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TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURE OF LOW COST NAPKINS

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Title: TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURE OF LOW COST NAPKINS


1
TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURE OF LOW COST NAPKINS
SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 19,
UNIVERSITY ROAD, DELHI - 110007
2
An Insight of Asia
  • Five most populous third world countries ar
  • China
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Pakistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Majority of the women folk are deprived of
    hygiene conditions

3
Demographic Trends
  • Expected population growth in Asia by 2050
  • East Southeast Asia
  • China-12
  • Indonesia-3
  • South West Asia
  • India-21
  • Bangladesh-4
  • Pakistan-5
  • Expected population of women between the age
    group of 15-45 is 500 million

4
Indian Scenario
  • Population 1.2 billion
  • Rural 71 Urban 29
  • Male 51.9
  • Female 48.1
  • Sex ratio 933females/1000males
  • Birth rate 27.9
  • Death Rate 7.6
  • 0.15 billion women in the age group 15-45 in
    rural India

5
POPULATION EXPLOSION
  • Poverty
  • Illiteracy
  • Unemployment
  • Poor-Health
  • Women are the worst affected by population
    explosion

6
WOMEN HEALTH ISSUES
  • Physiological Disorders

Women In Poverty
  • Poor Hygiene
  • Reproductive Health

7
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT
  • Women empowerment
  • Improving education
  • Improving the economic status by setting up
    training
  • cum-employment programme
  • Handicraft and cooperative industry
  • Employment Generation
  • Employment generation through entrepreneurship
  • Value based creative education
  • Value addition from biodiversity
  • Value addition to agricultural products
  • Swa -Shakti project Establishing self-reliant
    women Groups

8
Women -Oriented Mission Projects
  • Education through distance education
  • Family planning by participation
  • Empowerment by employment generation
  • Health of mother and child

9
Relevance Of the Technology
  • To provide better hygienic conditions
  • Minimizing the spread of infections
  • Employment generation
  • Self entrepreneurial opportunities
  • Easy accessibility and affordability of the
    product

10
I. SANITARY NAPKIN DEVELOPED BY SRI
11
LOW COST NAPKIN
  • A. Sanitary Napkin A Product
  • B. SRIS Work Development of Technology
  • C. Plan to Transfer Technology Path forward

12
THEME OF THE TECHNOLOGY
A. To develop a cost effective product which
could be made affordable to the majority of the
women population of India B. A cost effective
technology that can be easily adopted by the
rural women, means of generating employment
13
PERIOD OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT
A. Development upto lab scale 1999-2001 B.
Developments up-scaled 2001-2003 C.
Patents filed 2004 D.
Technology commercialized 2004-2005
14
CONSTRUCTION OF SANITARY NAPKINS
TOP LAYER
ABSORBENT LAYER
BACK LAYER
  • Napkin involves 3 layers
  • Absorbent layer sandwiched between protective
    porous and non-porous layers

15
FUNCTION OF LAYERS
LAYER FUNCTION MATERIAL Top ? Porous ?
Biocompatible ? Allows passage ?
Non-irritant of liquid Absorbent ? Helps in
even distribution ? Biocompatible ? Capillary
action ? Non-irritant Back ? Non-porous ?
Non-irritant ? Prevents leakage
  • All layers are important for performance of Napkin

16
NAPKINS FOR HIGH END MARKET
  • High absorption

17
NAPKINS FOR MIDDLE END MARKET
  • Optimum performance against cost

18
NAPKINS FOR LOW END MARKET
  • Scope for innovations and indigenisation

19
SYNTHETIC vs. NATURAL ABSORBENTS
PARAMETERS SYNTHETIC NATURAL Absorbency Excellent
Moderate Retention Excellent Moderate Aesthetic
s Good Good Feel Good Good Cost High Affordable Bi
odegradability Non-biodegradable Biodegradable Sus
tainability Low High Technology Not available Not
available
  • For sustainability and accessibility, natural
    absorbent have to be identified and developed

