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MANAGEMENT

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Title: MANAGEMENT


1
MANAGEMENT
2
What is Management?
  • A set of activities
  • planning and decision making, organizing,
    leading, and controlling
  • directed at an organizations resources
  • human, financial, physical, and information
  • with the aim of achieving organizational goalsin
    an efficient and effectivemanner.

3
What is a Manager?
  • Someone whose primary responsibility is to carry
    out the management process.
  • Someone who plans and makes decisions, organizes,
    leads, and controls human, financial, physical,
    and information resources.

4
Kinds of Managers by Level
  • Top Managers
  • The relatively small group of executives who
    manage the organizations overall goals,
    strategy, and operating policies.
  • Middle Managers
  • Largest group of managers in organizations
  • Implement top managements policies and plans.
  • Supervise and coordinate lower-level managers
    activities.
  • First-Line Managers
  • Managers who supervise and coordinate the
    activities of operating employees.

5
Management in Organizations
6
Figure 1.2The Management Process
7
The Management Process (contd)
  • Planning and Decision Making
  • Setting an organizations goals and selecting a
    course of action from a set of alternatives to
    achieve them.
  • Organizing
  • Determining how activities and resources are
    grouped.
  • Leading
  • Getting organizational members to work together
    to advance the interests of the organization.
  • Controlling
  • Monitoring organizational progress towards goals.

8
Skills and the Manager
Technical Skills
Interpersonal Skills
Conceptual Skills
Fundamental Management Skills
Diagnostic Skills
Communication Skills
Decision-Making Skills
Time-Management Skills
9
Fundamental Management Skills
  • Technical
  • Skills necessary to accomplish or understand the
    specific kind of work being done in an
    organization.
  • Interpersonal
  • The ability to communicate with, understand, and
    motivate both individuals and groups.
  • Conceptual
  • The managers ability to think in the abstract.
  • Diagnostic
  • The managers ability to visualize the most
    appropriate response to a situation.

10
Fundamental Management Skills (contd)
  • Communication
  • The managers abilities both to convey ideas and
    information effectively to others and to receive
    ideas and information effectively from others.
  • Decision-Making
  • The managers ability to recognize and define
    problems and opportunities correctly and then to
    select an appropriate course of action to solve
    the problems and capitalize on opportunities.
  • Time-Management
  • The managers ability to prioritize work, to work
    efficiently, and to delegate appropriately.

11
Management Science or Art?
  • The Science of Management
  • Assumes that problems can be approached using
    rational, logical, objective, and systematic
    ways.
  • Requires technical, diagnostic, and
    decision-making skills and techniques to solve
    problems.
  • The Art of Management
  • Decisions are made and problems solved using a
    blend of intuition, experience, instinct, and
    personal insights.
  • Requires conceptual, communication,
    interpersonal, and time-management skills to
    accomplish the tasks associated with managerial
    activities.

12
CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT
  • DEFINITION
  • It is difficult to define Management because
    it is looked in to by different scholars from
    different way

13
  • The Economist consider Management as a resource
    like Land, Labour, Capital and Organisation.
  • The Bureaucrats consider it as an authority
  • The Sociologists consider managers as a part of
    the class elite class

14
Henry L.Sisk
  • Defines Management is the coordination of all
    resources through the process of Planning,
    Organizing, Directing and Controlling in order to
    attain stated objectives

15
Ralph C.Davis
  • Defines Management as a function of Executive
    Leadership
  • Peter Drucker
  • Defines Management as a Multi purpose organ that
    manager a business, Manager Mangers and Managers
    workers and work.

16
Concepts of Management
  • The terms management has been interrupted in
    several ways as below.
  • Management as an Activity
  • It is an activity like playing, studying,
    teaching etc. It is an art of getting things done
    through the effort of others

17
  • ii. Management as a Process
  • It is include the process of Planning,
    Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
    functions. As a process the management includes
    social process, integrated process, continuous
    process and interactive process

18
  • iii. Management as an Economic Sources
  • Management occupies the central place among
    other 4 ms Men, Machine, Material and Money

Man Power
Money
Material
Management
Machine
19
Management as a Team
  • Managers operate at different levels of
    authority like top, Middle, Operating etc.
    Management is managing all these activities in a
    team sprit. Managers have become elite class in
    society occupying position with enormous power
    and prestige.

