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Causes and types of developmental disabilities

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Causes and types of developmental disabilities Dr. Madhuri Kulkarni Former Prof. & Head, Dept of Pediatrics LTMG Hospital & Med. College Mumbai Introduction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes and types of developmental disabilities


1
Causes and types of developmental disabilities
  • Dr. Madhuri Kulkarni
  • Former Prof. Head, Dept of Pediatrics
  • LTMG Hospital Med. College
  • Mumbai

2
Introduction
  • Development Process of maturation or
    acquisition of skills
  • Neurodevelopment Acquisition of basic gross
    fine motor skills. Depends to a great extent on
    maturation of neural tissue.
  • Cognitive development depends upon genetic
    environmental factors. In early childhood
    difficult to differentiate from neurological
    behavioural maturation.
  • Complex dynamic process
  • Periods of acceleration deceleration

3
Development
  • Continuous process
  • Definite sequence
  • Head to toe
  • Gross to fine
  • Depends upon neurological maturation
  • Influenced by external factors

4
Developmental Domains
  • Gross Motor
  • Fine motor
  • Language
  • Social, communication
  • Adaptive
  • Vision
  • Hearing

5
Specific Areas in the Brain
6
Childhood Disabilities
  • Disability
  • - Lack of or restricted ability to perform an
    activity in the manner or within a range
    considered normal by the society.
  • Handicap
  • - A disadvantage for a given individual
    resulting from a disability that limits or
    prevents fulfillment of a role considered normal
    for that individual.

7
Cont.
  • Incidence About 8-10 of children
  • Establishment of Diagnosis Essential for
    Intervention Plan
  • Completeness of diagnosis Availability of
    Experienced personnel and Lab services

8
Types of Disabilities
  • Physical defects / dysfunction
  • Sensory deficits
  • Intelligence / cognitive deficits
  • Emotional disturbances
  • Learning problems

9
Cerebral Palsy
10
Physical / Motor
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Loss of limb/s
  • Motor neuron disease
  • Neuro muscular disorders
  • Muscular dystrophy

Sensory deficit
  • Partial / complete blindness
  • Partial / complete deafness

11
Speech and language disorders
  • Disorders of articulation
  • Disorders of voice-pitch, loudness
  • Disorders of rhythm stuttering
  • Disorders of expression

12
Disorders of Intelligence
  • Mental Retardation
  • Slow learners

Pervasive Developmental disorders
  • Autism
  • Asperger Syndrome

13
Learning disorders
  • Specific Learning disabilities
  • Dyslexia
  • Dysgraphia
  • Dyscalculia

14
Causes of Disabilities
  • Prenatal
  • Genetic, Chromosomal
  • Infections in mother
  • Exposure to toxic substances
  • Thyroid deficiency
  • Congenital defects in the brain

15
Causes
  • Perinatal
  • Deprivation of oxygen during birth
  • Abnormal fetal presentation
  • Difficulties during the process of labour
  • Injury to the brain bleeding in the brain
  • Low weight baby
  • Breathing problems
  • Severe jaundice
  • Severe infection

16
Causes
  • Postnatal
  • Infections of the brain
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Accidents Head Injury ? Bleeding Hypoxia
  • Metabolic disorders hypoglycemia, PKU
  • Malnutrition
  • Environmental causes Lack of love,
    security, motivation, discipline

17
Needs of children with disabilities
  • Normal needs
  • Medical care, immunization, play, education etc.
  • Special needs
  • Special services physiotherapy, early
    intervention therapy
  • Special aids Hearing aids
  • Special equipment Calipers, shoes, wheel-chair
  • Special Education
  • Care of the whole family

18
Educational Needs
  • Main-stream education
  • Remedial education
  • Curriculum adjustment
  • Changes in the examination pattern
  • Concessions / Accommodations

19
Our Roles
  • Developmental surveillance
  • Identification of abnormality
  • Assessment
  • Remedial plan
  • Treatment
  • Rehabilitation
  • Vocational training

20
  • Thank you !
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