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Nigeria, Oil,

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Nigeria, Oil, & Economic Unrest By Chelcie Abajian and Melissa DeWolf Nigeria Niger Delta Nigeria s Oil Economy heavily relies on the sell of oil It is among the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nigeria, Oil,


1
Nigeria, Oil, Economic Unrest
  • By Chelcie Abajian
  • and
  • Melissa DeWolf

2
Nigeria
  • Nigeria is Africas largest oil supplier.
  • Most of Nigerias oil fields are found in the
    swamps of the Niger Delta, an oil-rich region.

Niger Delta
3
Niger Delta
4
Nigerias Oil
  • Economy heavily relies on the sell of oil
  • It is among the worlds top oil producing
    countries.
  • Oil exploration has been going on for more than
    four decades.
  • Most oil refineries are jointly or separately
    owned by a foreign company, private company, or
    the government.

5
For example The Mobil Producing Nigeria
Unlimited is the second largest jointly run oil
refinery. -The Nigerian National Petroleum
Corporation (NNPC) owns 60 -Texas-based Exxon
Mobil owns 40.
6
Different Oil Refineries
Nigerian Oil equipment
Oil refinery, Kaduna, Nigeria
7
Shell Companies
  • There are 4 major Shell Companies located in
    Nigeria
  • Shell companies have worsened fighting in the
    Niger Delta through payments
  • - for land use
  • -environmental damage
  • -corruption of company
  • -reliance on Nigerian security forces.

8
Problems
  • The Niger Delta is the main location of ongoing
    social conflict and political violence.
  • Petroleum industry generates money for government
    but not for native Nigerians.
  • Oil companies are using foreign workers.
  • -Oil spills
  • -oil drilling
  • -dredging swamp waters
  • -natural gas flares
  • have caused many environmental problems in
    Nigeria.
  • Favoritism among government officials

There is a symbiotic relationship between the
military dictatorship and the multinational
companies who grease the palms of those who
rule.... They are assassins in foreign lands.
They drill and they kill in Nigeria. -- 
Assassins in Foreign Lands, A CorpWatch Radio
Interview with Human Rights Activist Oronto
Douglas
9
The Nigerians Fight Back
  • Many protests have been held by the Native
    communities
  • Lawsuits against oil companies have been filed
  • Many activists have sabotaged oil pipelines.

Many motorists rely on black market fuel
Many Nigerians are fleeing the Niger Delta area
10
Examples
  • In July 2002 150 women protested at a Chevron oil
    terminal, trapping about 800 workers.
  • The women wanted better payment for their
    families.
  • This lasted for 8 days.

11
Reactions From the Global Community
  • US, England and the European Union imposed
    sanctions against the Abacha regime because of
    the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa in 1995

12
Ken Saro-Wiwa
  • Ken Saro-Wiwa was an activist and writer who
    protested against Shells projects that damage
    the native land of the Ogoni people.
  • He was executed in 1995 by the Abacha Government.

13
Oil Companies Make Changes
  • Oil companies are making efforts to better
    integrate the oil sector and the native
    population.
  • Proposed development projects which would help
    the environmental problems.
  • Many of the problems are still not being
    addressed or taken care of.

14
The Government Makes Changes
  • The government under President Obassanjo has
    tried to improve the relations between the oil
    companies and the natives.
  • Obassanjo has proposed many plans for the future.
  • The government maintains an optimistic view
  • Many of the problems are still not being
    addressed

15
President Abacha
  • Ran a military regime
  • Abused human rights
  • Executed 9 political activists in 1995.
    (Including Ken Saro-Wiwa)
  • Supported by Hausa-Fulani
  • Expected to win the Presidential elections in
    1998 because of him promise to return the country
    to civilian rule
  • Died in April 1998 because of a heart attack.

16
President Obassanjo
  • Military regime in 1970s
  • Civilian regime in 1999
  • Imprisoned by President Abacha in mid 1990s
  • Yoruba Tribe
  • Unable to take the country
  • out of economic hardships
  • and political unrest

17
C E R A S E
  • Centre For Environmental Resources and
    Sustainable Ecosystems
  • Is leading a program, which its goal is to
    improve the capacity of the local people in the
    Niger Delta, without waiting for government
    intervention.

18
Bibliography
  • Janice Limson. Indigenous Plants to the Rescue.
    Environmental remediation in Nigerian oil
    regions. Science in Africa. 2002. 11-4-04.
    http//www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/february/oi
    l.htm
  • Elizabeth Harper. Nigeria in Transition. Online
    News Hour. July 2003. 11/3/04. http//www.pbs.org
    /newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/oil.html
  • Anup Shah. Conflicts in Africa, Nigeria and
    Oil. Global Issues. July 2004. 11-3-04.
    http//globalissues.org/geopolitics/Africa/Nigeri
    a.asp?p1
  • Nigeria Union Calls Second Strike. BBC NEWS.
    October 31, 2004. BBC NEWS. 11-4-04.
    http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3969381.stm
  • More Oil Unrest for Nigeria. CNN MONEY. October
    31, 2004. CNN. 11-3-04. http//money.cnn.com/2004
    /10/31/news/international/bc.nigeria.strike.reut/
  • Nigeria. Microsoft Encarta Online
    Encyclopedia. 2004. MSN Encarta. 11-3-04.
    http//encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557915_7/N
    igeria.html
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