • Progression is based on previous responses of the
    student and can be made appropriate
  • Teacher is free to give feedback during activity

14
Interactive Teaching- Weaknesses
  • Strategy is often abused by selecting on task for
    the whole class
  • Teacher plays dominant role in task communication
    limiting the role of the learner
  • Requires highly developed teacher analysis and
    observation skills
  • Teacher cant get to all students to give feedback

15
Station Teaching
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

16
Station Teaching - Strengths
  • Many tasks can be given at one time to
    individualize
  • Materials can be preplanned and established
  • Appropriate progressions can be built in
    materials
  • Feedback must be built in materials to students

17
Station Teaching - Weaknesses
  • Students need independent working skills
  • Media used to communicate tasks are usually not
    used well by students
  • Quality of response is difficult to build into
    materials
  • Feedback is hard to provide when students are
    working on different tasks

18
Peer Teaching
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

19
Peer Teaching - Strengths
  • Peer teacher profits from the process
  • Many different tasks and levels of tasks can be
    provided
  • Peer teachers often use simpler language to
    communicate
  • Immediate feedback can be given to many students
    at one time

20
Peer Teaching- Weaknesses
  • Peer teachers may be put in a difficult social
    relationship
  • Peer teachers are not qualified to select
    appropriate content
  • Peer teaching requires a lot of teacher
    structuring/time
  • Peer teachers do not have the experience to
    select appropriate teaching cues
  • Feedback must be guided by the teacher

21
Cooperative Learning
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

22
Cooperative Learning - Strengths
  • Content is more holistic/meaningful
  • Content can be communicated directly/indirectly
  • Teachers can build progressions into tasks
  • Teachers can provide feedback during independent
    work of students
  • Project usually has a culmination which can be
    evaluated

23
Cooperative Learning- Weaknesses
  • Needs student independent working skills
  • Difficult to prepare content for heterogeneous
    groups
  • Takes time to prepare good materials
  • Requires more time to present holistic tasks
  • Progression is usually student decisions
  • Not easy to separate individual from group
    contributions

24
Self-Instructional
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

25
Self-Instructional - Strengths
  • Content can be made appropriate for the
    individual
  • Learner can refer to materials when there is a
    question
  • Progression can be built into materials

26
Self-Instructional - Weaknesses
  • It takes a long time to prepare materials
  • It is difficult to communicate what is important
    in movement through written materials
  • Pre-established progressions may not be
    appropriate
  • Feedback must be built into materials
  • Teachers spend a good deal of their time
    evaluating students

27
Cognitive Strategies
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

28
Cognitive Strategies - Strengths
  • Can involve the learner more holistically
  • Tasks can be presented using any organizational
    strategy
  • Full range of teacher-student directed
    progressions can be used by this strategy
  • If used with more student indirect work, teacher
    is free to give feedback

29
Cognitive Strategies - Weaknesses
  • Time spent in the cognitive is time taken from
    practice
  • Tasks take longer to prepare and present
  • Has strengths and weaknesses of other strategies
    used with it

30
Team Teaching
  • Selection of content
  • Communication of tasks
  • Progression of content
  • Provision for feedback and evaluation

31
Team Teaching - Strengths
  • Can use expertise of two teachers
  • Can deliver other instructional functions using
    any strategy
  • Second teacher is free to individualize student
    work
  • Feedback and evaluation can be assigned to the
    free teacher

32
Team Teaching - Weaknesses
  • Requires more planning time to get together
  • Requires teachers to work together well
  • Team teaching sometimes turns into turn
    teaching
  • You are still working with a larger group than
    you would with two separate teachers
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