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World History Ancient Rome


The Colosseum Romans marveled at the shows put on at the Colosseum, ancient Rome s largest stadium. Spectators watched the slaughter of exotic animals, gladiators ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History Ancient Rome

World HistoryAncient Rome
  • Unit 4

The Etruscans
Origin of the Etruscans
  • Between 900 and 500 BCE
  • Called themselves the Rasenna, the Greeks called
    them Tyrrhenioi theRomans called them the
  • Came from eastern Mediterranean, possibly Asia
  • Their land was called Etruria.

The Land of the Etruscans
The Etruscan Alphabet
Etruscan Writing Tablet
Etruscan Religion
  • Polytheistic.
  • Believed that the destiny of manwas determined
    by the whims of the gods.
  • Believed in prophecy and readingthe signs of
    nature by augurs.
  • Believed in predestination.

Etruscan Art
  • Art created for religious or practicalpurposes.
  • Most famous pieces created out ofterracotta.
  • Many murals and frescoes on tomb walls.
  • Lively depictions of lifedancing, games,music,
    and feasting.
  • Pottery at first copies of Greek works.
  • Later, created their own bronze pottery.
  • Bronze crafts mirrors, bowls, candelabra.

Dance, Dance, Spin !
Double Flutist
An Etruscan Banquet
Etruscan Wrestlers
Geography and Rome
  • Rome is located in the center of the Italian
    peninsula. This location helped the Romans expand
    in Italy and beyond.
  • The Apennine Mountains run down the center of
    Italy but are not too rugged.
  • Fertile plains supported a growing population.
  • Ancestors of the Romans settled along the Tiber
    River. These villages eventually grew into Rome.

How was Greco-Roman civilization formed?
  • The Romans borrowed heavily from Greek culture
    after they conquered Greece.
  • At the same time, Roman generals carried
    achievements of Roman civilization to conquered
  • The blending of Roman, Hellenistic, and Greek
    traditions produced Greco-Roman civilization.
  • Trade and travel during the Pax Romana helped
    spread this new civilization.

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The Roman Republic
  • In 509 B.C., the Romans drove out the Etruscans
    and set up a new government, which they called a
    republic. In a republic, some officials are
    chosen by the people.

In the early republic, the senate dominated the
government. Its members were patricians, or
members of the landholding class.
Little by little, the plebeians, or common
people, gained some political power. These
included the right to elect their own officials,
called tribunes. The tribunes could veto, or
block, laws that they felt harmed plebeians.
More than 2,000 years later, the framers of the
United States Constitution would adapt Roman
ideas of government, such as the senate, the
veto, and checks on political power.
3 Important Groups in the Roman Republic
  • The Senate
  • The Assembly of the Centuries
  • The Assembly of the Tribes

The Roman Senate
  • The Senate was the most powerful group in the
  • Composed of three hundred men
  • Controlled public funds
  • Controlled political appointments
  • Determined foreign policy
  • Sometimes acted as a court

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The Assembly of the Centuries
  • Divided its voters into voting units called
  • Each century had 100 members
  • There were 193 centuries in the Assembly

The Assembly of the Tribes
  • Made up of citizens grouped into 35 tribes
    according to where they lived
  • The group was controlled by the plebeians, or

Patricians and Plebeians
  • Patricians aristocrats of the early Roman
  • The word patrician comes from the Latin word
    pater, which means father.
  • This word was also used to describe the members
    of the Roman Senate.

  • Patricians came from wealthy families.
  • They controlled the government, army, and state

  • Plebeians the commoners in the early Roman
  • Included freed slaves, peasant farmers, and
    dependents of patricians.
  • Denied many rights.

  • For many years, plebeians were unable to vote,
    hold public office, or become priests.
  • They were not allowed to marry outside their

Why was Romes expansion in Italy successful?
Expansion in Italy
By about 270 B.C., Rome controlled most of the
Italian peninsula.
  • Skilled diplomacy
  • Loyal, well-trained army
  • Treated defeated enemies fairly
  • Gave rights to conquered people

Roman Society
Roman Religion
  • The religion of Rome was centered around trying
    to please the gods.
  • Polytheism the worship of many gods.
  • Each god was linked to a particular human
  • Every activity honoring the gods had to be
    carried out in the appropriate space.
  • Each god has an assigned space.

