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SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

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Title: SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT


1
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
  • DR. KIRIT N SHELAT
  • I.A.S (RTD)
  • Emailkiritshelat_at_hotmail.com
  • Presented at ACABC-Workshop
  • At Dantiwada Agricultural University
  • Dantiwada on 24th April 2009.

2
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
  • SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT - I
  • OVER VIEW - II
  • GUJARAT EXPERIENCE - III
  • CURRENT SCENE - IV
  • OPPORTUNITIES - V
  • COCLUSION - VI

3
DEVELOPMENT - I
  • Development is the process whereby human beings
    try to shape and reshape he natural environment.
    A process directed essentially towards improving
    the living standard of rural poor.
  • The development programme for rural areas has
    therefore two components 
  • Economic agenda to improve the economic status of
    majority of people who are poor by brining them
    outside poverty.
  •  
  • Provision of minimum basic social Insfrasture
    that is road, water supply, education, credit
    services, power, irrigation etc

4
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Sustainable development is a pattern of resource
    use that aims to meet human needs while
    preserving the environment so that these needs
    can be met not only in the present, but in the
    indefinite future
  •  
  • sustainable development as development that
    "meets the needs of the present without
    compromising the ability of future generations to
    meet their own needs.

5
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT AGRICULTURE
INCLUDES
  • Agriculture Crops
  • Horticulture crops
  • Live stock
  • - Cattle
  • - Poultry
  • - Pig
  • - Horse
  • - Donkey
  • - Sheep goats 
  • Bee Keeping
  • Agro Forestry and Grasses
  • Fisheries

6
OVER VIEW - II
  • On July2, 2006, Prime Minister of India, Shri
    Manmohan Singh visited the Vidarbha region of
    Maharashtra.
  • The purpose of the visit was to meet farmers
  •  
  • Region affected by suicides by farmers
  • In one year more than 800 deaths due to suicide
  • Similar situation prevails in other progressive
    states like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and
    Punjab.
  • More than 10,000 suicides by farmers between
    2001-06

7
THE STATUS OF INDIAN ECONOMY
  •  
  • Indian economy doing extremely well
  • The rate of growth of GDP around 8
  • Poverty in rural areas declined from 80 prior to
    independence to 20
  • Country was depending on imports in the initial
    years, since it has attained self-sufficiency,
    in food grains.
  • Total production of food grains reached 204.6
    million tonnes.
  • Over all growth in agriculture
  • Despite all this, farmers suicides ?

8
THE FARMERS SUCIDE AND NAXALISM  
  • In the same village, with similar land condition,
    with same crop, one farmer makes profits,
  • The other commits suicide
  • Not all farmers commit suicide
  • The young farmers are educated
  • They take other means and wed Naxalism
  • Naxalism not a new movement but has taken new
    roots in many parts of the country.
  • In 2003 55 districts, 2004 150 districts,
    2006 170 district 1/3 of the country covered.
  • Young persons prefer brutalism rather than
    committing suicide even if that has risk to their
    life.
  • Naxalism is a major challenge to democratic
    system.
  • Problem not only of agriculture but is a time
    bomb clicking which can damage the basic fabric
    of our constitution
  • CONCLUSION
  • Over all economy growing but Agriculture left
    behind. Agri occupies 60 of total working
    population disparities between rural and urban
    growing
  • With Agri sector some are growing and others left
    behind.

9
THE PAST EXPERIENCE  
  •    Past experience of early 70s
  • Green revolution brought fruits to farmers, but
    poor small and marginal farmers did not benefit.
  • There were riots in rural areas of our country
  • The Government of India introduced special
    programme for assistance of small and marginal
    farmers SFDA programme.(1975-80)
  • This was followed by Integrated Rural Development
    Programme (IRDP). (1980) National Extension
    Programme also strengthened.
  • Focus on individual poor family, particularly
    farmers and artisans. VLW responsible for
    providing technical assistance to poor farmers.
  • Special subsidy provided to obtain productive
    assets and inputs with back up bank credit. The
    programme has great success poverty decline
    small and marginal farmers benefited.
  • But there were left out more than 20 on average
  • In some areas this proportion is more.
  • The left-out of development process needed
    continuous attention.
  •  
  •  

