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Title: Rome


1
Rome
  • Introduction to Art
  • November 23, 2009

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The Roman Empire
5
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6
Table of Contents
  • The History
  • Overview of Region
  • Founding of Rome
  • Roman Republic 753 - 27 BCE
  • Roman Empire 27 BCE - 476 CE
  • The Art
  • Painting
  • Mosaic
  • Sculpture
  • Architecture

7
Geography
- Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center
of the Mediterranean Sea - The Alps are in the
North, the Dolomites form a spine, Apennines are
on eastern coast - broad, fertile plains in the
north and west
7
8
The History
9
Early Civilizations
  • - Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled on
    the banks of the Tiber River around 800 Bce
  • - Two main groups were Greeks and the Etruscans
  • Greeks settled in southern Italy/Sicily. Highly
    influential
  • And the etruscans

10
Etruscans
  • Rome first ruled by Latin Kings
  • Came under Etruscan rule in 600 BCE
  • Etruscans came from northern Italy
  • Evidence found at cemeteries indicates Etruscans
    great metalworkers, jewelers
  • Etruscan culture heavily influenced by Greeks
  • Romans borrowed their alphabet, arch, and
    gods/godesses

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Legend of the Founding of Rome
  • According to the tale, the twins mother was a
    Latin woman and their father was the war god,
    Mars.
  • This led Romans to believe that they had a
    divine origin.
  • Legend has it that the twin brothers were
    abandoned by their parents and raised by a
    she-wolf (pictured above).
  • As they grew older, they fought for an area of
    land in central italy and romulus won, killing
    his brother. hence the name, rome (Founded 753
    BCE)

13
Chronology Roman Republic and Empire
  • From its origins to the end of the Republic
    (753-27 BCE)
  • Early Italy and the Roman Monarchy, 753-509 BCE
  • The Roman Republic, 509-27 BCE
  • The Creation of the Republic and the Conquest of
    Italy, 509-264 BCE
  • The Punic Wars (with Carthage) and the Overseas
    Expansion of Rome, 264-146 BCE
  • The Crisis of the Late Republic (Hannibals
    invasion), 133-27 BCE
  • From the Creation of the Empire to its Fall (27
    BCE-476 CE)
  • The Principate (Early Empire), the Pax Romana,
    and the Five Good Emperors, 27 BCE-180 CE
  • The Crisis of the Third Century (assassination,
    instability, invasion), 180-284 CE
  • Late Antiquity, 284-610 CE

14
Geography of Rome
  • Rome is located
  • - On the banks of the Tiber River
  • On and around seven hills

Why would this geographic location be an
advantage?
15
Rome Becomes a Republic
  • Etruscan Rule Ends
  • Etruscans ruled until 509 BCE
  • Romans revolted, threw out last of kings, setup
    new government
  • Republic elected officials govern state
  • Patricians
  • In early days, heads of a few aristocratic
    families, patricians, elected officials
  • Patrician families controlled all society -
    politics, religion, economics, military
  • Maintained power through patronage system
  • Plebeians
  • From beginning, common people - the plebeians -
    challenged patricians
  • Invaders threatened 494 BCE plebeians refused to
    fight until changes were made
  • Patricians knew they would have no army, expanded
    plebeian rights

16
Republican Government
Roman Curia (Senate meeting place) Forum, Rome
17
Life in the Republic
During the days of the Roman Republic, Rome was a
thriving and vibrant city. At its heart was the
Forum, the public square and site of the most
important government buildings and temples.
18
PlebeiansDemandEquality
  • Plebeians (commoners) farmers, merchants,
    artisans, traders. Originally had no role in
    govt.
  • 450 BCE 12 Tables of Law set up in the Forum -
    made it possible for plebeians to appeal decision
    of a judge.
  • In 494 BCE, gained right to elect tribunes (10)
    to protect their interests.
  • Could veto laws that werent in the interest of
    the common people.
  • For 84 years (421-337 BCE), plebeians fought to
    have a role in each part of the government

19
Social Structure
  • - Man was the head of the household and his wife
    and children did not question his authority.
  • Over centuries, women received more rights. These
    included
  • Owning property
  • Running businesses
  • All children taught to learn to read and write.
  • Wealthy had private tutors for their children.