  • Around 400 B.C., plebeians were given the right
    to marry patricians, run for consul, and be
    eligible for priesthood.
  • In 287 B.C., the comitia tributa, an assembly of
    all the people, was given the power to make laws
    that bound everybody.

Pompeii and Vesuvius
  • Pompeii was an ancient city in Italy that became
    famous by its destruction following the eruption
    of Mount Vesuvius.
  • Pompeii became a Roman city in 91 B.C.
  • It was located on a plateau of ancient lava near
    the Bay of Naples, less than one mile from Mount

The Colosseum
  • Romans
  • marveled at
  • the shows put
  • on at the
  • Colosseum,
  • ancient Romes largest stadium.
  • Spectators watched
  • the slaughter of exotic animals, gladiators
    battling to the death, and mock naval battles.

An Architectural Marvel!
  • The Colosseum was an architectural marvel. Its
    floor was about the size of modern football
  • As many as 50,000 spectators could crown onto the
    Colosseums marble and wooden benches.
  • There, they were protected from the hot Roman sun
    by a giant canvas roof.

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  • Rome needed workers to maintain its wealth.
  • The first conquered people were welcomed as Roman
    citizens, but after 265bc, many conquered people
    were auctioned off as slaves.
  • A great deal of the grandeur of Rome was created
    by the grueling labor of slaves.

  • A slave named Spartacus led a revolt against the
    Romans 73bc.
  • Spartacus built an army of thousands of soldiers
    from slaves he and his followers liberated.
  • The slaves resisted the Roman army for more than
    two years and plundered the Italian countryside.

  • The Roman councils sent an army of 40,000
    soldiers to defeat the slave revolt.
  • Spartacus was milled in battle, but six thousand
    of his soldiers were taken prisoner and
  • Crucifixion is a form of execution where the
    prisoner is nailed to a cross and left to die a
    slow, painful death.
  • Crosses stretched for miles along the Apian Way,
    one of Romes most traveled roadways.
  • They served as a gruesome reminder of the
    strength and the brutality of the Roman army.

  • In the summer of A.D. 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted
  • Hot ashes, stones, and cinders rained down on
  • Remains of about 2,000 victims out of a
    population of 20,000 have been found in
  • About three-fourths of the city of Pompeii has
    been uncovered by archeologists.

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Decline of the Republic
  • Conquered people forced to work as slaves
    quantities of grain

Small farmers no longer needed to produce food
New wealth increases corruption
Farmers flock to Rome and other cities looking
for jobs Greed and self-interest replace virtues
of simplicity, hard work, and devotion to duty
Civil wars
From Republic to Empire
Civil wars
Julius Caesar forces the Roman senate to make him
Caesar institutes reforms to try to solve Romes
many problems.
Caesar is killed by enemies who feared that he
planned to make himself king of Rome.
More civil wars break out.
Octavian defeats Mark Antony in a struggle for
The Roman senate gives Octavian the title of
Augustus, or Exalted One, and declares him first
The 500-year republic comes to an end. The age of
the Roman empire begins.
Winning an Empire
After gaining control of the Italian peninsula,
Rome began to build an empire around the
Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Romans followed a policy of imperialism,
    establishing control over foreign lands and
  • Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia
    Minor became Roman provinces, or lands under
    Roman rule.

  • When Hannibal was born in 247 BCE, his birthplace
    Carthage was losing a long and important war.
  • Carthage had been the Mediterranean's most
    prosperous seaport and it possessed wealthy
  • However, it had suffered severe losses from the
    Romans in the First Punic War.

