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REGULATORY AGENCIES

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Title: REGULATORY AGENCIES


1
REGULATORY AGENCIES
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 40CFR)
  • NEPA, CAA, CWA, FIFRA,SDWA, RCRA, TSCA, CERCLA,
    SARA, OPA, PPA
  • Occupational Safety Health Administ. (OSHA
    29CFR)
  • HAZCOM, HAZWOPER, LO/TO, Confined Spaces, Machine
    Guarding, etc
  • OSH Act Article 5(a)(1) to assure a workplace
    free of
  • Department of Transportation (DOT 49CFR)
  • HMTA, HM 126F (Training), HM181 (POPS), HM-232
    Security Plans for Terrorism
  • Labeling, Marking, Placarding, Packaging,
    Shipping Papers, Loading/Storage Emergency
    Response
  • Food Drug Administration (FDA 21CFR)
  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
  • General Requirements
  • Pharmaceutical Industry Standard

2
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS
  • NEPA National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
    (Environmental Impact Statement)
  • CAA-Clean Air Act (1970) Criteria PollutantsHAPs
  • CWA-Clean Water Act(1972),conventional
    pollutants, PP,MP
  • FIFRA-Fed Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide
    Act(1972)
  • SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), MCLs
  • TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
  • RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery
    Act(1976), HW
  • CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act (1980), HS-RQ
  • SARA Superfund Amend. and Reauth. Act (1986)
  • OPA Oil Pollution Act (1990)

3
CLEAN AIR ACT (CAA)Protect/Enhance Quality of
Nations Air for Public Health and Welfare from
stationary / mobile sources(1ry /2ry standards)
  • State Implementation Plan- a program to provide
    for air quality control standards to achieve
    National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
    (Criteria Pollutants-SOx, O3, NOx, Pb, CO, PM)
  • PSD, Prevention of Significant Deterioration
    requires emissions to be controlled by BACT,(best
    available control technology) for attainment
    areas i.e. meets NAAQS(40 CFR Part 52)-major
    stationary/modification sources (gt100 tons/yr)
    gt250 others

  • REGIONAL CLASSIFICATION
  • 100 tons/yr of NAAQS
    PM allowed (ug/m³)
  • Class I Pristine air quality, parks 5 minor
  • Class II Moderate 19 moderate
  • Class III Allow deterioration 37 more
  • NA Non attainment Areas LAER Lowest
    Achievable Emission Rate
  • (More advanced technology//Trade off
    ratio gt1.1 for same pollutant)
  • NSPS, new source performance standard for
    specific sources and reflect Best Available
    Control technology (BACT) for that specific
    source Example- NSPS for VOCs from Synthetic
    Organic Chemicals- Leak detection Repair
    Testing, records reporting Fugitive emissions
    from pumps, Valves, connections, etc in order to
    reduce VOC emissions

4
Criteria Pollutants NAAQS 1ry Health 2ry
Public Welfare Effects
  • CO Silent Killer-O2 Depletion in blood
  • NONO2 O3 formed w/VOCs sunlight acid
    rains (lakes, trees, eat stone) Damage
    Respiratory Protection
  • Lead Brain/CNS/Reproductive damage
  • O3 NOx VOCs UV O3
    reduced visibility vegetation respiratory
    damage Class I (ODS-CFCs,Halons, MC
    refrigerants)/Class II
  • PM visibility, nose/throat/lung health
  • SOx SO3 H2O H2SO4
  • Acid rain SO2 is harmful

5
CLEAN AIR ACT (CAA), cont
  • RCRA Incinerators for POHC 99.99 DRE // for
    dioxins furans 99.9999
  • (POHC-Principal Organic hydrocarbons
    Constituents)
  • NESHAP National Emission Standards for
    Hazardous Air Pollutant
  • HAP Asbestos, Arsenic, benzene, Hg, Be, radio
    nuclides, vynil chloride and coke oven with high
    level of abatement 40 CFR 61 Carcinogens,
    Mutagenic
  • 1990 CAAA 189 HAPs with Maximum Achievable
    Control Technology (MACT) abatement (Ej. Mecl2
    acrylonitrile, Et-O, etc)