20
Religion
  • - Romans were polytheistic - they believed in
    many gods and goddesses
  • - Many of the gods were adapted from the Greek
    gods
  • Roman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations
    to honor the gods and goddesses
  • Temples for worship to ask for divine assistance

21
ReligionContext Conclusion
  • The early Romans were farmers they did not
    understand science, instead they believed in
    forces or spirits.
  • These Gods did not have human forms or minds.
  • Gradually the Romans were influenced by the
    Greeks and adopted many Greek Gods and gave them
    Roman names.
  • The Roman mythology and Gods tell us a lot about
    what the early Romans thought was important
  • Family, Beauty, Honor, Truth, Wisdom, Wealth,
    Courage, Strength

22
Sports
23
The Gladiator
  • Gladiatorial games - munera - were
    originally performed at funerary
    rituals in the Etruscan area
    of Italy and the Greek cities in the
    south.
  • The first gladiatorial games were offered in Rome
    in 264 bce by the sons of Junius Brutus Pera in
    their fathers honor after he had died. They
    took place in the Colosseum .
  • Gladiators were different from Roman citizens
    because most of them were slaves
  • Patricians paid for the close up seats, while the
    poor sat in the seats far back where it was hard
    to see
  • Gladiators had to fight for 3-5 years to earn
    there freedom

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Reasons Why Rome Wanted Gladiator Fights
  • Romans liked watching people die
  • Romans thought their gods liked watching these
    fights
  • When criminals were killed, the gods
    liked to see justice served

26
Weapons
  • fascina harpoon
  • galea visored helmet
  • galerus metal shoulder piece
  • gladius sword
  • hasta lance
  • iaculum net
  • manicae leather elbow or wrist bands
  • ocrea metal or boiled leather greave
  • parma round shield
  • scutum large shield
  • sica curved scimitar
  • subligaculum loin cloth

27
Chariot Races Circus Maximus
  • Chariot races were a popular form of
    entertainment.
  • The chariots ran counter-clockwise around the
    track for seven laps.
  • The races were run by groups called factions.
  • Roman circuses Maximus were the large
    entertainment buildings used for races

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Expansion
  • Growth
  • As Romes government changed, the Roman
    population continued to grow
  • Rome needed more land for expanding population
  • Began to settle surplus population on land
    acquired when neighbors were conquered
  • Military Might
  • Successful expansion not possible without
    powerful army
  • All Roman men between ages 17 and 46 with minimum
    amount of property required to serve in army
    during times of war
  • Roman Army
  • Army organized into units called legions,
    backbone of which were centurions
  • Centurions noncommissioned officers who
    commanded 100 men
  • Army highly disciplined, well-trained, fought on
    all terrain

30
The Punic Wars
Violence between Rome and Carthage (Northern
Africa) broke out in 264 BCE. Because the First
Punic War was fought mostly at sea, Carthages
powerful navy dominated the early fighting. Soon,
however, the Romans built a navy of their own and
were able to defeat Carthage.
The Romans defeated Carthage, but it did not
destroy the city as many citizens had wanted.
31
The Second Punic WarCarthage Falls
32
The Conquest of Greece
As the Punic Wars raged in the western Republic,
Rome involved in politics of eastern
Mediterranean. The Hellenistic kingdoms of
Macedonia, Persia, and Egypt fought constantly
Greek city-states feared being conquered and
sought an alliance with Rome
33
The Rise of Christianity
34
Christianity
  • Early on in Pax Romana, a new religion,
    Christianity, emerged in a distant corner of the
    Empire
  • Many different religions existed in the empire
  • By 63 BCE, Romans had conquered Judea where most
    Jewish people lived
  • Romans allowed Jews to worship their one god
  • Many Jews reluctantly lived under Roman rule
    however, some wanted a revolt against Rome and
    believed a messiah would come to lead their
    people to freedom

35
Christianity Spreads
  • - Disciples preach the messages of Christianity
    throughout the Roman world
  • - Peter established Christianity in Rome
  • Paul played the most influential role by
    spreading Christianity throughout the
    Mediterranean
  • His letters became part of the New Testament