Prelude to Hatred
  • After Rome's victory, it stripped Carthage of its
    most important province, Sicily.
  • As a result of this chaos, a civil war broke out
    in Carthage, and Rome used this opportunity to
    seize Sardinia and Corsica as well.
  • These events must have made a great impression on
    the young Hannibal.

An Influential Father
  • Hannibal's people  originally
  • came from the Middle East.
  • He was the oldest son of the Carthaginian
  • general Hamilcar Barca
  • Hamilcar took the ten-year old boy to
  • Iberia in 237 B.C..
  • Hannibal and his father (Hamilcar) crossed to
    Spain with no army.

True or False?
  • The Romans believed that Hannibal's father forced
    his son to promise eternal hatred against the
  • In fact, it is believed that at age 9 Hannibal
    made a promise to his father to destroy the
  • This might only by an invention, but there may be
    some truth in the story after all, the
    Carthaginians had good reasons to hate their

  • When Hamilcar died in 229 B.C., his son-in-law
    Hasdrubal the Fair took over command.
  • The new governor secured the
  • Carthaginian position by diplomatic
  • means, among which was intermarriage between
    Carthaginians and Iberians.
  • Hannibal married a native princess.
  • It is likely that the young man visited Carthage
    in these years.

Hannibal Becomes General!
  • In 221 B.C., Hasdrubal was murdered and Hannibal
    was elected commander by the Carthaginian army in
  • The Carthaginian government confirmed the
  • Hannibal returned to his father's aggressive
    military politics and did whatever possible to
    build up Carthage and make it strong.

  • Tensions between Carthage and Rome were still
    strong after the first Punic War.
  • Rome felt threatened by Carthages expansion and
  • Rome also felt that it was necessary to take
    territory from Carthage in order to subdue
    Carthage and to expand itself.
  • In addition, Rome wanted to control more of the

The Punic Wars
  • After 350 B.C. the Romans began to expand their
    rule beyond their city.
  • The first objective was to capture the rest of
  • By 275 B.C. Rome ruled much of it.

  • The power of Rome soon came in contact with
    Carthage, a large and powerful city on the coast
    of North Africa.

  • Carthage feared that Rome would try to take
    Sicily, and Rome feared that Carthage would close
    the Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily.
  • The result was a series of three wars.

The First Punic War
  • Began in 264 B.C. and ended twenty three years
    later when Rome gained control of Sicily.

  • At the Battle of Zama, Romans stampeded
    Hannibal's 80 war elephants using trumpets to
    scare and confuse them.

Carthage often used war elephants and trained
them to fight by trampling prisoners
The Second Punic War
  • Began in 218 B.C. and ended in 202 B.C. when Rome
    defeated Hannibal.
  • As a result, it gained control of Spain

  • The Spanish soldiers who helped Hannibal wanted
    the severed hands of the enemy as trophies.
  • Before entering the Pyrenees, Hannibal lost
    thousands of men in battles and desertions.

  • The elephants crossed the Rhine river in France
    by walking across on their hind legs, swimming,
  • tricked onto rafts with dirt that looked like
    solid ground.

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  • Between the Pyrenees in Spain and the Alps in
    Italy Hannibal had lost 44,000 men.
  • Finally in Italy, Hannibal had only 26,000 men
    (he started with 70,000)
  • Enemies of Rome in Italy gave Hannibal thousands
    of soldiers to help defeat Rome.

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Defeat for Hannibal
  • After the 1st battle in Italy, only one elephant
    was left.
  • Swamp fever in northern Italy killed many
    soldiers and animals and caused Hannibal to lose
    one eye.
  • Brother Hasdrubal came with an army to help but
    was defeated - his head was cut off by the Romans
    and sent to Hannibal.

  • Hannibal did not attack the city of Rome because
    he knew it was no use.
  • One of Hannibal's generals said "You know,
    Hannibal, how to fight. You do not know how to
    win." - He had wanted Hannibal to attack and
    destroy the capital of the Romans.

The Third Punic War
  • Began in 149 B.C. when Rome declared war on
  • After a bitter siege, the city fell to the Roman
    Empire in 146 B.C. and was totally destroyed.