20
Management as an Academic Discipline
  • Management has became a very popular field of
    study since offers a very rewarding and
    challenging career.

21
Management as a group
  • Management means the group of persons occupying
    managerial position like executives, departmental
    head, supervisor etc.

22
NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT
23
(i) Management as a goal oriented
  • The main goal of Management is to ensure
    efficiency and economy is the utilisation of
    human, physical and financial resources

24
(ii) Management is Universal
  • All type of organization like family, club,
    university, government, army, cricket team (a)
    business, require management

25
(iii) Management is an interactive force
  • Management reconciles the individual goals with
    organizational goals. It integrates human and
    other resources

26
(iv) Management is a social process
  • Management is done by the people, through the
    people and for the people concerned with
    interpersonal relationship. A good manager is a
    leader and not a boss

27
(v) Management is Multidisciplinary
  • Management depends up on wide knowledge derived
    from several discipline like engineering,
    sociology, psychology, economics etc.

28
(vi) Management is a Continuous process
  • Management is a continuous process which
    continues until the goal is achieved

29
(vii) Management is intangible
  • It is invisible force. It cannot be seen but its
    presence can be felt

30
(viii) Management Art as well as Sciences
  • Management consists of theoretical knowledge as
    well as practical application of such knowledge

31
Objectives of Management
  • Organisational objectives - It includes
  • (a) Reasonable Profit
  • (b) Survival and solvency of business
  • (c) Growth and expansion of the enterprise
  • (d) Improve the Good will and reputation

32
(ii) Personal Objectives
  • (a) Fair remuneration
  • (b) Reasonable working conditions
  • (c) Training and Development
  • (d) Participation is Management
  • (e) Security of Service

33
(iii) Social Objectives
  • (i) Prompt payment of Taxes
  • (ii) Conservation of energy
  • (iii) Preservation of ethical value

34
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
  • Board of Director
  • Managing Director Top Level
  • General Manager
  • Departmental Manager
  • Middle Level Deputy Manager
  • Asst. Manager
  • Supervisors
  • Lower Level
  • Workers

35
Figure 1.1 Kinds of Managers by Level and Area
36
Distinction Between Management and Administration
  • Oliver Sheldon defines administration as a
    function concerned with the determination of
    corporate policies, the coordination of finance,
    production, distribution, structure under the
    ultimate control of the executive

37
Distinction Between Management and Administration
(Contd.)
  • On the other hand Management is concerned with
    the executives of policy within the limit set by
    the administration. Thus administration is a
    thinking process and management as doing process

38
Three points of view
  • Administration is different from Management
  • This view is largely held by American experts.
    They held that administration is a higher level
    activity while management is a lower level
    function. The administration involves decision
    making while the management is concerned with the
    execution of policies and supervision of work.
    According to American school of thought
    Administration is superior to management.

39
(ii) Administration is a part of Management
  • According to European school of thought of
    management is inclusive of Administration and
    Organisation.
  • Management is the policy making including
    planning and guidance, where as Administration
    is executive of above planning. Thus management
    is planning agency while administration is an
    implementation agency. Thus European just
    appropriate view of Americans

40
(iii) Administration and Management are one
  • Many writers like Henri Fayol, New man viewed
    that the management and administration are one
    and same used interchangedly. The term
    Administration is more popular in Government and
    other Public sector organisation and the term
    Management is more commonly used in other
    business world.

41
iii) Administration and Management are one
(Cont.d)
  • To solve this conflict of Opinions between
    administration and management. Management
    classified into
  • (i) Administrative Management
  • (ii) Operative Management

42
Distinguish Between Administration and Management
Points of distinction Administration Management
Nature It is a determinative or thinking function It is an executive or doing function
2. Type of Work It is concerned with the determination of major It is concerned with the implementation of policies
3. Levels of authority It is mainly a top level function It is largely a middle and lower level function
43
Distinguish Between Administration and Management
4. Influence Decision are influenced by Public opinion and outside forces Decision influenced by Objectives and Policies of the Company
5. Direction of Human Efforts Not directly concerned Actively concerned
6. Main Functions Planning and Control are main functions Directing and Organizing are main functions
44
Distinguish Between Administration and Management
7. Skills required Conceptual and Human Skills Technical and Human Skills
8. Usage Government and Public sector Business Organizations
9. Illustrations Commissioner, Registrar, Vice-Chancellor, Governor etc Managing Director , General Manager, Sales Manager, Branch Manager etc.
45
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46
Meaning of Planning
  • Planning is the process of deciding in advance
    what is to be done, how it is to be done, where,
    when and whom.

