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Dinosaurs

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Topics How many kinds of dinosaurs were there? How big were dinosaurs? How fast were dinosaurs? What about the origin of Dinosaurs? When did dinosaurs live? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dinosaurs


1
Dinosaurs
2
Topics
  • How many kinds of dinosaurs were there?
  • How big were dinosaurs?
  • How fast were dinosaurs?
  • What about the origin of Dinosaurs?
  • When did dinosaurs live?
  • What happened to the dinosaurs?

3
Dinosaur Numbers
How many kinds of dinosaurs have been found?
Some scientists believe over 700
Is this true?
4
Kinds
5
(No Transcript)
6
How Big Were Dinosaurs?
7
Not All Dinosaurs Were BIG
A small dinosaur
Height 24 inches Length 40 inches Weight 8
pounds
8
How Fast Were Dinosaurs?
Estimated speeds
  • Stegosaurs About 15 mph
  • Tyrannosaurus About 20 mph
  • Olympic runner 29 mph
  • Triceratops About 20 mph
  • Horse 45 mph
  • Lion 45 mph
  • Cheetah 65 mph

9
Teaching About Dinosaurs
What do children want to know?
  • They want to see pictures and movies
  • They want to pronounce the names

What is important to teach?
  • Think like a scientist
  • Observe what is the observable data?
  • Examine the evidence
  • Formulate ideas (conclusions)

10
Teaching About Dinosaurs
Critical Thinking
  • What was the evidence presented?
  • Was a conclusion made without empirical evidence?
  • Learn to identify assumptions.
  • Consider alternative explanations.

11
Origin of Dinosaurs?
The Standard Story
  • About 220 million years ago, the first dinosaurs
    evolved from mammal-like reptiles or amphibians,
    long before man evolved. These creatures ruled
    the earth for millions of years and then became
    extinct.

Is a conclusion being made without supporting
evidence?
12
Evolution and Evidence
The Origin of Dinosaurs
Thecondonts
Small lizards that ran on two legs and gave rise
to the giant reptiles collectively known as the
dinosaurs The Nature of Life, 1995
The only evidence presented in any major biology
textbook
13
Evolution and Critical Thinking
  • How could a small reptile evolve into a large
    dinosaur?
  • There is a large jump between thecondonts and
    dinosaurs.
  • Shouldnt there be thousands (millions) of
    intermediate fossils to support this claim?
  • Every major biology textbook was unable to
    document a single line of evidence to support the
    evolution claim for the origin of dinosaurs.

Great claims require REAL evidence
14
Fossil Record
Steven Stanley (Johns Hopkins University
Paleontologist), Macroevolution Pattern and
Process, 1979, p. 39.
  • The known fossil record fails to document a
    single example of phyletic evolution
    accomplishing a major morphologic transition and
    hence offers no evidence that the gradualistic
    model can be valid.

www.icr.org www.answersingenesis.org
15
Fossil Record and Museums
  • Do we see intermediate dinosaur forms in museums?

Great claims require real evidence
16
Origin of Dinosaurs
Biblical Model
  • And God made the beast of the earth after his
    kind, and cattle after their kind, and everything
    that creepth upon the earth after his kind and
    God saw that it was good. . . .

And the evening and the morning were the sixth
day. Genesis 125, 31
17
The Bible and Evidence
The Biblical model makes two claims
  1. Dinosaurs were created after their kind (no
    intermediates)
  2. Dinosaurs and people lived at the same time

18
What evidence is there that dinosaurs lived at
the same time as people?
Dinosaurs were not recognized to exist until the
1800s
Any mention of dinosaurs (dragons) prior to the
1800s is evidence that people saw dinosaurs
19
Dragons and History
Many historical accounts of large dinosaur-like
creatures
Pliny, Natural History, 70 AD
  • Africa produces elephants, but it is India that
    produces the largest, as well as the dragon

20
Dragons and History
Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 220 AD
  • The Phrygian History also states that dragons
    are born which reach ten paces in length

21
People and Dinosaurs
  • Ancient drawings (petroglyphs)
  • Dinosaur bones that are not fossilized
    (unmineralized)