20
COST FACTORS FOR NAPKINS BASED ON SUPER ABSORBENT
COMPONENTS COST () REMARKS Technology 25 Closel
y guarded Raw materials 40 No local
manufacturer Processing 20 Imported
machinery Marketing 15 High end market
  • Overall cost is bound to be high due to
    non-availability of raw material as well as
    technology

21
TECHNOLOGY COMPONENT
  • High investments for plant and machinery
  • Continuous process using automatic plant
  • Use of Imported raw material
  • Local production of raw material will involve
    technology component

22
COST FACTORS FOR NAPKINS BASED ON NATURAL
ABSORBENT
COMPONENTS COST () REMARKS Technology 10 Closel
y guarded Raw materials 70 No local
manufacturer Processing 15 Imported
machinery Marketing 5 Low and high end
market
  • Affordable and easily accessible to low and high
    end market

23
KEY FACTORS
  • Identifying right material
  • Developing technology to achieve absorbency in
    cost effective manner
  • Development of process method to convert raw
    material to usable product
  • Design of plant machinery
  • Setting quality norms method development
  • Training of operators for operation and quality
    control

24
POSSIBLE WAYS FOR COST REDUCTION
  • Use low cost raw materials
  • Use of alternative cellulosic fibres viz. bamboo
    fibre, jute, pineapple fibre, kenaf, etc.
  • Use of fibre waste e.g. cotton, rayon
  • Development of indigenous machinery
  • Production at block level
  • Direct selling

25
B. SRIS WORK DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
  • Development work and Methodology
  • Setting up of pilot plant

26
WORK CARRIED OUT BY SRI
  • OBJECTIVES
  • A technology for manufacture of low cost napkins
    has been developed at laboratory scale
  • Using appropriate fibre waste
  • Developing indigenous machinery
  • Scaling up of technology
  • Setting up of a demonstration unit for
    manufacturing 3000 pieces per day

27
METHODOLOGY
ABSORBENT LAYER
  • Rayon Waste
  • Coning
  • Thready

Cutting of Fibre
Treatment Washing
Hydro-extraction
Drying of Fibre
Non Woven Web making machine
Opening Laying
Opening of Fibre
BACK LAYER
Cutting
Laying Compaction
PE Sheets
Cutting of PE
Sealing of layed web between the back layer Top
layer
TOP LAYER
PP Sheets
Cutting of PP
Sterilization
28
SANITARY NAPKIN PLANT
29
FIBRE CUTTING
FIBRE TREATMENT
FIBRE OPENING
DRYER
30
HYDRAULIC PRESS
CUTTING MACHINE
SEALING MACHINE
PACKED SAMPLE
31
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
32
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
33
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
34
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES
S.No. Tests Results Protocol 1. Sterility Compli
es IP-46 Guidelines 2. Skin irritation Non-irrit
ant OECD-404 Guidelines 3. Skin
sensitization No dermal OECD-404 sensitization
Guidelines
Indian Pharmacopoeia Organization for Economic
Cooperative Development
35
C. PLAN TO TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY PATH FORWARD
  • Demonstration of Technology
  • Training operators for production of quality
    napkin

36
DEMONSTRATION OF PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
  • A demonstration has been given to -
  • Officials from Department of Science and
    Technology
  • Government officials from South Africa
  • Officials from Gujarat government
  • Personnel of NGOs
  • Accomplished successfully

37
ACHIEVEMENTS
  • A simple and cost effective technology
  • Production cost per piece is lt Rs.1.0
  • Quality comparable to commercial product of
    Rs. 2.50 - Rs.3.50
  • The rural women can adopt the technology. It can
    provide a source of income for the rural women

38
IMPACT OF THE TECHNOLOGY
  • Improve the general health and hygiene of the
    rural women
  • The rural women can adopt the technology and the
    plant can be run by the women.
  • It can provide a source of income for the rural
    women
  • Improve the economic status of the women
  • The developed technology shall affect 40-50
    population of India, which falls in the low
    income group