47
According to L.F.Ur Wick
  • Planning is fundamentally a mental
    predisposition to do things is an orderly way, to
    think before and to act in the light of the fact
    rather than of guesses.

48
Features of Planning
  1. Planning is good oriented
  2. Planning is future oriented
  3. Planning is an mental exercise involves creative
    thinking
  4. Planning is a primary function
  5. Different planning is required for different
    levels of organisation (Pervasiveness)
  6. Planning is Continuous
  7. Planning aims at efficiency

49
Importance of Planning
  1. Make objectives clear
  2. Helps the organisastion a right path
  3. It reduces risks and uncertainty
  4. It improves efficiency of operation
  5. It provides the basis of control
  6. It facilitate decision making
  7. Effective co-ordination

50
Limitation of Planning
  1. Assumptions not fully reliable
  2. The condition under which plans are implemented
    may differ from assumed conditions.
  3. Availability of time is a limiting factor for
    planning
  4. Cost involved in planning
  5. Mental attitude

51
Steps in Planning
52
Principles of Planning
  1. Principles of contribution to objectives
  2. Principles of Pervasiveness
  3. Principles of Limiting factor
  4. Principles of Flexibility
  5. Principles of Navigational change

53
Kinds of Planning
  1. Long range Plan
  2. Short range Plan
  3. Strategic Planning
  4. Operational Planning
  5. Functional Planning

54
Decision Making
  • Definition
  • According to Lereitner
  • Decision Making is a process of identifying and
    choosing alternative courses of action in a
    manner appropriate to the demand of the situation

55
  • According to Peter Drucker
  • Whatever Manager does, he does through Decision
    Making

56
Six Steps in Decision Making
Figure 7.4
57
Theories of Decision Making
  1. Marginal Theory This theory stresses an profit
    maximization
  2. Psychological Theory This theory stresses on
    customer satisfaction
  3. Mathematical Theory This theory arrives decision
    making using models like Linear Programming,
    Probability etc.

58
Problems in Decision Making
  1. Correctness of Decision
  2. Timing of Decision
  3. Effective Communication of Decisions
  4. Participation in Decision Making
  5. Decision Environment
  6. Implementation Decision

59
Modern Quantitative Techniques of Decision Making
  • Linear programming It is based on the
    assumption that there exist a linear relationship
    between the variables.
  • For Example
  • With the help of linear equation, optimum
    combination of cost, time and utilization of time
    can be compared. The main object of this
    techniques is to either maximize benefit or to
    minimizes cost

60
2. Probability Theory
  • This statistical device is based on the
    assumption that certain things are likely to
    happen in future depending on assumed
    probabilities. Ex. Pay-off matrices, Decision
    trees.

61
3.Queueing Theory
  • It is based on the assumption that although
    delays are costly, eliminating them may be even
    more costly. This techniques may be used in
    service organisations hospitals and banks

62
4.Simulation
  • For example Instead of studying and analyzing
    transportation system of Chennai in a real life,
    its models can be prepared and real solution can
    be simulated to it

63
5. Net Work Techniques
  • The project evaluation and review techniques
    (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) are used
    for planning, monitoring and implementing a
    project

64
6. Decision Trees
  • It is a graphic method used for identifying the
    alternatives and risk and outcome associated with
    each alternatives

65
Delegation
  • Definition
  • According to Haimann Delegation of authority
    merely means granting authority to subordinate to
    operate within prescribed limits