North Shore of Alaska many thousands of bones
lack any significant degree of mineralization.
The bones look and feel like old cow bones.
22
Carlisle Cathedral
Northern England
23
Carlisle Cathedral
Carpet
Tomb of Bishop Richard Bell Died in 1496
24
Brass Engravings
Long Neck
Long Tail
25
First, I must explain that the person you met
was the Head Verger who is under strict
instructions from the Chapter not to allow the
removal of the carpet from the Bishop Bell Brass
by anyone
On another point, whilst agreeing that the brass
is important, I cannot condone the retelling of
the tale of dinosaurs on it! Indeed, the story
does more to discredit the Cathedral and the
Christian faith rather than promote them.
26
New Dinosaur Find
A mummified dinosaur carcass found in Montana
(duck-billed hadrosaur)
Soft tissues covering 90 of the fossil include
muscle, nail material, a beak, and skin were
preserved.
27
Mummified Dinosaur
http//news.nationalgeographic.com/news
His fossilized skeleton is covered in soft
tissue -skin, scales, muscle, foot pads - and
even his last meal is in his stomach.
Leonardo's stomach contents are so
well-preserved that researchers can tell what he
had for his last supper a salad of ferns,
conifers, and magnolias. The stomach also
contained the pollen of more than 40 different
plants.
28
Teaching About Dinosaurs
  • The evolution story is based on faith not real
    evidence
  • The Bible teaches that people and dinosaurs lived
    at the same time
  • The evidence (fossils) supports the Biblical
    claim
  • Created after their kind
  • People and dinosaurs lived at the same time

29
People and Dinosaurs
  • What did people do with dinosaurs?

30
What Happened to the Dinosaurs?
  • Dinosaurs starved to death
  • They died from overeating
  • They were poisoned
  • They became blind from cataracts and could not
    reproduce
  • Mammals ate their eggs
  • Other causes include-volcanic dust, poisonous
    gases, comets, sunspots, meteorites, mass
    suicide, constipation, parasites, shrinking brain
    (and greater stupidity), slipped discs, changes
    in the composition of air,

31
People ate the dinosaurs
32
The Popular Theory
  • 65 million years ago a meteor destroyed all the
    dinosaurs

33
Meteor Impact Theory
  • Layer of iridium located at the northern end of
    Mexico's Yucatan peninsula (Chicxulub)
  • Buried a kilometer below ground and dated at 65
    million years old

Alleged meteor impact
34
Evaluating the Evidence 1
  • Why did the alleged impact kill off the dinosaurs
    while many other forms of life remained healthy?
  • Some of the least mobile creatures (tortoises,
    snakes, crocodiles) and the most sensitive to
    climatic change (birds, fish) are still with us
    today.
  • Plants also survived the cataclysm in great
    abundance.

35
Evaluating the Evidence 2
  • It is not certain that Chicxulub is an actual
    impact site. The iridium concentration in the
    region could have resulted from volcanic
    processes.

36
What happened to the Dinosaurs?
  • Dinosaurs evolved into birds

37
Textbooks and Science
Biology, Miller and Levine, 2000, p. 724.
  • Ask many paleontologists what a bird is and
    theyll reply with a grin, a hot-blooded
    dinosaur with feathers.
  • The first fossil ever found of an early birdlike
    animal is called Archaeopteryx and dates from
    late in the Jurassic period.

38
Reptile to Bird
  • Development of feathers
  • Reform of respiratory system
  • Reform of skeletal system hollow bones
  • Reform of digestive system
  • Reform of nervous system
  • Construction of bills beaks
  • Mastery of nest building
  • Acquisition of flight
  • Development of sound producing organ

39
The Origin of Birds
Andy McIntosh (Ph.D. Combustion Theory), Genesis
for Today, Day One, 1997, p. 172.
Flight alone demolishes any concept of
evolution.
40
Archaeopteryx
Alan Feduccia (World authority on birds),
Science, Archaeopteryx Early Bird Catches a Can
of Worms, 1993
  • Paleontologists have tried to turn Archaeopteryx
    into an earth-bound, feathered dinosaur. But its
    not. It is a bird, a perching bird. And no amount
    of paleobabble is going to change that.

41
History of Evolution and Birds
1993 Time Magazine featured the flightless
bird Mononykus as the dino-bird link
It turned out not to be a bird, but a theropod
1996 Feathered fossil proves some dinosaurs
evolved into birds. (Sinosauropteryx prima)
Four leading paleontologists discovered that the
feathers were just a parallel array of fibers
42
History of Evolution and Birds
  • National Geographic Society and the feathered
    dinosaur Archaeoraptor October 15, 1999

43
History of Evolution and Birds
R. Monastersky, All mixed up over birds and
dinosaurs, Science News, January 15, 2000
  • Red-faced and downhearted, paleontologists are
    growing convinced that they have been snookered
    by a bit of fossil fakery from China. The
    feathered dinosaur specimen that they recently
    unveiled to much fanfare apparently combines the
    tail of a dinosaur with the body of a bird.