39
ROLE OF SRI
  • Help the government in setting up of plants
  • Providing training to women for running a plant
  • Further economization of the technology
  • Research for other natural absorbents as per
    local needs
  • Product development and technology development
    relevant for socio-economic upliftment

40
II. PROFILE OF SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL
RESEARCH (SRI)
41
SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (SRI)
42
ABOUT SRI
  • Not-for-profit
  • Autonomous, private contract research institute
    with a Board of Governors including eminent
    Academicians, Scientists, Professionals, Civil
    Servants and other distinguished persons
  • Provides R D and analytical services to various
    government and private agencies
  • Qualified and experienced technical and
    scientific staff
  • LABORATORIES
  • Delhi
  • Total area of plot 10 Acres
  • Bangalore
  • Total area of plot 3.86 Acres

43
STRENGTH OF SRI
  • PERSONNEL
  • Scientists/Technologists 250
  • Non-Technical 85
  • Total 335
  • QUALIFICATIONS OF SCIENTISTS/TECHNOLOGISTS
  • Ph.D 30
  • Post graduate 100
  • Graduate 120
  • Total 250

44
ACCREDITATIONS/RECOGNITIONS
  • National Organisations In Different Sectors
  • Health Sector
  • Ministry Of Health And Family Welfare
  • Drug Contollers Of all States
  • Indian Council Of Medical Research
  • Agriculture
  • APEDA
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research
  • Food Corporation of India
  • Export Promotion Council
  • Central Insecticide Board
  • Defence
  • Ministry Of Supply DGS D
  • Ministry of Defence
  • Defence Research And Development Organization
  • Airport Authority of India
  • Export Promotion Council of India
  • Central Insecticide Board
  • Punjab Health Systems

45
ACCREDITATIONS/RECOGNITIONS
  • National Organisations In Different Sectors
  • Space
  • Indian Space Research Organisation
  • Air Authority of India
  • Atomic Energy
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
  • Department Of Atomic Energy
  • Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
  • Transport
  • Delhi Metro Rail
  • Rail India Technical and Economic Services
  • UP State Bridge Construction Company
  • National Highway Authority of India
  • Ministry Of Railways
  • Maruti Udyog Ltd.
  • International Organisations
  • Saudi Arabia Standards Organisations
  • Department Of Drug Administraytion, Nepal

46
ACCREDITATIONS/RECOGNITIONS
  • International Organisations
  • Saudia Arabia Standards Organisations
  • Department of Drug Adiistration, Nepal
  • Sri Lanka Standards Institutions
  • European Commission
  • Accreditations
  • National Accreditation Board For Calibration and
    Testing Laboratories (NABL)
  • ISO9001 by DNV, The Netherlands

47
SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
  • Independent Autonomous
  • Self-Sustainable
  • Contract Research
  • Material Science Division
  • Environment Protection Division
  • Analytical Science Division
  • Biological Science Division
  • Applied Radiation Services
  • Calibration Services

Thrust Areas
  • ISO 9001
  • NABL
  • International Agencies

Accreditations
48
ACTIVITIES OF SRI
  • Development of new processes / products
  • Analytical services
  • Development and validation of methods for
    analysis
  • Environmental Protection Services
  • Biological / Toxicological studies
  • Gamma Irradiation facility for enhancing
    shelflife of food products sterilisation and
    RD
  • Quality assurance as per national / international
    standards
  • Consultancy services
  • Training

49
ANALYTICAL SCIENCE DIVISION
  • Inspection, analysis and certification of
    following major areas
  • Agrochemicals
  • Building Materials
  • Paints and Coatings
  • Petroleum, Wood, Leather, Textile and paper
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Minerals and Ores
  • Rubber and Plastics
  • Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
  • Food and Farm Products
  • Development of new analytical techniques and
    specialized facilities viz.
  • Migration studies
  • Trace analysis of pesticides and toxic metals and
    chemicals in food products
  • VOCs, POPs, PAHs and PCBs in environment
  • Quality certification as per BIS, Agmark, etc.
  • Consultancy for setting up laboratories

