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Francis Bacon

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Title: Francis Bacon


1
Lecture 5
The Seventeenth Century The Eighteenth Century
2
Contents
  • Historical Background
  • Metaphysical Poets and Cavalier Poets
  • The Age of Reason and the Rise of Novel

3
Historical Background
  • English Bourgeois Revolution (pp. 159-161)
  • Development of the Burgher class
  • Persecution of the Puritans
  • Puritanism Be simple
  • A simple religious belief
  • A simple manner of worship
  • A simple manner of church organization
  • Represented Interests of the bourgeoisie
  • The King James Bible of 1611 (pp. 162-168)

4
Historical Events
  • 16421649
  • 1653 1658
  • 1660 1685
  • 1688
  • Charles I --
    Monarchy
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • Lord Protector
  • --Commonwealth
  • Charles II
  • James II
  • --Restoration
  • William of Orange
  • The Bill of Rights
  • -- Constitutional monarchy

5
The King James Bible of 1611
  • James I
  • 7 years
  • 47 best scholars in the country
  • Old Testament
  • in Hebrew
  • New Testament
  • in Greek
  • Testament
  • the covenant between God and the Hebrews

6
God Man
  • Adam
  • Eve
  • Satan (the serpent)
  • tree of knowledge

7
Adam
  • Creation of Adam

8
Eve
  • Creation of Eve

9
Adam Eve
10
Edenthe Paradise
11
Tree of Knowledge
12
The Forbidden Fruit
13
Satanthe former Lucifer
14
The fall of Man
15
Driven Out of Eden
16
Original Sin
17
Cultural information
  • "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return."
  • This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my
    flesh she shall be called Woman, because she was
    taken out of Man
  • God bless you (when someone sneezes)

18
Francis Bacon (pp.169-181)
  • Began the long tradition of the English essay
  • 58 essays
  • Conciseness
  • Brevity
  • Simplicity
  • Forcefulness

19
Metaphysical Cavalier poets (P.182)
Metaphysical Poets Cavalier Poets
Characteristics imagery thoughts paradox ... expression Courtliness Urbanity Polish
Themes Love Death Religion Love Carpe diem (seize the day)
Representative John Donne Ben Jonson
20
John Donne (pp. 183-195)
  • Songs and Sonnets
  • 55 love lyrics
  • Negative attitude towards love
  • Positive attitude towards love

21
Donnes Divine Essays
  • "No man is an island, entire of itself
    every man is a piece of the continent, a part of
    the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea,
    Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory
    were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of
    thine own were any man's death diminishes me,
    because I am involved in mankind, and therefore
    never send to know for whom the bell tolls it
    tolls for thee." (Meditation No. 17 from
    "Devotions upon Emergent Occasions" ,1624)

22
Ben Jonson (pp. 198-199)
  • Dramatist
  • Comedies of Humors
  • Poet
  • Song to Celia

23
John Milton (pp. 202-215)
  • Life
  • -- Born into a Puritan family
  • -- At Cambridge
  • M.A. in 1632
  • -- At Horton (1632-1638)
  • -- As Latin Secretary to the Council of State
    (16491660)
  • -- Finished Paradise Lost in 1665
  • -- Lost his sight (16521674)

24
Paradise Lost (pp. 209-215)
  • from Genesis
  • Central theme -- the fall of man
  • Plot
  • Purpose
  • Comments

25
Plot
  • Adam / Eve
  • humanist pursuit for happiness
  • Satans rebellion against God
  • Satan -- Lucifer (the highest angel in heaven)
  • the indomitable will to defy tyranny and plot
    revenge

26
Purpose
  • To assert eternal Providence and justify the
    ways of God to man

27
Comments
  • Contents
  • -- Satan and his followers are condemned
  • -- Enthusiasm for humanistic elements
  • Miltonic style
  • -- blank verse
  • -- long and involved sentences
  • -- Latinate elaborate patterns from Latin,
    e.g. inversion
  • -- allusions to classic works
  • Man of thought
  • revolutionary enthusiasm / hatred for
    despotic ruler