  • At the end of the 3rd Punic War, Carthage
    citizens fought from every house and rooftop -
    450,000 died or were made slaves in the 3 year
  • Rome had won again!

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The Roman Empire at Its Height
By 133 B.C., Roman power extended from Spain to
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
  • Julius Caesar was one of the greatest statesmen
    and military leaders that the world has ever
  • His brilliant leadership resulted in many reforms
    and helped make Rome the center of a region that
    extended across Europe.

Caesars Accomplishments
  • Governed the empire
  • Improved the calendar system
  • Tried to reconcile opponents by appointing them
    to office
  • Set up colonies (such as Corinth and Carthage)
    where poor people in Rome could go to improve
    their way of living

  • Stopped dishonest government practices
  • Granted Roman citizenship to many of the
    conquered people
  • Planned a way to reorganize city government in
  • Replaced dishonest governors with honest ones
  • Gave free gain only to the people who really
    needed it

  • Planned the founding of public libraries
  • Planned construction of a canal across Isthmus of
  • Known as a great writer and orator

  • Julius Caesar was able to accomplish many things,
    but he also made enemies of some important Roman
  • In 44 B.C. Caesar was murdered on the steps of
    the Senate by a group of Roman aristocrats who
    feared his power.

  • This marked the end of the Roman Republic and the
    beginning of the Roman Empire ruled by emperors.

  • Julius Caesar found himself in the middle of a
    family feud when he arrived in Egypt in 47bc.
  • King Ptolemy XII willed his throne to his
    ten-year-old son, Ptolemy XIII, and his
    eighteen-year-old daughter, Cleopatra.
  • The brother and sister were to rule Egypt as
    husband and wife, but Ptolemy XIII forced his
    sister from the throne in an attempt to seize
    total power.

  • Cleopatra saw an opportunity to return to power
    when she learned Caesar was in Egypt.
  • She arranged to have herself smuggled into
    Caesars suite by wrapping herself in an
    ornamental carpet.
  • Caesar unraveled his gift to find the former
  • The sly Cleopatra impressed Caesar.
  • His army defeated the people who had removed
    Cleopatra from power.
  • Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile River while try
    to escape Caesars army.

  • The 54-year-old Caesar began a love affair with
    the much younger Cleopatra, who gave birth to
    Caesars only son, Caesarion.
  • While Caesar was popular with the Roman people,
    Cleopatra was looked upon with suspicion because
    she was a foreigner.

Caesar Augustus
  • In his will, Julius Caesar named his grandnephew,
    Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus) as
    heir to rule Rome.

  • However, when Caesar died, there was a scramble
    to gain control of the government.
  • The Second Triumvirate was formed in 43 B.C. with
    Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus.

Photos courtesy of HBO productions
  • Octavian eventually gained sole power, just like
    Julius Caesar wanted.
  • When Lepidus retired, Octavians only rival was
    Marc Antony.
  • He was given the title Augustus, which means
    exalted one in 27 B.C.
  • From that time on, he was known as Caesar

Photo courtesy of HBO productions
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  • Marc Antony led the Roman army in Egypt, where he
    met and fell in love with Cleopatra.
  • Antony and Cleopatra hoped to oust Octavian and
    rule together, but Octavian used the relationship
    between Antony and the unpopular Cleopatra to his
  • He told the Roman people that Cleopatra had cast
    a spell on Antony.
  • Octavian argued that Antony was willing to give
    away the Roman world to a foreign woman.
  • The Roman people supported Octavian when he
    declared war on Antony and Cleopatra.

  • Octavians forces defeated Antony and Cleopatras
    ships in the Battle of Actium on the
    Mediterranean Sea in 31bc.
  • Antony and Cleopatra managed to escape the
    encounter and returned to Egypt, but when
    Octavians army approached, Marc Antony committed
  • When Cleopatra learned of Antonys death, she
    realized she would soon no longer be Queen.
  • According to legend, Cleopatra wrapped an asp
    around her arm.
  • The asp was a venomous snake that was the symbol
    for the Egyptian royalty.
  • The asps bite supposedly ended Cleopatras life.