50
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION DIVISION
  • Activity started 3 decades back
  • Profile of beneficiaries of our service
  • Industries
  • International Organizations
  • Community
  • Civic Agencies

Thrust Areas
  • Environmental Research
  • Natural Resources Management
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • EIA, EMP, DMP, Safety Audits
  • Solid Wastes Management
  • Treatability Studies
  • Water Wastewater Characterization
  • Air Emission Studies

51
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
  • TOXICOLOGY
  • Acute, subacute and inhalation toxicology
  • Supplementary toxicology
  • Dermatological toxicology
  • Reproduction toxicology
  • Mutagenicity studies
  • Carcinogenicity
  • Eco-toxicity
  • MICROBIOLOGY
  • Drugs Pharmaceuticals
  • Food and Water
  • Disinfectants
  • Cosmetics
  • Water filter cum purifiers
  • PHARMACOLOGY
  • Pyrogen test
  • Lal test
  • Bioassay
  • Oxytocic activity

52
SPECIALIZED SERVICES
  • APPLIED RADIATION CENTER
  • Irradiation of medical products
  • Irradiation of food products
  • Irradiation of pharmaceutical products
  • Co60 ? irradiator capacity 500 Kci (Licensed for
    800 Kci)
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE
  • Certified for ISO9001
  • Accredited by NABL in the fields of
  • Chemicals
  • Mechanical
  • Biological
  • Calibration
  • Proficiency testing
  • Internal audits
  • Handling of complaints
  • Internal quality check

53
RESEARCH AND TRAINING
  • Research development for industrial products
  • Imparting industrial training to students from
    various universities and technical institutions
  • Up-gradation of qualifications
  • Organizing seminars, conferences and workshops

54
MATERIAL SCIENCE DIVISION
  • MAJOR THRUST AREAS
  • Polymers Plastics
  • Biomedical Healthcare
  • Composites
  • Resins Coatings
  • Adhesives
  • Waste Renewable Resource Utilization
  • Biodegradable polymers
  • Polymer processing and recycling technologies
  • Green Technologies
  • Food Preservation
  • Specialty Chemicals
  • Consultancy Services

55
MAJOR ON-GOING PROJECTS
  • High performance epoxy glass composites
  • Bio-absorbable synthetic sutures
  • Mesta fibre PP composites
  • Disposable speculum for gynecological application
  • Reduction of polyaromatic hydrocarbon in coal tar
    pitch
  • Metal containing polymers for optical
    applications
  • High performance e-beam curable wood coatings
  • Remediation of PCBs in oil and paints by
    radiolysis
  • Lip seal for transfer of radioactive material
  • Photo-resist coating for printed circuit board
  • Pellets from plastic waste

56
NATIONAL / INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES / WORKSHOPS
ORGANIZED DURING 1999-2004
  • Application of radioisotopes radiation
    technology in food processing and healthcare
    products
  • Performance enhancing additives for polymeric
    materials
  • Reference materials - A mandatory requirement
    under quality systems
  • Recent trends in instrument techniques for
    quality assessment
  • Environment pollution prevention control
    strategies in new millennium
  • Plastic waste management environment
  • Plastics Environment opportunities challenges
  • Awareness of gamma radiation processing of food,
    spices, animal feed and healthcare products
  • NABL awareness programme on measurement
    uncertainty

57
II. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SRI
58
SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES
  • Areas of Focus
  • Indigenous technologies
  • Health safety
  • Food safety
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Rural upliftment
  • Novel materials
  • Areas of Challenges
  • Patent regime
  • Hygiene, Nourishment and Medical care
  • Quality food, food processing and preservation
    and Bio-safety issues for GM foods
  • Alternate fuels
  • Green Technologies, Waste Management, GHG
    emissions
  • Infrastructure
  • Cost-effective Technologies
  • Advanced Applications
  • Import substitute items of strategic application