66
The Process of Delegation
  1. Assignment of Duties
  2. Granting of Authority
  3. Creating of Responsibility

67
Difference between Authority and Responsibility
Sales Manager
Branch Manager
Authority
Responsibility
Sales Officer
Sales Manager
68
Accountability
  • It is the obligation of a subordinate to report
    back to his superior that the job entrusted to
    him has been successfully completed

69
Centralisation and Decentralisation
  • According to Henri Fayol Every thing which goes
    to increase the subordinates roles is
    decentralisation, every thing which goes to
    decrease it is centralisation
  • In centralised administration, the staff depend
    on the top management for guidance on all
    matters. An organisation is said to be
    decentralised where managers at middle and lower
    levels are given the authority to take decision
    on matters relating to their functions.

70
Centralisation and Decentralisation (Contd.)
  • For Example
  • An organisation having branches in different
    cities may be centralised. Similarly, a company
    may be decentralised even things all its officer
    are located in one building.

71
Merits of Decentralisation
  1. Reduces Burden of Top Executives
  2. Quick Decision
  3. Motivation to Subordinates
  4. Growth and Diversification
  5. Management Development
  6. Diversion of Risk
  7. Effective Supervision and Control

72
Demerits of Decentralisation
  1. Cadre of Coordination
  2. Difficult to Control
  3. High cost of operation
  4. Non Availability Talented Managers
  5. External Constraints.

73
CONTROLLING
74
The Control Process
  • Establish objectives and standards.
  • Measure actual performance.
  • Compare results with objectives and standards.
  • Take necessary action.

75
Establish Objectives and Standards
  • There are two types of standards
  • Output Standards - measures performance results
    in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time.
  • Input Standards - measures work efforts that go
    into a performance task.

76
Measuring Actual Performance
  • Measurements must be accurate enough to spot
    deviations or variances between what really
    occurs and what is most desired.
  • Without measurement, effective control is not
    possible.

77
Comparing Results with Objectives and Standards
  • The comparison of actual performance with desired
    performance establishes the need for action.
  • Ways of making such comparisons include
  • Historical / Relative / Engineering
  • Benchmarking

78
Taking Corrective Action
  • Taking any action necessary to correct or improve
    things.
  • Management-by-Exception focuses managerial
    attention on substantial differences between
    actual and desired performance.

79
Taking Corrective Action
  • Management-by Exception can save the managers
    time, energy, and other resources, and
    concentrates efforts on areas showing the
    greatest need.
  • There are two types of exceptions
  • Problems - below standard
  • Opportunities - above standard

80
Effective Controls
  • The Best Controls in Organizations
  • are
  • Strategic and results oriented
  • Understandable
  • Encourage self-control

81
Effective Controls
  • The Best Controls in Organizations are
  • Timely and exception oriented
  • Positive in nature
  • Fair and objective
  • Flexible

82
Types of Control
  • Preliminary
  • Sometimes called the feedforward controls, they
    are accomplished before a work activity begins.
  • They make sure that proper directions are set
    and that the right resources are available to
    accomplish them.

83
Types of Control
  • Concurrent
  • Focus on what happens during the work process.
    Sometimes called steering controls, they monitor
    ongoing operations and activities to make sure
    that things are being done correctly.

84
Types of Control
  • Postaction
  • Sometimes called feedback controls, they take
    place after an action is completed. They focus
    on end results, as opposed to inputs and
    activities.

85
Types of Controls
  • Managers have two broad options with respect to
    control.
  • They can rely on people to exercise self-control
    (internal) over their own behavior.
  • Alternatively, managers can take direct action
    (external) to control the behavior of others.

86
Types of Controls
  • Managers have two broad options with respect to
    control.
  • They can rely on people to exercise self-control
    (internal) over their own behavior.
  • Alternatively, managers can take direct action
    (external) to control the behavior of others.

87
Types of Control
  • Internal Controls
  • Allows motivated individuals to exercise
    self-control in fulfilling job expectations.
  • The potential for self-control is enhanced when
    capable people have clear performance objectives
    and proper resource support.

88
Types of Control
  • External Controls
  • It occurs through personal supervision and the
    use of formal administrative systems.
  • Performance appraisal systems, compensation and
    benefit systems, employee discipline systems, and
    management-by-objectives.
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