36
Christians Oppressed
  • Romans were not tolerant towards Christians
    because
  • they refused to honor the emperor with sacrifices
  • they refused to worship Roman gods to protect the
    state
  • Christians were used as scapegoats, blamed for
    social and economic problems
  • Many Christians became martyrs
  • However, Christianity continued to spread due to
    the fact that all people were welcome

37
Emperor Constantine Christianity
38
Early Christian Church
  • Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in
    313 CE.
  • It granted freedom of worship to all
    citizens of the Roman empire
  • By the end of the century, Emperor
    Theodosius made Christianity the
    official religion of the Roman empire

39
From Republic to Empire
  • Civil wars break out to decide who should hold
    power
  • The Senate wanted to keep the status quo
  • Others wanted to weaken the Senate and enact
    reforms
  • Slave uprisings throughout the republic
  • Armies became loyal to their commanders because
    they gave them benefits such as captured land
  • Single rulership arises

40
The Art
41
Is it
GREEK
?
Or is it
ROMAN
41
42
42
43
Painting
44
Pompeii
45
Atrium of the House of the Vettii 2nd c. BCE
(Rebuilt 62-79 CE) Pompeii, Italy
Pompeii theCities of Vesuvius
  • One of the best preserved houses at Pompeii, is
    the House of the Vettii, which was remodeled and
    repainted after the earthquake in 62 CE.
  • This photograph was taken in the fauces
    (entrance). It shows the impluvium in the center
    of the atrium, the opening in the roof above, and
    in the background, the peristyle (columned)
    garden with its marble tables and mural
    paintings.
  • The house was owned by two brothers, Aulus
    Vettius Restitutus and Aulus Vettius Conviva,
    probably freedmen who had made their fortune as
    merchants. Their wealth enabled them to purchase
    and furnished houses that would have been owned
    only by patricians.

45
46
  • Especially striking is how some of the figures
    interact across the corners of the room.
  • Nothing comparable to this existed in Hellenistic
    Greece.
  • Despite the presence of Dionysos, satyrs, and
    other figures from Greek mythology, this is
    certainly a Roman design.

Mystery frieze with Dionysus 60-50 BCE House of
the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy
46
47
Early Empire
General view of wall paintings from Cubiculum M
of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor 50-40
BCE Boscoreale, Italy
  • In the early Second Style Mystery frieze with
    Dionysus, the space is confined our view stops
    when we reach the red background.
  • Cubiculum M is a prime example of mature Second
    Style designs painters created a 3D setting that
    also extends beyond the wall.
  • Here, the painter opens up the walls with views
    of Italian towns and sacred sanctuaries. Painted
    doors and gates invite the viewer to walk through
    the wall into the illusionary world.
  • Their attempt at perspective was intuitive it
    not conform to the rules of linear perspective
    that would be discovered during the Renaissance.
  • Although this painter was inconsistent in
    applying it, he demonstrated an interest in, but
    lacked knowledge, of linear (single
    vanishing-point) perspective.

47
48
Tholos temple 50-40 BCE Cubiculum M of the Villa
of Publius Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy
  • The Second Style
  • While some scholars have argued that the Second
    Style is derived from Greece, most believe it is
    a Roman invention.
  • The Second Style evolved in Italy around 80 BCE
    and was popular until around 15 BCE, when the
    Third Style was introduced.
  • Second Style painters aimed not to create the
    illusion of an elegant marble wall, as First
    Style painters sought to do. Rather, they wanted
    to dissolve a rooms confining walls and replace
    them with the illusion of a three-dimensional
    world, which they did only pictorially.

48
49
Fourth Style ? Rome, Italy
  • In the Fourth Style, the obsession with illusions
    still exists.
  • This style became popular around the time of the
    Pompein earthquake.
  • In the Golden House of Nero, where this mural is
    located, all the walls are a creamy white with
    landscapes and other motifs painted directly on
    the white walls.
  • The paintings that are on the walls are
    irrational fantasies they depict fragments of
    buildings, columns supporting half pediments,
    double story columns supporting nothing at all.
  • Architecture became just another piece of subject
    matter in the artists design.

