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Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP)

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TRAI * * * * * * * * Background Threats Present Status Challenges and Strategies * TRAI * Critical infrastructure means the computers, computer systems, and/or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP)


1
Critical Information Infrastructure Protection
(CIIP) Cyber Security
  • By
  • S. K. Gupta, Advisor (CNIT)
  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

2
Agenda of Discussion
  • Background
  • Threats
  • Present Status
  • Challenges and Strategies

3
Critical Information Infrastructure
  • Critical infrastructure means the computers,
    computer systems, and/or networks, whether
    physical or virtual, and/or the computer
    programs, computer data, content data and/or
    traffic data so vital to this country that the
    incapacity or destruction of or interference with
    such systems and assets would have a debilitating
    impact on security, national or economic
    security, national public health and safety, or
    any combination of those matters. (Source ITU
    Toolkit for Cybercrime Legislation)
  • All critical infrastructures are increasingly
    dependent on ICT for communication, information
    management and control functions.

4
Security
  • Security refers to minimizing the
    vulnerabilities of assets and resources.
  • An asset is anything of value.
  • Vulnerability is any weakness that could be
    exploited to violate a system or the information
    it contains.
  • A threat is a potential violation of security

5
CIIP ICT Impact
  • ICT has direct impact on economic growth, social
    behaviour and conduction of business. As a
    result, it is now considered one of the core
    critical infrastructure.
  • Monitoring and control of various core
    infrastructure like electricity, water supply,
    medical services are getting computerised,
    increasing their dependency on ICT.
  • Protection of ICT infrastructure is vital as it
    has wide ramifications both direct and indirect
    on critical infrastructure.
  • The emerging information infrastructure differ
    radically in terms of scale, connectivity, and
    dependencies from traditional structures.

6
CIIP ICT Impact
  • Cyber-threats are evolving rapidly both in terms
    of nature and capability to cause harm.
  • Threats must be managed to maximize social
    benefits from ICTs and to reduce risks resulting
    from interdependences and vulnerabilities.
  • Communication systems are interconnected
    resulting in global interdependencies and
    vulnerabilities including threats to the national
    systems.
  • Protective measures require continual
    technological improvements and new approaches, to
    minimize threats on ICT.