44
Information
  • In order for evolution to occur there must be
    some mechanism that will cause new information to
    be added to the organisms DNA structure

New DNA
45
Mechanism for Change
  • Natural Selection
  • Mutations

Can natural selection and mutations create new
information in DNA?
46
Natural Selection
Elmer Noble, Ph.D. Zoology, Glenn Nobel, Ph.D.
Biology, Gerhard Schad, Ph.D. Biology, Austin
MacInnes, Ph.D. Biology, Parasitology The
Biology of Animal Parasites, 1989, p. 516.
  • Natural selection can act only on those
    biological properties that already exist it
    cannot create properties in order to meet
    adaptational needs.

47
Mutation
48
Mutations
Lee Spetner (Ph.D. Physics MIT, taught
information and communications at Johns Hopkins
University), Not By Chance, 1997, pp. 131, 138
  • But in all the reading Ive done in the
    life-sciences literature, Ive never found a
    mutation that added information
  • All point mutations that have been studied on the
    molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic
    information and not increase it.

49
Mutations
Ray Bohlin, (Ph.D. in molecular and cell
biology), Creation, Evolution, and Modern
Science, 2000, p. 41.
  • We see the apparent inability of mutations truly
    to contribute to the origin of new structures.
    The theory of gene duplication in its present
    form is unable to account for the origin of new
    genetic information a must for any theory of
    evolutionary mechanism.

50
Mutations
Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetski, Unraveling DNA, 1997,
p. 72. (Professor at Brown U. Center for Advanced
Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering)
  • Mutations are rare phenomena, and a simultaneous
    change of even two amino acid residues in one
    protein is totally unlikely.
  • One could think, for instance, that by constantly
    changing amino acids one by one, it will
    eventually be possible to change the entire
    sequence substantially

continued
51
These minor changes, however, are bound to
eventually result in a situation in which the
enzyme has ceased to perform its previous
function but has not yet begun its new duties.
It is at this point it will be destroyed along
with the organism carrying it.
52
Question
  • If a meteor did not cause the dinosaurs to become
    extinct 65 million years ago and dinosaurs cannot
    evolve into birds, what happened to them?

53
Dinosaurs and the Flood
And of every living thing of all flesh, two of
every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep
them alive with thee they shall be male and
female. Genesis 620
Dinosaurs were on the Ark and they came off the
Ark
54
Teaching About the Ark
What did the Ark look like?
A
B
55
Teaching About the Ark
450 feet long 75 feet wide 45 feet tall
How could Noah put all the BIG dinosaurs on the
Ark?
56
Dinosaurs and the Bible
Job 4015-18
  • Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee he
    eateth grass as an ox. . . .
  • He moveth his tail like a cedar . . .
  • His bones are as strong pieces of brass his
    bones are like bars of iron.
  • He is the chief of the ways of God.

57
(No Transcript)
58
Leviathan
Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of
fire leap out. Job 4119
59
Bombardier Beetle
Chemical storage chamber
60
Dragons and Dinosaurs
61
The Giraffe
62
Woodpecker
  • Hard beak
  • Special tail feathers
  • Special cartilage
  • Tongue
  • Barbs
  • Glue
  • Long

63
Chuckwalla Lizard
64
Chuckwalla Table Manners
65
Chicken Egg
  • Each shell has about 10,000 tiny holes or pores
  • Question How did the chicken learn to form a
    hard shell around a soft, messy egg and design
    the shell with pores?
  • Blood vessels

66
Chicken Egg
  • Nineteenth day the chick is too big
  • Egg tooth

67
Teaching About Dinosaurs
  • Dinosaurs existed
  • Dinosaurs were created after their kind (there
    are no intermediates)
  • Dinosaurs lived at the same time as people
  • Many historical accounts of dragons
  • Pictures on canyon walls
  • Unfossilized dinosaur bones
  • Mummified dinosaurs
  • Dinosaurs were on the Ark
  • Many dinosaurs died in the Flood
  • Dinosaurs are referred to in the Bible (behemoth)

68
Dinosaurs A testimony to Gods Greatness
69
KJV Bible Background
In the beginning God created
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