Augustus reforms
  • Created efficient civil service to enforce the
  • Opened up high-level jobs to men of talent,
    regardless of race.
  • Allowed cities and provinces to govern
  • Ordered a census, or population count, in order
    to make the tax system more fair.
  • Set up a postal service and issued new coins.
  • Employed the jobless.

Roman Empire and Roman Peace
Augustus laid the foundation for a stable
government that would function well for 200
years. This period was called the Pax Romana.
Pax Romana
  • Pax Romana the Roman peace, was the period from
    27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
  • The period of peace was brought about by the
    ability of the Romans to rule others and maintain
    their authority through an efficient government
    both at home and abroad.
  • The Roman law, military organization, trade, and
    transportation helped to hold the empire together.

  • Government was the strongest tie holding the
  • The Roman army also helped to maintain the Roman
  • Auxiliaries troops from the provinces that
    assisted the Roman army.
  • They were promised Roman citizenship at the end
    of their service.

Roman Advances in Literature, History,
History Historians wrote about the rise and fall
of Roman power.
Poetry Writers imitated Greek styles in prose
and poetry. Virgil praised Romes heroic past in
the Aeneid. Poets used verse to satirize, or
make fun of, Roman society.
Philosophy Roman philosophers borrowed heavily
from the Greeks. Stoics emphasized acceptance of
ones fate and concern for the well-being of
Roman Advances in Art and Science
Romans left scientific research to the
Greeks. Ptolemy proposed that Earth was the
center of the universe. Galen used experiments to
prove a conclusion.
Built roads, bridges, and harbors throughout
empire Built many aqueducts
Emphasized grandeur Improved column and
arch Developed rounded dome
Sculptors stressed realism. Artists depicted
life scenes in frescoes and mosaics.
Roman Law
During the Roman empire, these principles of
lawfostered unity and stability
  • An accused person was presumed to be innocent
    until proven guilty.
  • The accused was permitted to face the accuser and
    offer a defense.
  • Guilt had to be established through evidence.
  • Judges were expected to interpret the laws and
    make fair decisions.

Centuries later, these principles would become
the basis for legal systems in Europe and the
Roman Law
  • Roman law was an important tie that bound the
    empire together.
  • Romans published their first known code of law
    about 450 B.C.
  • This code, The Laws of the Twelve Tables, set
    down accepted practices in written form.

The laws were inscribed on twelve tablets which
were fastened to the speakers stand in the Roman
  • These laws formed the basis of individual rights
    of Roman citizens.
  • The laws dealt with
  • Legal procedures
  • Property ownership
  • Building codes
  • Punishment for crimes
  • And marriage customs

The Law of the Twelve Tables could be modified
and expanded in two ways
  1. New laws were passed when they were needed.
  2. Judges interpreted the old laws to fit new

  • The concept that certain basic legal principles
    are common to all humans was first developed
    during Roman times!
  • An example is the principle that people are
    innocent until proven guilty.

Roman Military
  • Ancient Rome was able to conquer a vast empire
    because of its well-trained and well-disciplined
  • The Roman army was organized into legions.
  • A Centurion commanded a group of about 80
  • Most Roman soldiers were stationed in forts.

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Gifts From Ancient Rome
  • Rome has made many contributions to our own
  • The capital letters of our alphabet were given
    their final form by the Romans.
  • Roman numerals
  • The names of the months on our calendar also came
    from Rome.
  • In many areas conquered by Rome, the Latin
    language became part of the native language.

The Teachings of Jesus
  • Some of Jesus teachings were rooted in Judaism
  • Belief in one God
  • Ten Commandments
  • Mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless
  • Obedience to the laws of Moses
  • Jesus also preached new beliefs
  • Called himself the Son of God
  • Proclaimed that he brought salvation and eternal
    life to anyone
    who would believe in him
  • Jesus also emphasized Gods love and taught the
    need for justice, morality, and
    service to others.