10
THE LEFT OUT OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • In 90s, focus of IRDP programme shifted
  • Focus changed to non-farm activities
  • It obtained new banner of SgSy SgRy
  • Poor farmers no longer received special
    individual attention.
  • Programme moved to non farm activities, Self Help
    Groups
  • The farmers left out of development process, not
    paid attention and continued to remain poor.
  • This is a very large segment
  • NSSO report on farmers indicated high debt ratio
  • Andhra Pradesh - 82
  • Tamil Nadu - 72
  • Punjab - 65
  • Kerala - 64
  • Karnataka - 61
  • Gujarat - 51
  • The VLWs and Extension team did not bother about
    poor farmers.
  • Focus shifted to farmers who can obtain
    assistance on their own.

11
FARMERS FINDINGS BY NSS-59TH ROUND PUBLISHED IN
JULY 2005
  • All India Level
  •  
  • Awareness of technical and institutional
    development 18
  • Farmers liking farming 60
  • Seed replacement 30
  • Using testing Labs for seeds, fertilizer etc 2
  • Accessing knowledge about technology 40
  •  
  • From Extension Administration 21
  • Input dealers 23

12
AVAILABILITY OF TECHNICAL MANPOWER FOR
AGRICULTURE
  • Only 207 colleges in the country
  • Yearly intake
  • Undergraduate Postgraduate PhD
  • 10049 570 1544
  •  
  • Other disciplines Intakes
  •  
  • Science 2031100
  • Engineering and Technology 716700
  • Medicine 313500
  •  

13
THE LEFT OUT OF DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS
  • Left out poor farmers dont have access to new
    technology and information
  • Extension Administration did not bother about
    poor farmers
  • Lack of control on quality seeds and inputs and
    basic guidance for selection of crop to be grown
    in rain fed areas based on soil health.
  • There can be many other reasons like mortgage of
    land by farmers to private money lenders/local
    dealers and so on and so forth.
  • Poor farmers started copying the wealthy farmers
    who had water resource and new technology, and
    failed.
  • Result farmers suicide spread of Naxalism
  •  

14
THE GUJARAT EXPERIENCE - III
  •      Gujarat provides a replicable experience
  • It is against this background that experiences of
    Gujarat of last four years need to be seen.
  • Gujarat has achieved sustainable agricultural
    growth at an average of 11 per annum in recent
    years.(2001-05)
  • Gujarat, despite constraints of arid and semi
    arid agro climatic regions and uncertain
    monsoons, has become number one state in the
    country in agriculture sector.
  • Gujarat does not have any suicide by farmers on
    account of crop failure. It does not have
    Naxalite areas. Initial efforts to spread it in
    district like Dangs have failed.
  • It is important to realize that prior to year
    2000, Gujarats agriculture had growth but it was
    slow. It had a number of years with negative
    growth. After 2000, the situation changed.
    Agriculture became stable and picked up
    momentum. 

15
EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION REFORMS GUJARAT
EXPERIENCE OVER VIEW
  • Gujarat Agriculture prior to year 2001 had
    erratic growth
  • There were years of minus growth rate
  • In good years agriculture had 3 to 4 growth
    rate
  • There were number of constraints
  • Recurrent droughts
  • Salinity ingress
  • Irregular monsoon
  • Water table going down

16
EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION
  • Director Agriculture in overall change
  • Dy.Director at district level with Assist.
    Directors
  • No middle level officer at Taluka level
  • VLW at village level shared with Rural
    Development Deptt. VLW working under TDO
  • Agricultural University with four campuses. Its
    Extension Director basically responsible for
    Extension education.
  • Joint meeting with Agriculture Universalities for
    Extension messages.
  • On an average common crop practices was advocated
    despite eight Agro Climatic Zones.