28
John Bunyan (pp. 216-224)
  • The Pilgrims Progress
  • Form allegory drama
  • Plot a pilgrimage to the kingdom of Heaven
  • Comments

29
Comments
  • a faithful panoramic reflection
  • preaching his religious view be read as
    religious books
  • containing piercing exposure of social evils
  • prose style simple and lively language

30
The 18th Century The Age of Reason
  • Historical Background
  • Daniel Defoe
  • Jonathan Swift

31
Historical Background (pp. 232-237)
  • In politics
  • Britain a constitutional monarch
  • The leading naval power in Europe
  • In cultural life
  • Political writings
  • Newspapers and journals
  • Coffeehouses
  • The New Morality
  • Science and technology
  • The French influence

32
Coffeehouses
  • Latter half of 17th century and 18th century
  • Wills in Covent Garden John Dryden
  • Spectator ClubAddison
  • Influence on the later generationPickwick
    ClubDickens (19th century)

33
The new morality
  • Age of reason
  • Moderation
  • Tolerance
  • Common sense

34
The French Influence Classicism
  • In France
  • Louis XIV
  • Boileaus LArt Poetique (1674)
  • a declaration of classicism
  • The models Horace / Ovid
  • Characterized by harmony / decorum /
    proportion

35
Neoclassicism
  • Reason gt emotion
  • Form gt content
  • Didactic / satirical writing
  • Elegance / correctness / appropriateness /
    restraint
  • Closed couplet
  • A town poetry
  • Opposed to anything romantic and rude

36
Daniel Defoe (pp. 238-250)
  • Born into a Presbyterian family
  • Put into Newgate Prison for religious disputes
  • The Shortest Way with the Dissenters
  • Hymn to the Pillory
  • Started a periodical The Review in 1704
  • Robinson Crusoe (1719)
  • Moll Flanders (1722)

37
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38
Robinson Crusoe
  • Published 1719
  • Some considered it as the first novel in English
  • Category picaresque novel
  • Theme a lowly persons wandering over the world

39
Picaresque
  • Picaro Spanish for rogue
  • somebody with a doubtful moral character
  • no fixed goal in life
  • Nor does he care much about accumulating money

40
Comments
  • the image of hero from the common stock
  • the praise of labour
  • Colonialism
  • Chauvinism
  • the first English novel glorifying the individual
    experience of ordinary people in plain and simple
    language
  • a vivid and positive portrayal of the English
    bourgeousie at its early stage of development

41
Moll Flanders
  • Memoir
  • Character Moll Flanders, a lowly woman, the
    first time in English literature
  • Theme exposes how the social system
  • victimized those like Moll
  • Structure a progress over Robinson Crusoe
  • A Great artist exposing the conflicting inner
    world of a criminal

42
Jonathan Swift (pp. 251-267)
  • Life Experience (4 stages)
  • growing-up in Dublin
  • as a private secretary of Sir William Temple
  • 17041713
  • political pamphlets / The Examiner in 1710
  • 17131745 the Dean of St. Patricks Cathedral in
    Dublin
  • Works
  • A Modest Proposal (1729)
  • Gullivers Travels (1726)

43
Gullivers Travels
  • Hero Lemuel Gulliver
  • Plot (four voyages)
  • V1 to Lilliput high / low heels Parties
  • V2 Brobdingnag giants
  • V3 the floating island of Laputa
  • V4 the land of the Houyhnhnms wild Yahoos

44
Joseph Addison and Richard Steele (pp. 268-269)
  • Started the periodical essays the most
    characteristic genre of 18th-century literature
  • The Tatler (1709 --1911)
  • The Spectator (March 1711-- December 1712)
  • The Guardian (12 March -- 1 October, 1713)

45
Alexander Pope (pp. 280-290)
  • Literary Career Three Periods
  • An Essay on Criticism a master of poetry in the
    form of heroic couplets
  • The Rape of the Lock a mock epic
  • An Essay on Man

46
Henry Fielding (pp. 299-317)
  • Life Experience
  • Political pamphlets
  • Novels
  • Shamela (a parody of Richardsons Pamela)
  • Joseph Andrews
  • Jonathan Wild the Great
  • Tom Jones
  • Amelia
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