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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS

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ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 ... Back Care Program BOSH Training 2009 ... Discuss and explain common hazards in the workplace and their effects to workers health. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS


1
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS
2
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3
OBJECTIVES
  • Discuss and explain common hazards in the
    workplace and their effects to workers health.
  • Recommend appropriate measures to prevent
    occupational and work-related illnesses.

4
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ( ILO/WHO )
  • Promote and maintain the highest degree of
    physical, mental social well-being of workers
    of all occupations
  • Prevent workers from departures due to health
    caused by their working conditions
  • Protect workers in their working environment from
    hazards and risks usually causing adverse health
    effects
  • Place maintain a worker in an occupational
    environment adapted to his/her physiological
    ability

5
HAZARD AND RISK
  • HAZARD
  • - any source of potential damage, harm or
    adverse health effects on something or someone
    under certain conditions at work.
  • RISK
  • - the chance or probability that a person will
    be harmed or experience an adverse health effect
    if exposed to a hazard.

6
CHEMICAL HAZARDS
7
Chemical Hazards
Routes of entry into the body
8
Chemical Hazards
Routes of excretion
Respiratory (exhalation)
Skin (sweat, hair, nails)
Gastro-intestinal (feces)
Renal (urine)
9
Chemical Hazards
  • Measures of concentration of toxic substances
  • Threshold Limit Value (TLV)- average
    concentration of an airborne substance to which
    most workers could be safely exposed over an
    eight-hour working day or forty-hour working week
    throughout a working lifetime
  • Maximal Allowable Concentration (MAC)- peak or
    maximum concentration of an airborne to which
    most workers could be safely exposed.

10
Chemical Hazards
  • Classification of Toxic Effects
  • Local toxicity- occurs at the site of chemical
    contact
  • Systemic toxicity- occurs distant from point of
    contact, may involve many organ systems
  • Acute toxicity- occurs almost immediately
    (hours/days) after an exposure
  • Chronic toxicity- represents cumulative damage to
    specific organ systems occurs many months or
    years to have recognizable clinical disease

11
Chemical Hazards
  • Health Effects
  • Renal Diseases
  • Respiratory Diseases
  • Skin Diseases
  • Hematologic Diseases
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Neurologic Diseases
  • Carcinogenic
  • Teratogenic

12
Chemical Hazards
Effects Chemical Agent Industry/Process
Renal Diseases acute/chronic renal failure Mercury, cadmium, chloroform Battery, chemical industries, pesticide
Respiratory Diseases Irritation, inflammation Solvents, ammonia Chemical industries
Pneumoconiosis Inorganic dust Mining, construction, sandblasting, coal
Cancer Chromium Plating, metal refining
13
Chemical Hazards
Blood Diseases Anemia Lead Battery mfg., lead smelting
Aplastic anemia Benzene Solvent soap mfg.
Skin Diseases Allergic/contact dermatitis Plastic epoxides Plastic, varnish
Acne Cutting oils, grease Machine-tool operators
Skin Cancer Arsenic, tar Petroleum refinery
14
Chemical Hazards
Liver Disease Acute liver toxicity Carbon tetrachloride Cleaning fluids, dry cleaners
Liver cancer Vinyl chloride Plastics vinyl chloride mfg.
Cardiovascular Disease Hypertension Lead, Cadmium Battery mfg. recycling
Atherosclerosis Carbon disulfide Degreasing, dry cleaning
Arrythmias Fluorocarbon, trichloroethylene Refrigeration, solvent workers
15
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
16
Physical Hazards
  • Noise
  • Vibration
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Illumination
  • Radiation

17
NOISE
18
Ear Anatomy
19
NOISE
  • Types of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
  • Temporary Threshold Shift (auditory fatigue)
  • temporary loss of hearing acuity after exposure
    to loud noise
  • recovery within 16-48 hrs
  • Permanent Threshold Shift
  • irreversible loss of hearing

20
NOISE
  • Early Signs of Hearing Loss
  • Difficulty in understanding spoken words in a
    noisy environment
  • Need to be near or look at the person speaking to
    help understand words
  • Familiar sounds are muffled
  • Complaints that people do not speak clearly
  • Ringing noises in the ears (tinnitus)

21
  • Other Harmful Effects of Noise
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperacidity
  • Palpitations
  • Disturbs relaxation and sleep

22
VIBRATION
23
VIBRATION
  • Physical factor which affects man by transmission
    of mechanical energy from oscillating sources
  • Types
  • Segmental vibration
  • Whole body vibration

24
Segmental Vibration
  • Health Effects
  • Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS)
  • tingling, numbness, blanching of fingers
  • pain

25
Whole Body Vibration
  • Health effects
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Headache
  • Disorders of the spine

26
EXTREME TEMPERATURE
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EXTREME TEMPERATURE
  • Sources of heat stress
  • Natural Conditions
  • Hot work processes related to furnaces, kilns,
    boilers and smelting