17
STATE VISION-DISTRICT-TALUKA PLAN 2001-2005
  • An Agro-Vision plan prepared in the year 2000
  • For the first time in 2003 district level and
    taluka level production targets were given.
  • Disparities within districts and within talukas
    brought out
  • Crop pattern analyses
  • Involvement of Agri.Scientists and District
    Administration
  • District level committee set-up under DDO for
    Agri.Sector planning and monitoring. All
    functionaries related to Agriculture brought
    under committee.
  • Senior Agri. Scientist appointed for District
    level planning
  • Junior Agri.Scientist appointed for each taluka

18
THE GUJARAT EXPERIENCE- WATER CONSERVATION
  • A massive programme of construction of check dams
    was taken up across the state with 60 subsidy
    which has increased to 80, later on. More than
    60,000 check dams were constructed. In last 50
    years, the number was less than 6000.
  • A programme of village ponds was taken up in
    villages where check dams were not feasible.
  • Inter-linking of rivers was taken up. Narmada
    Canal and Mahi Canal were connected with
    Sabarmati River to make irrigation available to
    more areas.
  • A programme of construction of farm ponds on
    farmers field was initiated.
  • In areas, where Narmada Canal was not feasible
    special scheme of irrigation called Sujlam
    Suflam was launched.
  • All these water conservation measures are backed
    by drip irrigation scheme with 50 subsidy up to
    Rs.50000 per ha. And Bank loan of 45, for
    remaining amount.

19
GUJARAT EXPERIENCE MICRO LEVEL PLANNING
  • Micro level planning introduced
  • Village level agriculture production plan
    prepared
  • Taluka level agriculture production plan prepared
  • One scientist is allocated for one taluka level
    team for assistance and preparation of plan.
  • Agricultural scientist moves to the villages
  • Detailed manual for farm practice for agriculture
    and horticulture provided to farmers of every
    villages.
  • Toll free guidance system provided to farmers
    queries
  • On and average 30,000 farmers approach for
    guidance on telephone
  • Guidance provided by director of agriculture,
    director of horticulture, agricultural
    universities.
  •  
  •  

20
SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE
  • Scientific agriculture is introduced
  • Sustainable crops based on soil health, moisture
    analyses recommended.
  • Soil Health Card provided to farmers every year.
  • From one village 50 farmers provided card every
    year.
  • More than 16,00,000 cards distributed
  • Computerized information network developed for
    soil health analyses and data on rain fed and
    market information.
  • The farmers can choose sustainable crops based on
    quality of land, moistures and advise about
    nutrient required to be provided.

21
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22
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23
SPECIAL PROGRAMME FOR POOR FARMERS
  • Special programme for poor farmers introduced.
    From every year 15 poorest farmers selected by
    Gram Sabha for special assistance for every
    village
  • The farmers have to be provided kit of approx.
    Rs.1500/-
  • Kit consists of quality seeds, fertilizer and
    agriculture equipments
  • Farmers assisted for horticultural, agricultural
    and animal husbandry related requirements.
  • Every year 2,70,000 farmers covered.

24
RE-STRUCTURING OF AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT
  • Agricultural departments re-structured. Four
    Agricultural Universities come into existence to
    meet the requirements based on agri. climatic
    zone.
  • Directorate of Agri. horticulture
    re-structured with clear responsibility and
    allocation extension team at taluka level
    (originally it is based on district level).
  • VLW separated from rural development activities
    and made special responsible for agricultural
    activities.
  • Special veterinary team introduced for animal
    husbandry programme.
  • Co-operative Milk Union activities under NDDB
    introduced in Saurashtra region.

25
New Extension Approach for Integrated
Agriculture Development for removal of poverty
has added to these efforts under Krishi Mahostav
Management Model - A pre-Kharif campaign
  • A series of measures were taken to bring farmers
    in the centre of the village for all activities
    related to them
  • District Admn. Including Collector, DDO moved to
    villages
  • CM himself reviewed programmes and conducted
    day-to-day video conference.
  • Scientists were moved to villages and farmers to
    be assisted and guided at their doorstep.
  • Village micro level agriculture production plan
    came into existence.
  • More than 12 lakh farmers were provided soil
    health card with written guidance on balanced use
    of fertilizer and alternative crops they can take
    up based on scientific analysis and guidance by
    exports.
  • VLW moved back to agriculture extension from
    rural development work and were made responsible
    for village level plan and Soil Health Card
    Programme.