7
Key Trends and Prediction
Broadband Trends
Wireless, Broadband and Data is the future.
8
Key Trends - IP Traffic
All IP Network
IP networks are able to provide different services including triple play.
IP technologies support flexibility, managed QoS, dynamic bandwidth management and support different applications.
IP networks are cost effective when compared with legacy network.
IP networks are resilient, robust, modular, scalable and require low capex/ opex.
PetaByte / Month
Source CISCO
IP based networks are becoming default choice for ICT.
9
Key Trends
Trends
Wireless is dominating in market
Voice is not a primary service in telecom now. Data Traffic is increasing multifold day by day.
Convergence is now reality. Market boundaries are blurring with adaptation of convergence.
All IP based services being adopted by service providers as well consumer.
New category of content providers are capturing the market.
The forecasted investment in Mobile Broadband technologies reflects the importance the mobile industry places on enabling consumers to access any type of content on the move - whatever they want, whenever they want, wherever they want.
Customer Demand is any type of content on the move - whatever they want, whenever they want, wherever they want.
10
Issues
Issues
Data on wireless is demanding trends, however to fulfill the demand of high speed data and internet provisioning of sufficient spectrum is a great challenge.
Demand of IP based services generates the demand for more and more IP addresses. Present available IPv4 addresses are insufficient to cater the demand in near future.
On one side IP based network provides the flexibility to deliver various services however on other side generates the security threats.
Demand for new value added services and technology innovation allow to deliver various types of contents through the network. However, regulating these content is a challenge.
Technology is capable to deliver various contents and services. Market is very competitive and managing the Net neutrality in such scenario is a challenge.
With convergence market boundaries are blurring and service providers are encroaching each others markets. It generate the issues of level playing field between old and new entrants.
Digital divide is major concern.
Education to consumer in rapid changing scenario is also a challenge
11
CIIP Potential of IP
Features
IP networks are able to provide different services including triple play.
IP technologies support flexibility, managed QoS, dynamic bandwidth management and support different applications.
IP networks are cost effective when compared with legacy network.
IP networks are resilient, robust, modular, scalable and require low capex/ opex.
IP based networks are becoming default choice for ICT.
12
Security Emerging Threats
Data Driven
Emerging threats mostly data-driven!
13
Security Issues Main Areas
Area Characteristic
Secrecy Keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users
Authentication Determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal
Non-repudiation to ensure that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message. Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something
Integrity control Modification of message in transit or concocted
Wireless IP network
Misuse of Wi-Fi signals- need for protections
Subscriber awareness issues
Securing subscriber devices
IP Ports
Misuse of IP Ports
Attacks using open IP Ports
Misuse of application in absence of server hardening
Exploiting Hardware / Software vulnerabilities
14
Security Emerging Threats
Smart Attackers
The art of cyber attack is improving faster than our ability to respond.
Emerging threats like Conficker, GhostNet etc outsmarts our defense capabilities by using sophisticated techniques.
Cyber attackers have the strategic edge. Cyber attacks are being considered as third greatest threat to the security after nuclear war and weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
A new threat "Cybergeddon" has been coined, in which an advanced society, that has most of its major infrastructure systems linked to or controlled by computers, is sabotaged by computer hackers with catastrophic results.
Emerging threats Increase with technology
Sophistications!
15
Security Threats and Impact
Sector/ Verticals
Information and communication
Banking finance
Emergency services
Power
Water supply networks
Air traffic control
Transportation
Defense and security
Government
Food and agriculture etc
Threat
Identity theft
Spyware
Phishing
Denial of Service
Hack
Botnet
Malware
Viruses
Spam
Pop-ups etc
Impact
Data Theft
Industrial Espionage
System Downtime
Financial Frauds
Reduced QoS
Harassment
Information Loss
Compromised National Security
Defamation
Economic slowdown
16
Security Issues Main Areas
  • Network security problems can be divided roughly
    into four closely interwined areas

Area Characteristic
Secrecy Keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users
Authentication Determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal
Non-repudiation to ensure that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message. Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something
Integrity control Modification of message in transit or concocted
17
Security Issues Main Threats
Attacks on Services
Denial of Service (DOS)
Backdoor
Man in Middle
Password Guessing
Brute Force
Dictionary
Software Exploitation
Attacks on Network
Attack within subnet
Broadcast storm
Media Access Control (MAC) Flooding
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) DoS
DHCP rogue
Spanning Tree hijack
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table poisoning
IP address spoofing
Malicious Codes
Viruses
Adware
Spyware
Worms
Trojans
Browse Hijackers
18
Types of Threats
Type of Threats
Bot-network operators
Criminal groups
Foreign intelligence services
Hackers
Insiders
Phishers
Spammers
Spyware/malware authors
Terrorists
19
Security Issues Global Threat Map
Source websense.com
9/1/2013
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20
Security Issues Wireless
  • Wireless IP network
  • Misuse of Wi-Fi signals- need for protections
  • Subscriber awareness issues
  • Securing subscriber devices
  • Example-case India
  • Total vulnerable Wireless networks in India 86
  • Without any encryption 37
  • With lower-level protection like Wired Equivalent
    Privacy (WEP) encryption 49
  • With security layers like Wi-Fi Protected Areas
    (WPA and WPA2) 14
  • Source Survey by Deloitte and Data Security
    Council of India (DSCI)

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21
Security Issues IP Ports
  • Misuse of IP Ports
  • Attacks using open IP Ports
  • Misuse of application in absence of server
    hardening
  • Exploiting Hardware / Software vulnerabilities