Spread of Christianity
  • At first, the apostles and disciples preached
    only in Judea.
  • Disciples began to preach inJewish communities
    throughout the Roman world.Jews who accepted
    thebeliefs of Jesus became the first
  • Paul spread Christianity beyond the Jewish
    communities, to non-Jews.

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The Early Christian Church
  • Early Christian communities shared a common faith
    and a common way of worship.
  • A bishop was responsible for all Christians in a
    particular area called a diocese.
  • Gradually, some bishops became patriarchs, with
    authority over other bishops in their area.
  • The Christian Church thus developed a hierarchy.

Religious Diversity in the Early Empire
  • As long as people honored Roman gods and
    acknowledged the divine spirit of the emperor,
    they were allowed to worship other gods as they
  • After the Romans conquered Judea, they excused
    the monotheistic Jews from worshiping the Roman
  • Rome mistrusted Christians because they refused
    to make sacrifices to the emperor or honor the
    Roman gods.
  • Roman officials persecuted the Christians. Many
    Christians became martyrs, people who suffer or
    die for their beliefs.

The Julio-Claudian Emperors
  • The Julio-Claudian emperors were all related to
    Julius Caesar.
  • Tiberius was considered an adequate ruler.
  • Caligula was insane and eventually was murdered.
  • Caligula said he got better advice from his horse
    than from the senate, so he appointed the horse
    as one of his top advisors.

  • Claudius ruled wisely and added Britain to the
  • Nero, who was hated, committed suicide.
  • Nero was perhaps the most notorious emperor in
    Roman history.
  • Nero became emperor when his mother conspired to
    kill his stepfather.
  • Once Nero came to power,
  • he ordered his mothers
  • execution.
  • He also killed two wives and
  • a stepbrother.
  • Nero ruled the empire by day,
  • but at night he prowled the
  • streets of Rome assaulting
  • women.

  • He believed himself to be the
  • greatest artist in the empire.
  • Never before had a Roman
  • Emperor appeared on a
  • stage.
  • Many Roman nobles considered
  • his performances outrageous,
  • but no one would risk torture
  • or death by criticizing him.
  • In ad67, Nero toured Greece. He participated in
    many games and contests, always finishing first.
  • As Nero devoted himself to his artistic pursuits,
    he lost power.
  • In ad68, Nero faced a revolt from his soldiers.
  • His guard claimed Nero lamented, What an artist
    the world is losing, then stabbed himself in the

The Good Emperors
  • The Good Emperors ruled Rome for 84 years.
  • Trajan acquired land in Asia, bringing the empire
    to its greatest size.
  • Marcus Aurelius defended against threats from the
    north and east.

  • After the death of Marcus Aurelius, Rome began a
    long period of confusion and decline.

The Long Decline
  • Roman emperors try to end the crisis in the
  • Hun invasions contribute to the decline of Rome
  • Economic and social problems lead to the fall of

The Empire in Crisis
With the end of the Pax Romana, political and
economic turmoil rocked the Roman empire.
Political Problems
Economic Social Problems
  • High taxes to support the army burdened business
    people and farmers.
  • Poor farmers were forced to work and live on
    wealthy estates.
  • Over cultivated farmland lost its productivity.
  • Emperors were repeatedly overthrown or
  • In one 50-year period, 26 emperors ruled, and
    only one died of natural causes.

Two Reformers
  • Divided the empire into two parts to make it
    easier to govern
  • Tried to increase the prestige of the emperor
  • Fixed prices to slow inflation, or the rapid rise
    of prices
  • Established laws to ensure steady production of
    food and goods
  • Continued Diocletians reforms
  • Granted toleration to Christians, which led to
    the rapid growth of Christianity
  • Built a new capital at Constantinople, making the
    eastern part of the empire the center of power

Foreign Invasions
  • A weakened Rome could not withstand the forces of
    Germanic invasions.
  • The Huns dislodged other Germanic peoples and,
    little by little, conquered the Roman empire.

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