26
New Extension Approach for Integrated Agriculture
Development for removal of poverty has added to
these efforts under Krishi Mahostav Management
A pre-Kharif campaign
  • All departments that had anything to do with
    agriculture were brought together with a focus on
    farmers and agriculture.
  • All 18,000 villages were visited during the
    month of May under Krishi Mahostav by district
    team along with Agriculture Scientists. There was
    demonstration of new technology for pre-kharif
    preparation for crops.
  • 15 poorest farmers in every village were provided
    with free kits consisting of certified seeds,
    fertilizer, pesticides and tool kit. This is to
    be repeated every year. In all 2,70,000 poor
    farmers are covered every year. In five years, it
    will cover all poor farmers below poverty line.
  • Each village has been provided a written book
    guidelines for agriculture and horticulture crops
    issues they can refer to and find a solution
  • Toll free phone made popular for answering
    farmers queries, which do not find answer in
    above book.
  • (Page 2)

27
New Extension Approach for Integrated Agriculture
Development for removal of poverty has added to
these efforts under Krishi Mahostav Management
A pre-Kharif campaign
  • Market information on commodity price is made
    available to farmers a data of average price of
    important crops provided at taluka and village
    level in micro level planning.
  • All functionaries of agriculture, horticulture,
    animal husbandry, irrigation, revenue,
    cooperation and scientists were brought together
    to work at village level with the objective of
    providing and meeting needs of farmers at door
    steps in all 18,000 villages through unique
    management model developed and implemented under
    Krushi Mahotsav in 2005-2006.
  • Agri infrastructure, including education,
    marketing and storage, credit and Agro-processing
    has been strengthened and focus on Animal
    Husbandry activities to provide additional source
    of income through all categories of animals and
    strengthen milk marketing through district
    co-operative Milk unions and NDDB.
  •   (Page 3)

28
THE GUJARAT EXPERIENCE
  • The poor tribal farmers of tribal areas like
    Dahod under Vadi scheme, Chhota Udaipur under
    watershed programme, Dholvand of Vyara in
    comprehensive approach came out from shade of
    poverty and have smiling faces.
  • The Milk Unions like Dhud Sagar Dairy making
    payment of Rs.3.0 crore for milk purchase from
    the village. There are villages with annual
    turnover between Rs.2.0 to 5.0 crore.
  •  
  • Gujarat is number one state in agriculture with
    11 growth per annum in last 5 years.

29
NEW EXTENSION APPROACH - 1 FARMERS AS CENTRE
POINT    
30
NEW EXTENSION APPROACH - 2
31
NEW EXTENSION APPROACH - 3   FARMERS IN
CENTRE      
32
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE FARMERS OF
DOLVAN-VAYRA-SURAT DISTRICT
  • Dolvan region of Vyra Taluka of Surat District,
    spread over 20 villages is a tribal area.
  • Domination of small and marginal farmers
  • Farmer grows hillmillet, rice law income, low
    volume crops
  • With initiative under leadership of District
    Development officer Mr. Sonwane, the situation
    changed.
  • Following initiatives were taken
  • Community irrigation constructed
  • Micro credit from Bank of Baroda

33
FARMERS OF DOLVAN-VAYRA-SURAT DISTRICT

(Contd ….2)
  • Self Help Groups of women training 120
  • New crop Bhindi Ladies finger introduced
  • Extension education provided by Navsari
    Agricultural University District Panchayat
  • Field trails in district Panchayat Seed Farms
  • Training provided to farmers under Farmers
    Training Centre of Director of Agriculture
  • Marketing organized through DRDA scheme of Gram
    Haat
  • Support of APMC and private efforts of Desai Cold
    Storage and others.

34
FARMERS OF DOLVAN VYARA SURAT DISTRICT
(contd…3)
  • 2000 Hectors covered under Bhindi
  • Bhindi introduced as a second crop
  • Turn-over of more than 30 crore
  • The farmers moved from poverty line and
    constructed their house
  • Bought cycle, motor cycle, tractor and other
    basic facilities
  • Overall growth in the villages.