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22
Security Issues SPAM, Virus Phishing
Threat Value (July 10)
Spam 88.9
Phishing one in 557.5 email
Viruses one in 306.1 emails
Malicious websites 4,425 new sites per day
Total Global Spam Volume each day 120 billion
URL-shortened spam 23.4 billion (in may 2010)
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Source MessageLab
23
Cyber Security Challenges
  • All need to protect our critical information
    infrastructures, as risks are huge, especially
    in electronic warfare.
  • The rapid growth of ICTs and societal
    inter-dependency have led a shift to perception
    of Critical Information Infrastructure threats
    and, as a consequence, cyber security has
    become international political agenda.
  • It is crucial to understand the risks that
    accompany new technologies in order to
    maximize the benefits.
  • Growing threats to security, at the level of
    the individual, the firms, government and
    critical infrastructures, make security
    everyones responsibility.
  • It is important to understand and keep
    up-to-date contours of fast changing challenges.

24
Cyber Security Approach and Strategies
Approach and Strategies
Licensing and Regulatory Measures
Legal Measures
Technical and Procedural Measures
Capacity Building
International Cooperation
25
Approach and Strategies Licensing and Regulatory
Licensing Regulatory Measures
  • Assign specific responsibility to service
    providers
  • Close identification of SPAM sites across the
    countries and automatic closure.
  • Creation of database of different sources related
    security threats.
  • Punitive measures against defaulting service
    providers in complying to regulatory
    instructions.
  • Acquisition of CERT and periodic audit of network
    vulnerability.

26
Approach and Strategies
Legal Measure
  • Adoption of appropriate legislation against the
    misuse of ICTs for criminal or disruptive
    purposes, including activities intended to affect
    the integrity of national critical information
    infrastructures.
  • Threats can originate from anywhere around the
    globe, the challenges are inherently
    international in scope and require international
    cooperation, investigative assistance, common
    substantive and procedural provisions.
  • There is urgent need to enhance information
    sharing to improve incidence response
    capabilities.

Technical and Procedural Measures
  • Standardization brings private sector and
    governments to coordinate work and promote the
    harmonization of security policy and standards
    globally.
  • Various standards and security provision defined
    by international organizations like ITU, IEEE
    etc. should be implemented across all countries.
    These standards must provide safeguards for
    security and updated regularly to combat new
    security risk.

27
Approach and Strategies Capacity Building
Capacity Building
  • Promote cybersecurity risk awareness for all
    citizens
  • Build an education system that will enhance
    understanding of cybersecurity in information
    technology
  • Expand and train the workforce to protect the
    Nations competitive advantage
  • Help organizations and individuals make smart
    technological choices as they manage risk.
  • Develop skills to reduce risk and exposure from
    unsecure environment
  • Enabling citizen through impowerment of
  • Knowledge,
  • capabilities and
  • Decision-making.

28
Security Challenges
Challenges
All need to protect our critical information infrastructures, as risks are huge, especially in electronic warfare.
The rapid growth of ICTs and societal inter-dependency have led a shift to perception of Critical Information Infrastructure threats and, as a consequence, cyber security has become international political agenda.
It is crucial to understand the risks that accompany new technologies in order to maximize the benefits.
Growing threats to security, at the level of the individual, the firms, government and critical infrastructures, make security everyones responsibility.
It is important to understand and keep up-to-date contours of fast changing challenges.
29
Way forward
Way Forward
Security is important, manageable but requires participation of all stakeholder and awareness in masses.
Service providers must be sensitized to make a secure network for future.
CIIP unit must act effectively with the help of various partners across the globe.
The establishment of Public-Private Partnerships with strong mutual trust is essential for the success of the CIIP unit.
30
Thank You
  • S K Gupta, Advisor (Converged Network)
  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
  • J.L. Nehru Marg, New Delhi 110002
  • Ph. 91-11- 23217914 (O)
  • 91-11- 23211998 (Fax)
  • Email guptask61_at_gmail.com

9/1/2013
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