28
  • Health Effects of Heat Stress

Disorders Clinical features
Prickly Heat (Miliaria rubra) Pruritic rash
Heat cramps Cramps in the body, usually legs
Heat exhaustion Dizziness, fainting attack, blurring of vision, cold, clammy and sweaty skin
Heat stroke Cyanosis, muscle twitchings, disorientation, delirium, convulsions
29
EXTREME TEMPERATURE
  • Sources of Cold Environment
  • Ice plants and freezers in the food industry

30
Health Effects of Cold Temperature
  • Frostbite reddening of skin, localized burning
    pain and numbness. Fingers, toes, cheeks, nose,
    ears are most susceptible.
  • trench foot or immersion foot numbness, pain,
    cramps, ulceration and gangrene.

31
INADEQUATE ILLUMINATION
32
Inadequate Illumination
  • Health Effects
  • Visual Fatigue
  • Double Vision
  • Headaches
  • Painful irritation
  • Lacrimation
  • Conjunctivitis

33
RADIATION
34
RADIATION
Types Sources Health Effects
Ionizing X-rays Gamma rays Cancer, congenital defects, death
Non-ionizing Ultraviolet Infrared Laser skin redness, premature skin ageing, and skin cancer corneal and conjunctival burns, retinal injury, cataract Skin and eye problem
35
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
36
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
37
Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations
Agent / Disease Occupation
Colds, influenza, scarlet fever, diphtheria, smallpox May be contacted anywhere
Tuberculosis Silica workers, people exposed to heat and organic dusts, and medical personnel
Anthrax Animal handlers and handlers of carcasses, skins, or hair of infected animals, including wool carpet processors and handlers.
38
Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations
Agent / Disease Occupation
Ringworm (in horses, cattle, deer, pigs, cats, dogs, birds) Pet shop salesmen, stockmen, breeders of cats and dogs, and other animal handlers
Tetanus Farmers (spores in soil) or anyone in contact with manure.
39
Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations
Agent / Disease Occupation
Rabies (e.g. dogs, bats, rats, pigs, cats) Veterinarians, letter carriers, laboratory research workers, agricultural workers.
Fungus Farmers, outdoor workers, animal handlers
40
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS
41
ERGONOMICS
  • Human Biological Science
  • Engineering Science
  • ____________________________________

MAXIMUM SATISFACTION AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
fitting the job to the worker
42
ERGONOMICS
43
ERGONOMICS
  • Goal
  • to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders
    (MSDs) developed by workers
  • MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect
    muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or
    spinal discs.

44
ERGONOMICS
Common Symptoms of MSDs
  • Painful joints
  • Pain, tingling, numbness in hands, wrists,
    forearms, shoulders, knees and feet
  • Shooting or stubbing pains
  • Swelling or inflammation

45
ERGONOMICS
Common Symptoms of MSDs
  • Fingers or toes turning white
  • Back or neck pain
  • Stiffness

46
Risk Factor ERGONOMICS
47
Risk Factor ERGONOMICS
48
Risk Factor ERGONOMICS
49
Risk Factor ERGONOMICS
50
Risk Factor ERGONOMICS
51
ERGONOMICS
52
STRESS
53
STRESS
  • The harmful physical and emotional responses that
    occurs when the requirements of the job do not
    match the capabilities, resources or needs of the
    worker.

54
STRESS Effects
55
STRESS
Manifestations of Stress
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL
  • Heart rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Indigestion
  • BEHAVIORAL
  • Drug use
  • Alcohol intake
  • Heavy smoking
  • Impulsive emotional
  • behavior

  • Poor work family
  • relationship
  • Social isolation
  • Family abandonment
  • Sleep problems
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Tension
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Boredom
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Low esteem

56
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57
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMS
58
Key Elements of the Occupational Health Program
  • Health Protection
  • Health Promotion
  • Health Rehabilitation

59
Health and Safety Programs
Hazards/ Disease Source Health Effect Health Program
Chemical Solvents Paints, Thinners Irritant, Multisystem effects Surveillance for chemical exposure Exposure monitoring (Biologic Monitoring)
Physical Noise Woodwork Operations Hearing Impairment Hearing Conservation Program
60
Health and Safety Programs
Hazards/ Disease Source Health Effect Health Program
Biologic Tetanus Dirty Nails, soil Lockjaw, rigidity, death Immunization
Ergonomic Stresses Cumulative Trauma Disorder Awkward postures, Heavy loads Musculoskeletal Disorders Management or personnel methods Workplace modification Worker education and trainingBack Care Program
61
Health Promotion
  • Physical activity, Nutrition, Weight reduction
  • Immunization
  • OSHS, RULE 1960
  • Smoking cessation
  • RA 9211 Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003
  • HIV/AIDS
  • RA 8504 Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control
    Act of 1998
  • National Workplace Policy on STD/HIV/AIDS
    initiated by DOLE - 1997

62
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