35
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  • SOME STATISTICS OF GUJARAT

36
Sector-wise Composition of Gross State
Domestic Product GSDP) at Constant (1993-94)
prices  
37
GSDP of constant (1993-94) Prices Annual growth
(in )  
GSDP of constant (1993-94) Prices Annual growth
(in )  
  Source Inter state comparison of GSDP of
Major States and GDP of All India (1993-94 to
2003-04), Government of Andhra Pradesh.  
38
GSDP of constant (1993-94) Prices Annual growth
(in )   (Page No.2)
 
39
Percentage of farmers households accessing
information on modern agricultural technology
through different sources.
40
Percentage of farmers household accessing modern
technology through major source in Gujarat state
and its comparison with national level
41
Extent of use, adequacy, timeliness and quality
of the resources (fertilizer, organic manure,
improved seeds and pesticides
42
  Gujarats economy has
accelerated its growth during each of last four
decades. The manufacturing
sector has grown at faster rates than
agriculture.
43
LAND USE PATTERN
44
CASH CROP PATTERN OF GUJARAT
45
CHANGE IN CROP PATTERN
46
COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVITY OF MAJOR FRUITS
VEGETABLES
47
STATE POSITION IN PRODUCTION


(kg/ha)
48
STATE POSITION IN PRODUCTION

(000 TONNES)
49
STATE POSITION IN PRODUCTIVITY (kg/ha)
50
STATE POSITION IN
PRODUCTION (000 tonnes)  
As per 2003-04 position
51
GUJARAT CURRENT ECONOMIC STATUS - GSDP
AT CURRENT PRICES
RS. IN CRORES
52
CURRENT SCENE INDIA AND WORLD- IV
  • Population 1.13 billion (2007)
  • Federal State with 28 States and 7 Union
    Territories
  • GDP USD1.2 trillion (2007)
  • External Trade USD 528 billion (2007)
  • Forex Reserves USD 247 billion (end Nov 2008)
  • Market capitalisation (as end Nov 2008) USD 560
    billion (50 of GDP).
  • By Prof. Mukul Asher- Overview of Indian
    Economy

53
  • India has one-third the land mass of the United
    States and nearly four times its population.
  • India constitutes nearly 17 percent of the
    worlds population, but even in PPP terms its GDP
    share is only 5 percent.

54
PRCENTAGE OF WORLD GDP (last 500 years)
  • Historically Indian share of world GDP was 25 in
    the year 1500, it was 24 in 1700, which came
    down to 16 in the year 1800, but in 1900 it came
    to 9, in 1950 it was 4 and in the year 2000
    India has 5 share.
  •  
  • In the year 2000, USA has 22, China 12,
    Western Europe 21, Latin America 8, Japan 7
    and all other countries 25.
  • This is based on estimate made by Angus Maddison,
    University of Groningen.

55
Demographic Indicators in selected Asian and OECD
countries
  • If we look at Demographic Indicators, it is very
    interesting to note that India has highest
    percentage of young people in the world and this
    will continue to by so for almost four decades
  • As we will see from ensuing slides, the
    percentage of population aged 60 and above in
    the year 2006 is 8, which will be 21 in the
    year 2050. While in Japan, at present it is 27,
    which will increase to 42. In USA it is 17,
    which will increase to 26. In Germany it is 25,
    which will increase to 33. In UK it is 21 and
    which will increase to 29.

56
Demographic Indicators in selected Asian and OECD
countries
(contd ….2)
  • This opens wide opportunities for young persons
    within India and abroad. The developed world of
    today will find increasing shortage of young
    persons to men their technical and non-technical
    jobs.
  •  
  • This is also a challenge, simultaneously as
    India will have to find job for its large
    segment to young generation and must meet its
    aspirations to have prosperity.

57
25
23
24
16
3
13
4
9
57
58
New Jobs in the World Economy 2005-2020
Source Economist Intelligence Unit
59
Table 2 Demographic Indicators in selected Asian
and OECD countries
Calculated from Population Division of the
Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the
United Nations Secretariat, World Population
Prospects The 2004 Revision and World
Urbanization Prospects The 2003 Revision,
http//esa.un.org/unpp, 11 October 2006 114626
PM.
60
AGRICULTURE AN OVER ALL VIEW INTERNATIONAL SCENE
  • World wide, there is a sharp increase in price of
    food crops like rice, wheat and edible oils.
  • Due to above, average growth of world economy
    with several countries like India and China which
    has large population growing rapidly and with
    increase in per capita income, there is increased
    demand for food and energy.
  • There is increasing urbanization in all over the
    world, which has reduced agriculture land supply.
  • Introduction of Bio-fuel crops has diverted
    agriculture land for energy needs of developed
    world.
  • Above factors increased demand for food and food
    products, all over the world while there is a
    decline in its production and its availability