Wall painting 48-64 CE Room 78, Domus Aurea
(Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy
50
  • Originally formed part of a Fourth Style wall of
    an exedra (area at the opening of the atrium) of
    a Pompeian house.
  • Standard characteristics of Roman marriage
    portraits are displayed here the man holding a
    scroll and the woman holding a stylus and a wax
    writing tablet. These portraits suggested high
    education even if it wasnt true of the subjects.
  • The heads are individualized to the subjects
    features, not simply standard types.
  • This is the equivalent of modern wedding
    photographs.

Portrait of a husband and wife 70-79 CE Pompeii,
Italy
50
51
Still life with peaches 62-79 CE Detail from a
wall painting Herculaneum, Italy
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius
  • In addition to their interest in figures, Roman
    painters also chose to celebrate everyday
    objects.
  • This still life demonstrates that Roman painters
    sought to create illusionistic effects while
    depicting small objects. Here they used light
    and shade with attention to shadows and
    highlights.
  • The illusion created here is the furthest advance
    by ancient painters in representational
    technique.
  • It appears that this artist understood that the
    look of things is a function of light.
  • Also, the goal was to paint light as one would
    strive to paint the touchable object that
    reflects and absorbs it.

This illusion of light marks the furthest advance
by ancient painters in representational
technique it would not be seen again until the
Dutch in the 1700s.
Still Life Approx. 1700 Netherlands
52
Mosaic
53
Herculaneum
Neptune and Amphitrite wall mosaic 62-79 CE House
of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy
  • Shown here are Neptune - God of the Sea - and his
    wife, Amphitrite, set into an elaborate niche,
    presiding over the running water of the fountain
    that would be in the courtyard in front of them.
  • Mosaics were usually on floors in the ancient
    world. The Romans, however, used mosaics to
    decorate walls and even ceilings.
  • The subjects chosen for Roman mosaics were
    diverse, although mythological themes were very
    popular.

54
The Battle of Issus mosaic200 BCEHouse of the
Faun, Pompeii, Italy
55
  • Mosaic depicts the Battle of Issus (333 BCE),
    during which Alexander faced Darius III of
    Persia.
  • The portrait of Alexander is one of his most
    famous. Alexander's breastplate depicts Medusa,
    and his wavy hair is typical of Greek art of the
    4th c. BCE.
  • He is portrayed sweeping into battle at the left,
    on his horse, Bucephalos, and focusing on the
    Persian leader.
  • Darius is shown in a chariot and seems to be
    desperately trying to flee the battle.
  • He has a worried expression on his face.
  • The Persian soldiers behind him have expressions
    of determination and dread.
  • Darius's brother, Oxyathres, is also portrayed,
    sacrificing himself to save the King.
  • Style Note
  • Radical foreshortening - as in the central horse,
    seen from behind - and the use of shading to
    convey a sense of mass and volume enhance the
    naturalistic effect of the scene.
  • Repeated diagonal spears, clashing metal, and the
    crowding of men and horses convey the chaos of
    battle.

56
Sea Life mosaic2nd c. BCEHouse of the Faun,
Pompeii, Italy
  • Consider the symbolism behind the subject matter?
  • Does its composition remind you of any works of
    art from a different culture?
  • In what type of room might this mosaic have
    existed?
  • What was the artists intention with regards to
    color?

57
Tragedy Mask mosaic101-100 BCEHouse of the
Faun, Pompeii, Italy
  • Do you recognize any designs
    or elements from works weve
    seen in our studies before?
  • What may this mask be foreshadowing?
  • Consider the facial expression. What does it
    convey to the viewer?
  • What role would a mosaic like this have played in
    a home?

58
Sculpture
59
The Roman Style Beliefs
  • The Romans truly believed that a statue should
    look like the real person. This is called
    portraiture.
  • The Greeks were more interested in the idealistic
    perspective of the statue.
  • The Romans liked to keep it realistic.
  • They also liked to keep a sculpture of the head
    of a person after they died. They thought it
    would keep whoever the person was happy, that way
    the dead would not haunt you.