59
FOOD PROCESSING
  • Increase/enhancement of shelf life of apples by
    gamma irradiation.
  • To enable farmers to preserve their produce from
    damages
  • To avoid dumping of imported apples during
    off-season
  • Control of aflatoxin in groundnuts
  • To exploit the export-potential
  • To avoid health hazards
  • Development of rodent repellent packaging and
    storage material for food grains
  • To avoid losses due to rodents
  • PATH FORWARD
  • To enhance PFA list by inclusion of various
    fruits and vegetables for irradiation.
  • To set up irradiation facilities in different
    regions of India

60
FOOD FARM PRODUCTS
  • Development of methods for low detection limits
    of various residual pesticides
  • Export of farm products e.g. Honey, Egg powder,
    Gherkins, Grapes Marine products.
  • Capability building in the area of residue
    analysis in the wake of WTO
  • Development of methods with very low levels of
    detection of adulterants in food products
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Setting up of a centre of excellence in the area
    of residue analysis for various food products.
  • Fixing of Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) by risk
    assessment studies for various residues.

61
BIO-TECHNOLOGY
  • Bio-safety evaluation of various Genetically
    Modified products
  • for registration and certification
  • for bio-safety
  • Mycotoxins in various food products
  • Rapid immuno analysis
  • According to EU norms using sophisticated
    equipments
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Setting up of state-of-the-art GLP compliant
    toxicology facility for bio-safety evaluation of
    all types of GM products.
  • Framing protocols for bio-safety evaluation of GM
    products.
  • Bio-remediation of various environmental
    pollutants.

62
NOVEL MATERIALS
  • Booting
  • Radiation protective garments for robotic arms
    for nuclear applications
  • E-beam Composites
  • High performance composites for aerospace and
    automobile applications
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Commercialisation of Booting
  • Working on the development of other strategic
    materials

63
WASTE TO WEALTH
  • PEF FUEL from plastics
  • Substitute of coal
  • High calorific value
  • Road construction using plastics
  • Better durability
  • Cost effective
  • Use of non-recyclable plastics for value added
    products
  • Substitute of wood
  • Avoids land filling of valuable resource
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Adoption of plastics for road making by way of
    demonstration at various places.
  • Use of PEF in various industries as an
    environment friendly fuel.
  • Solves problem of plastic waste
  • Low emissions

64
Health Hygiene
  • Development of Low Cost Sanitary Napkins
  • For rural women
  • Biodegradable
  • Employment generation
  • Disposable Vaginal Speculum
  • Better Hygiene for gynae applications
  • Cost effective
  • Bio-absorbable sutures
  • Blood Bag
  • Products for Dental Application
  • High Refractive Index Material (HRIM)
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Taking Napkin technology to masses
  • Commercializing Speculum Technology
  • Commercialization of HRIMs

65
ENVIRONMENT
  • Hygiene index of Yamuna water in collaboration
    with Japan Development Authority under Yamuna
    Action Plan-II
  • Monitoring of Ganga water under Ganga Action
    Plan-II
  • Mapping of Arsenic in ground water in the border
    areas of Eastern India
  • Mapping of Floride in ground water in Rajasthan
    and Madhya Pradesh
  • Pollution monitoring of Delhi at Different time
    periods
  • PATH FORWARD
  • Phytoremediation of Arsenic

66
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • My sincere thanks to the management of SRI for
    giving me this opportunity for presenting my work
    at this forum.
  • I wish to extend my thanks to the Director, Dr.
    R.K. Khandal and senior management for their
    guidance and support.
  • My sincere thanks to the Department of Science
    and Technology for sponsoring the work

67
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • I wish to acknowledge my team for their
    continuous efforts to make this technology a
    success
  • Mr. Vinay Tyagi
  • Mr. Amit Pandey
  • Mr. Parveen Gogia
  • Mr. Amit Kumar
  • Mr Bhupesh Sharma

68
THANK YOU
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