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Solid Waste Management

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Solid Waste Management Neil Hutzler Fall 2008 * Baling Solid Waste Disposal No matter what processing is done, there will be some residue that needs to be disposed of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solid Waste Management


1
Solid Waste Management
  • Neil Hutzler
  • Fall 2008

2
Sources of Solid Wastesin the United States
  • Mining wastes (3 billion tons per year)
  • Agricultural wastes (500 million tons/yr)
  • Industrial wastes (400 million tons/yr)
  • Municipal solid waste (210 million tons/yr)
  • About 4.5 lb/person/day
  • Sewage sludge (40 million tons/yr)

3
Source USEPA
4
Source of Solid Wastes
  • Mining waste consist mainly of rock and soil
    overburden from mining operations an earth
    moving project
  • Agricultural wastes are typically organic
    residuals biodegradable and recyclable
  • Industrial wastes are widely varied have the
    potential of being hazardous
  • Municipal solid wastes (MSW) vary greatly in
    quantity and composition
  • We will focus on the management of MSW

5
Composition of Solid Wastes
  • Garbage (food rejects, organic wastes)
  • Rubbish (nonputresible wastes)
  • Combustables (paper,plastic, wood, etc.)
  • Noncombustables (metal, glass, dirt, etc.)
  • Yard wastes
  • Other materials (almost anything can be found in
    MSW)
  • Water (about 15 to 20 of MSW is water)

6
Composition of MSW
Source USEPA
7
Other Solid Waste
  • Discarded appliances, furniture, cars, etc.
  • Street sweepings and liter
  • Construction and demolition debris
  • Dead animals
  • Hazardous wastes from homes and industry
  • Sludge from water and wastewater treatment
    plants.
  • Conclusion the solid waste management engineer
    must be prepared to deal with a wide variety of
    materials

8
Municipal Solid Waste Management System
  • On-site Storage
  • Collection
  • Transport and transfer
  • Processing
  • Disposal

9
Storage
  • Responsibility of the generator of solid waste
  • Cans
  • Bags (sale can support cost of collection)
  • Bins or dumpsters
  • Compactors
  • Waste separation of recyclables

10
MSW Collection
  • Type of collection service
  • Self
  • Curbside pickup (most common)
  • Set out, set back
  • Backyard (most expensive)
  • Frequency of collection
  • Daily (large generators)
  • Once per week (most common in northern states)
  • Twice per week (most common in southern states)
  • On demand (discards, special wastes)
  • Less frequent for recyclables
  • Crew size (1 to 3 for curbside pick up, more for
    others)

11
Types of Collection Vehicles
  • Packer trucks (to increase density of MSW and
    mass of collection, compacted density 900
    lb/yd3)
  • Rear loading
  • Side loading
  • Front loading
  • Manual loading
  • Mechanical loading
  • Chassis specified by volume (e.g., 20 yd3)
  • Roll-off trucks (container left at site)
  • Truck for collection of recyclables

12
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15
Source USEPA
16
Source USEPA
17
Recycling
18
MSW Collection
  • Collection Route Design
  • Macro routing
  • Districting
  • Micro routing

19
Refuse Recycling(Every other) Green Waste Street Sweeping(Once a month)
1 Monday Monday Thursday Friday
2 Tuesday Tuesday Friday Monday
3 Wednesday Wednesday Monday Tuesday
4 Thursday Thursday Tuesday Wednesday
5 Friday Friday Wednesday Thursday
DT Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided
CC Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided Special Schedules to be Provided
Source City of Sacramento, CA
20
Truck Routing
  • Daily route method
  • A daily route is collected, workers work until
    entire route is collected
  • Large route method
  • A weekly route is established, up to workers to
    determine route
  • Single load method
  • Collect until truck is full
  • Definite working day method
  • Work 8 hour and then quit

21
Routing Heuristics -- examples
  • Do not fragment routes, keep in same area
  • Collection time plus haul time should be about
    equal for each route
  • Start collecting as close to the municipal garage
    as possible to cut down travel time
  • Do not collect heavily traveled streets during
    rush hours
  • Start routes at higher elevations
  • Make right turns as much as possible

22
Solid Waste- Truck Routing
23
Example - Routing
Start
24
Example - Routing
Start
25
Example - Routing
Start
26
Example - Routing
Start
27
Transfer
  • In cases where the processing and disposal sites
    are near the collection area, the collection
    vehicle also hauls the full load to the site.
    Need to balance size to minimize number of hauls
    versus maneuverability needed for collection
  • As distances increase the solid waste engineer
    should consider transferring the waste to a
    larger vehicle (e.g., semi trailer, rail car,
    barge)