60
Changing tastes in sculpture
  • Early Style
  • Emphasized gravitas (seriousness) and dignitas
    (dignity)
  • Influenced by the imagines (death masks of higher
    magistrates)
  • Late Style
  • Broke with dignified idealism of the Roman Early
    Phase
  • Verism, or taste for realism
  • Almost brutal realism flaws, blemishes, scars,
    and baldness!
  • Sense of unease typifies the unsettled times of
    the Late Republic
  • Increasing eastern (i.e., Hellenistic) influences

61
The Roman Republic
Head of a Roman patrician 75-50 BCE Otricoli,
Italy
  • Republican patrician portraits
  • Mostly men of old age (generally these elders
    held the power in the state)
  • One of the most striking of these so-called
    veristic (superrealistic) portraits is of an
    unidentified patrician.
  • We are able to see this mans personality
    serious, experienced, determined - virtues that
    were admired during the Republic.

Kresilas Pericles Greece
62
Roman Patrician (Julius Caesar?) with busts of
his ancestors30 BCECapitoline Museums, Rome
  • LeocharesApollo Belevedere350-325 BCEGreece

63
Polykleitos
Doryphoros 450-440 BCE Athens, Greece
Augustus Primaporta 20 BCEVilla
of Livia, Prima Porta, Italy
64
  • Octavian Caesar (the great-nephew and adopted
    son of Julius Caesar) became the first Roman
    Emperor in 44BC. By 27 BC, the Senate conferred
    him the title Augustus (meaning exalted or
    sacred).
  • Divine reference in his being barefoot (the
    standard representation of gods or heroes in
    classical iconography).
  • For the next 41 years, Augustus Caesar led the
    empire through a period of peace and prosperity
    known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace.
  • The inclusion of Aphrodites son, Cupid, is a
    reminder of Augustus divine descent.
  • Furthermore, the breastplate depicts his recent
    military victories over neighboring
    civilizations.
  • The marble statue was originally painted.

65
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius176
CEPiazza del Campodoglio, Rome, Italy
  • Roman emperor depicted as a Hellenistic king
  • Glorification of the individual
  • Themes power and divine grandeur
  • The emperor is over life-size and is holding out
    his hand much like that in the Augustus
    portraits.
  • In this case, the gesture may also signify mercy
    (some historians assert that a fallen enemy may
    have been sculpted begging for mercy under the
    horse's raised hoof)
  • Such an image was meant to portray the Emperor as
    victorious and all-conquering. However, shown
    without weapons or armor, Marcus Aurelius seems
    to be a bringer of peace rather than a military
    hero, for this is how he saw himself and his
    reign.

66
Architecture
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Overview
  • Roman architecture is what has given Rome the
    most fame.
  • The three most important things that the Romans
    brought to the architectural world are
  • Baked brick
  • The use of cement and concrete
  • The arch
  • The Romans learned most of their techniques from
    the Etruscans.
  • During the Republican period, temples and
    aqueducts were built, along with sewers and
    basilicas.

69
Roman Building
70
Etruscan Supremacy 700-509 BCE Provided link
between Greek and Roman ArtKEYWORDS TERRA
COTTA, COMPOSITE ORDER Roman Republican Period
509-27 BCE Begins with overthrowing last
Etruscan King and ends with Julius Caesar Major
buildings built more for POLITCAL use than for
WORSHIPKEYWORDS TEMPLES, HOMAGE TO
RULERS Early Empire Period 27 BCE-180 CE
KEYWORDS WALL PAINTINGS, CONCRETE, ARCH,
COLOSSEUM The High Empire 180-195 CE Five Good
Emperors (Trajan, Hadrian, etc.) kept things
prosperous and peaceful.KEYWORDS COLUMN OF
TRAJAN, HADRIANS WALL, PANTHEON The Late
Empire 195-400 CEDiocletian had Empire divided
into four parts.KEYWORDS ARCH OF CONSTANTINE
71
Temple of Athena Nike 410 BCE
Acropolis, Athens, Greece
Temple of Portunus 75 BCE Rome, Italy
71
72
  • A superb example of Roman eclecticism is the
    Temple of Portunus, the Roman god of harbors.
  • Follows the Etruscan pattern
  • High podium is accessible only at the front, with
    its wide flight of steps.
  • Freestanding columns are confined to the deep
    porch.
  • The structure is built of stone overlaid
    originally with stucco in imitation of the white
    marble temples of the Greeks.
  • The columns are Ionic, complete with flutes and
    bases.
  • In an effort to create a semi-Greek temple -
    while maintaining the Etruscan plan - the
    architect added a series of engaged Ionic
    half-columns around the cellas sides and back.
  • The result was a pseudoperipteral temple.