61
INDIA CAN USE THIS OPPORTUNITY- V
  •  Share of arable land in the world 11.5 (only
    second to USA)
  • Scope for improving yield in major crops
  • Current growth rate only 2 to 4
  • INDIAS YIELD PER HA OF WORLD AVERAGE (DATE 2004)
  •   
  • Paddy 75
  • Wheat 63
  • Cereals 73
  • Pulses 79
  • Soya 48
  • Maize 38
  •  
  • In cotton we have reached world highest yield
    in Gujarat
  • Strategy to reach first world average yield, and
    thereafter world highest yield in selected crops,
    which are suitable to our agro climatic
    conditions.
  •  
  •  
  •  

62
THE FUTURE ESTIMATE Agro-Food Cereals
63
Agro-Food Fruits Vegetables
64
THE FUTURE POSSIBLE AGRICULURE SECNE
Agro-Food Milk
65
NEED OF THE DAY
  • Resources
  • - Labour (Human skills and capacities)
  • - Capital (Man-made instruments of
    production)
  • Use of Knowledge economy and Technology
    organizational and managerial capabilities to
    enhance the growth

66
What is a knowledge economy?
  • Systematic application of various sub-branches of
    knowledge to a given activity.
  • 1. Using computer to control Drip Irrigation
    System.
  • 2. Reducing the proportion of chilies which
    are curved
  • rather than straight.
  • 3. Conversion of wastelands into productive
    use by modern water management methods and
    agricultural practices and identification of
    crops suitable to such land based on
    international experiences.

67

KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
  • Knowledge economy in this context requires
    different branches of understanding know-how and
    know-why relevant for production distribution
    and consumption and apply same for Agriculture
    Animal Husbandry Management through out the
    country.
  • It needs to be applied for increasing yield per
    hector based on scientific agriculture, improving
    post-harvesting technology to reduces wastages
    and improving efficiency in agriculture supply
    chain.
  • This also requires increased investment in
    agriculture sector, which has been in decline.

68
KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
  • This will also require use of wide area network,
    Internet facility and computer network and
    resource centers which provide information at
    village level of wide range of data to farmers.
    This could include data related to soil health
    analysis and problem solving through agricultural
    universities net work, market data, trade
    contracts so on and so forth.
  • Network of agricultural universities and research
    centers must be inter-linked with computer
    network at village level for its application at
    grass root level.  

69
CONCULSION - VI
  • All these are opening up opportunities for young
    persons.
  • Particularly young people who are involved in
    agriculture and who have expertise in agriculture
    as there is shortage of this manpower
  • At International level, there is a demand for
    agriculture produce and food.There will be
    increasing out souring of services.
  • Gujarat has in recent years tremendous growth
    in agriculture. The existing processing capacity
    is not enough in for various agriculture crops
    like cotton, castor, horticultural crops which
    include mangoes, sapota, chilies, onion, garlic
    and spices even flowers.
  • There is increasing demand of mechanized
    agriculture and protected agriculture . This has
    opened up opportunities for Agro Service Centers
    of different kind.

70
Conclusion
(contd…2)
  • Such centers can provide services on turn key
    basis for micro irrigation system, low cost
    nursery, provide custom hiring of tractors and
    sprayers and like.
  • This could also include repairs and renovation
    of agricultural equipments.
  • There is increasing demand of better quality of
    seeds, right kind of fertilizer and pesticides to
    be used. Farmers could be guided on such subjects
    with increase income of farmers.
  • Knowledge economy application to agriculture also
    provide new opportunities.

71
CONCLUSION
  • Gujarat 3 phase electric power is available at
    village GAMTAL with which primary processing
    activities can be started in any village centre.
  • Buyers pay good price for clean and graded
    product, cleaning, grading packaging unit can
    be set up. There are number of buyers like
    Reliance, Tatas, Birlas, ITC who deal in food
    vegetable products. Procurement centre could be
    set up with their collaboration
  • Knowledge economy methods could be used to
    manage all these efficiently and economically.
  • The young persons must rise and grab the
    opportunities.
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