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Environmental Applications of GIS

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Dr. Robert C. Frohn, Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati ... and nature of waste storage containers, prioritize inspections, and monitor the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Applications of GIS


1
Environmental Applications of GIS
2
General Application Areas
  • Characterization
  • Assessment
  • Monitoring
  • Modeling
  • Analysis
  • Management

3
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4
Environmental Application Topical Areas
  • Forestry Applications
  • Agricultural Applications
  • Hydrological Applications
  • Geological Applications
  • Land Use Planning
  • Risk Management
  • Wildlife Management
  • Water Quality
  • Ecosystems
  • Pollution
  • Waste
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation Management and Protection

5
Environmental Application Example
  • Ecosystem Management
  • Suitability Analysis
  • Pollution Monitoring
  • Waste Management
  • Environmental Planning and Management
  • Population Analysis
  • Species Distribution
  • Monitoring Protected Areas
  • Coastal Area Management
  • Biodiversity Assessment
  • Water Quality

6
  • Ecosystem Management

7
  • GAP, In this example, researchers are using the
    GIS to help identify areas where certain species
    should be present but are not (gaps). These
    species are used as indicators of overall
    biodiversity and "health" of an ecosystem.

8
The goals of the project are to develop (1) a
scientific framework of ecosystem management in
the interior Columbia River basin (2) scientific
assessment for ecosystem management in the
interior Columbia Basin (3) eastside
environmental impact statement (4) upper
Columbia River Basin environmental impact
statement and (5) eastside ecosystem management
scientific evaluation of planning
alternatives. BLM
9
  • Site Characterization

10
Site characterization involves the compilation of
survey data, aerial photos, hydrological data,
well and soil samples, and a variety of other
information. GIS is used to organize and refine
data to help develop strategies for preliminary
assessments, site inspections, and remedial
investigation feasibility studies for site
cleanup.
11
  • Pollution Monitoring

12
A GIS can be used to track the spread of
pollutants and assess the damage to affected
areas. GIS software helps build a framework of
information necessary to assess and minimize risk
to populations and natural resources from
contamination or natural disasters.
13
Exxon Valdez Spill
14
The effects of oil spills on tourism were
assessed by using the same data to analyze the
scenic appeal of different areas.
15
  • Waste Management

16
Input and recall the location and nature of waste
storage containers, prioritize inspections, and
monitor the transportation of hazardous
materials. And also look for areas with suitable
land use and geology and distances away from
water bodies or major roads.
17
  • Environmental Planning and Management

18
For environmental impact assessments you can
manage relationships among biological and
cultural resources, such as air quality, noise,
traffic, and socioeconomic data. This example,
prepared by the Chambers Group, shows the City of
Indio's wildlife within the framework of the
city's general plan. Areas within the city are
ranked according to their overall wildlife
potential.
19
  • Emergency Management

20
With a GIS you can assess the strategies for
response and support efforts following disasters.
This example demonstrates a toxic gas leak,
adjacent areas affected, areas affected by the
toxic plume, and the location of critical
facilities
21
  • Wildlife Management

22
The Chambers Group uses a GIS and the data
collected from a Global Positioning System (GPS)
to show the distribution and densities of desert
tortoise populations.
23
  • Duke Power Company uses a
  • GIS to manage their geographic
  • data for open water fish species.
  • After collecting the data, the
  • GIS is used to visualize and
  • analyze the spatial abundance,
  • size, and depth distribution
  • of the fish.

24
Recolonization of the eastern timber wolf and the
factors that contribute to its success in
reestablishing ranges. This map shows how the
wolf has been steadily moving east in its efforts
to reestablish habitat.
25
  • The Maine Office of
  • Geographic Information
  • Systems uses the GIS
  • to show how elevation
  • affects the distribution of
  • Maine's 15 "natural areas
  • and their associated species.

26
  • Protected Areas Management

27
This map represents the vegetation types of
southern Madagascar in different colors and
protected areas in diagonal patterns. With this
information they can easily see areas needing
protection or currently protected areas that
may be threatened.
28
  • Biodiversity

29
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30
  • Coastal Management

31
Texas CMP identifies coastal natural resource
areas, identifies uses or activities that
threaten those areas, and sets uniform policies
to address those threats
32
  • Water Quality Monitoring

33
South Africa Water Quality Management
  • Use
  • soil loss,
  • phosphorus levels,
  • land use, and
  • E.coli bacteria levels
  • as layers in a water quality model

34
Potential Soil Loss
35
Phosphorous Potential
36
Land Use Layer
37
E. Coli Concentration
38
Massachusetts is using GIS to monitor the water
quality for the entire Merrimack River basin. The
location of each sampling station, landfill,
incinerator, pond, and tributary is stored in the
GIS. The GIS can plot the features and/or look
for spatial relationships between station water
quality and potential pollutant sources
39
With GIS you can visualize and and analyze
sampling sites. This example shows different
sampling sites and compares each site by
pollutant. Scanned photographs of the sites can
also be displayed.
40
  • Environmental Impact Analysis

41
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42
  • Agriculture Water and Fertilizer Management

43
Outcomes such as the take-up of improved on-farm
systems, improved irrigation efficiency,
retirement of nonproductive land, reduced
drainage flow, and groundwater accessions are
being monitored and reported.
44
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45
  • Forestry Applications

46
Inventory
47
Using the GIS, the forester can manage large
databases, and extract general or detailed
information for specific areas of interest
easily. This map shows an enlarged area of a
forest with a detailed display of its features
(i.e. types of streams and roads, as well as
specific types of buildings).
48
Forecasting This map shows what a portion of a
forest will look like sometime in the future.
49
This map shows an enlarged area of a forest with
its inventoried features displayed over a
Satellite image for the same area.
50
The GIS will let them simultaneously assess
timber age, coverage, species, soils, elevation,
and land ownership. This information can also
be used to determine potential harvest yields
and costs
51
Forest Ecology Modeling
52
Forest Watershed Analysis
53
  • Hydrology Applications

54
  • Drainage Analysis

55
This hydrological map graphically displays GIS
thematic units of the upper Drava River in
Croatia. This map was generated as part of a
study of the impact on the environment of the
planned hydroelectric power plant
56
  • Groundwater Monitoring

57
The map depicts problems with maintaining proper
groundwater levels of an area affected by coal
mining.
58
  • Watershed Management

59
The plan aims to reduce flood damage downstream
as well as to contribute toward increasing
biomass production in the area.
60
This map depicts the relative location of soil
types, riparian areas, hydrologic features, and
contours. The data were used to assess the impact
of development alternatives on the watershed
This three-dimensional display helps the
developers appreciate how the geomorphology of
the area and soils play an important role in the
entire watershed.
61
  • Monitoring Wells

62
This map displays the water districts in the San
Joaquin Valley of California and highlights
monitoring wells
63
  • Land-Use Planning

64
Visual Impact of Development
65
Geologic Applications
  • Morphology
  • Geologic Structures
  • Soil Analysis
  • Seismic Hazards

66
Morphology
  • Slope, Aspect, Elevation, Drainage etc.

67
Soil Analysis
68
  • Risk Assessment and Management

69
Estimate Flood Damage
70
Landslide Susceptibility
71
Seismic Risk
72
  • Site Assessment

73
Nuclear Waste Site
74
Site Recyclying Plant Analysis NIMBY
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