Republic Rome
Model of a typical Etruscan Temple 6th Century
BCE
73
The Roman House
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Pont-du-Gard Mid-1st c. CE Nimes, Southern
France
Aqueduct Segovia, Spain
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Ictinus Phidias Pathenon
447-432 BCE Acropolis, Athens, Greece
Marcus Agrippa Pantheon 27 BCE (Rebuilt 2nd c.
CE) Rome, Italy
78
  • Pantheon (Gr) Every god
  • Built as a temple to the gods by Trajan, evident
    by the statues of gods that line with walls of
    the interior. Later became a church.
  • Wouldve been higher in antiquity, but over time,
    the ground level has elevated.

79
Castel SantAngelo (Mausoleum of Hadrian) 120-130
CE Rome, Italy
80
Trajans Column 113 CE Forum, Rome, Italy
81
  • Its spiral reliefs commemorate Trajan's
    victory in the Dacian Wars.
  • The scenes on the frieze unfold
    continuously and in a tipped-up
    perspective.
  • The imagery is not realistic as the sculptor
    pays little attention to perspective.
  • Often a variety of different perspectives are
    used in the same scene, so that more can be
    revealed.
  • Thought to have been used as propaganda.

82
Colosseum70-82 CE Rome, Italy
83
Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE Rome,
Italy
  • Triumphal arch built to commemorate Constantine
    I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of
    Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312
  • Depicts scenes from the time periods of Trajan,
    Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius, as well, to connect
    Constantines rule with those of the Good
    Emperors

84
Additional Materials
85
Decline and Fall of Ancient Rome
  • Murder, Suicide, Old Age, or Inevitable?

86
Murder?
  • Pressure from Parthians and Sassanids in the east
    (modern-day Iraq and Iran)
  • Provincial revolts, especially Jews in 66-70 and
    131-133 CE
  • Pressure from barbarians along the Rhine and the
    Danube
  • Increasing military sophistication of barbarians
    as a result of contact with Roman armies
  • Roman defeat at Adrianople, 378 CE
  • Sack of Rome by Alaric the Visigoth, 410 CE
  • Invasion under Attila the Hun, 455 CE
  • Overthrow of emperor Romulus Augustulus by
    barbarian mercenaries under Odacer the German,
    476 CE

87
Suicide?
  • Latifundia problem - plantations worked by slaves
    replace independent farmers
  • The Roman mob-former farmers become unemployed
    slum dwellers in the cities, esp. in Rome
  • Roman mob dependent on govt-provided jobs, food,
    and entertainment
  • Frequent civil wars, especially during the 200s
    CE, due to military interference in Roman
    politics
  • Increasing tax burdens based on costs of
    controlling urban mobs and military defense
  • Increasing dependence on barbarian mercenary
    troops, similar to problems of Chinese military
    defense
  • Overextended borders, similar to ancient China
  • Overdependence on slave labor
  • Conflict between traditional Greco-Roman religion
    and a spreading Christianity introduced from the
    east
  • Destruction of library at Alexandria by a
    Christian mob, 415 CE

88
Old Age?
  • General wear and tear of long-term imperial
    administration and defense
  • Increasingly rigid social class structure and
    declining opportunities for advancement
  • Exhaustion resulting from ever-increasing taxes
  • Abandonment of traditional Greco-Roman religion
    for Christianity people place their hopes in
    life after death
  • Increasing pessimism about life on earth

89
Inevitable?
  • Plague of 165-66 CE kills half the Roman empires
    population
  • Roman mines run out of gold and silver, starting
    in 160s Roman emperors forced to cut gold and
    silver content of Roman coinage
  • Declining value of Roman coinage forces ruinous
    inflation. Roman currency almost useless as a
    medium of trade by 280s CE
  • Rome collapses into a barter economy by 280s CE
  • Climate change in central Asia (colder and drier)
    starting in 160s leads to increasing barbarian
    migrations and pressure on empires borders

90
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