28
Transfer
29
Transfer
30
Transfer
31
Solid Waste Processing
  • Objectives of Processing include
  • Volume reduction (baling, shredding, incineration
    (also reduces mass)
  • Size reduction (shredding, grinding)
  • Component separation (hand sorting, screening,
    magnetic separation, air classification)
  • Resource recovery (composting, energy recovery,
    materials recovery)

32
Baling
33
Baling
34
Baling
35
Solid Waste Disposal
  • No matter what processing is done, there will be
    some residue that needs to be disposed of safely
  • Options for disposal
  • Modern, engineered landfill
  • Modern, engineered landfill
  • Modern, engineered landfill

36
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Is defined as a land disposal site employing an
    engineered method of disposing of solid wastes on
    land in a manner that minimizes environmental
    hazards by spreading the solid wastes to the
    smallest practical volume, and applying and
    compacting cover material at the end of each day.

37
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Site Considerations
  • Public Opinion
  • Proximity of major roadways
  • Speed Limits
  • Load limits on roadways
  • Bridge capacities
  • Underpass limitations
  • Traffic patterns and congestion
  • Haul distance (time)
  • Detours
  • Hydrology

38
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Site Considerations
  • Availability of cover material
  • Climate (e.g. floods, mud slides, snow)
  • Zoning requirements
  • Buffer areas around the site (e.g. high trees on
    site perimeter)
  • Historic buildings, endangered species, wetlands,
    and similar environmental factors.

39
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Federal Regulations for Landfills
  • Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and
    Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA promulgated new federal
    regulations for landfills. Among these
    regulations are restrictions on distances from
    airports, flood plains, and fault areas, as well
    as limitations on construction in wetlands and
    others such as 30 meters from stream, 160 m from
    drinking water wells, 65 m from houses, schools
    and parks, 3,000 m from air port runways,
    requires synthetic liner.

40
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
41
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
42
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Methods of Operation
  • Area Method solid waste is deposited on the
    surface, compacted, then covered with a layer of
    compacted soil at the end of a working day.
  • This method is seldom restricted by topography
    flat or rolling terrain, canyons, and other types
    of depressions are all acceptable.

43
Sanitary Landfill - Area Method
44
Sanitary Landfill - Area Method
45
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Methods of Operation
  • Trench Method a trench is excavated and the
    solid waste is placed in it and compacted and
    the soil that was taken from the trench is then
    laid on the waste and compacted.
  • This method is used on level or gently sloping
    land where the water table is low. The advantage
    of this method is that the the soil taken from
    the trench can readily be used as cover.

46
Sanitary Landfill - Trench Method
47
Balefill
48
Balefill
49
Solid Waste Processing
50
Incineration
51
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Environmental Considerations
  • A well designed and operated landfill will
    minimize vectors (carrier of disease), water and
    air pollution.
  • Burning is not permitted in a landfill. Keeping
    the waste covered will prevent the production of
    flies, control of rodents and fires.
  • Two other areas of pollution are landfill gases
    and leachate.

52
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Landfill Gases
  • Principal gaseous products emitted from a
    landfill (methane and carbon dioxide) are the
    results of microbial decomposition. During the
    early life of a land fill, the gas is primarily
    carbon dioxide. But as it matures, methane is
    produced in about equal quantities as carbon
    dioxide. Methane has an economic value.
  • There are also trace quantities of volatile
    organic chemicals deposited from industrial
    wastes that can be a concern.

53
Sanitary Landfill - Gas Composition
54
Gas Collection System
  • Impermeable cap
  • Granular material
  • Collection pipes
  • Gas treatment

55
Solid Waste - Sanitary Landfill
  • Landfill Leachate
  • Liquid that passes through the landfill and that
    has extracted dissolved and suspended matter from
    it is called leachate. Liquid enters the
    landfill from external sources such as rainfall,
    surface drainage, groundwater, and the liquid in
    and produced from the decomposition of the waste.

56
Sanitary Landfill Leachate
57
Leachate Collection System
  • Impermeable liner
  • Granular material
  • Collection piping
  • Leachate storage tank
  • Leachate is trucked to a wastewater treatment
    facility

58
Reclamation
  • What should be done with a landfill that has
    reached completion?
  • Place final cover
  • Maintain gas and leachate collection systems
    until no more gas or leachate have been produced
  • Revegetate the surface
  • Do not build any structures on top
  • Typically converted to a recreational area

59
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