  • TITLES
  • Title I III Hazardous Air Pollutants
  • Title II Mobile sources
  • Title IV Acid rain, NOx/SOx (Low S N fuels,
  • NH3 with catalyst for NOx to convert to N2,
    De-Sulfurization Units)
  • Title V Address operating permit system gt100
    Tons/yr CER CMR
  • or 10 Tons/yr for one HAP (25 Tons/yr-Combined),
    (5 years)CERTIFICATE
  • Title VI Atmospheric warming, ozone layer
    (CFCs)

6
CLEAN AIR ACT
  • Opacity-visual standard for exhausts from mobile
    sources and smoke stacks)Ringleman Chart
  • AP-42 EPA Technical source for air emissions
    calculations Emissions factors provided
  • VOCs destruction on Incinerators, Thermal
    Oxidizers The 3Ts Time, turbulence and
    temperature abatement performance parameters
  • Ozone (O3) is beneficial in stratosphere
    (Filtration of sun ultraviolet rays), but
    detrimental at earth surface (troposphere-6.8
    miles from earth surface)

7
CAA ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY
  • RACT Reasonable Available Control Technology
    EXISTING SOURCES MEETS SIP AAQS-CONSIDER COST
    TECHNOLOGY-LESS STRINGENT
  • BACT Best Available Control Technology
  • FOR NEW/MODIFIED SOURCES IN ATTAINMENT AREAS
    SUBJECT TO PSD
  • LAER Lowest Achievable Emission Rate
  • MOST STRINGENT FOR NON-ATTAINMENT AREAS IN SIP
  • LAERgtBACTgtRACT
  • MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology for
    Hazardous Air Pollutants

8

CLEAN WATER ACT (1972) Restore/maintain
chemical, physical and biological integrity of
Nations waters
  • Address Direct Indirect Discharges of
    pollutants
  • -Direct through NPDES Permits (SW WW)
  • Technology-Based by EPA, BPT by 1977
  • WQS by State/WQC issued by State, BAT by 1983
  • Discharge monitoring report (DMR)-Monthly
    submittal 3 years records retention
  • 24 hrs notification for violations 5 days
    written report
  • DMR Form(Flow, concentartion, type quantity of
    priority pollutants, etc)

9
CLEAN WATER ACT (1972)
  • -Indirect Discharges use POTWs
  • Pretreatment Standards (NOT an NPDES Permit) more
    liberal than NPDES permit
  • Developed to protect POTW operations
  • Categorical Standards/Effluent guidelines
  • 2ry Level of treatment(ACTIVATED SLUDGE)
  • BOD , 30 ppm, TSS lt 30 ppm
  • PH 6 to 9 by biological treatment
  • BAT to remove 129 priority pollutants
  • WAIVER 301(h) FOR 1RY WWTP
  • POTW, Publicly-Owned Treatment Work

10
CLEAN WATER ACT (1972)
  • -Control of oil/ Haz Substances (CERCLA)
  • Part 112.7 (Guidelines to prepare an SPCC)
  • SPCC plan (1973) OIL PRODUCTS 1320 gallons
  • 2ry containment of 110// Professional
    Engineer Certification/Revise every 5 yrs
  • -Stormwater Discharges from industrial activity
  • SWPPP to be prepared to identify PSAs
    incorporate structural 2ry SCS BMPs to prevent
    SW contact with pollutants prior discharge to
    bodies of water/revise every 3 yrs

11
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (1974)Amend 1965 Public
Health Service Act to ensure public health
safety
  • Safe levels of chemicals by name, monitoring
    reporting rules, specify treatment methods and
    protection to water sources
  • Primary (Health based) and secondary
    (aesthetic/nuisance) standards
  • 1ry Std Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)
    enforceable
  • based on risk assessment for public serving gt25
    persons of 15 connections organic, inorganic,
    synthetic and radiological
  • 2ry Std Public welfare- taste, odor, color
  • Public Notification for violations of operation,
    monitoring or reporting requirements

12
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (1974) Cont
  • SWTR Surface Water Treatment Rule, 1989
  • Address concern of disease outbreaks by
    christosporidium, Giardia Lambia, Legionella,
    viruses and other bacteria)
  • Mandates filtration desinfection of all surface
    water
  • Turbidity NTU lt0.3 Ave lt1.0 Max
  • Total coliforms Rule
  • (If positive do fecal coliform) if indicator
    microorganisms are present violation is trigger
    i. E pathogens are present (5 of samples)

13
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (1974) Cont\
  • Disinfection by Products rule
  • 99 Crypto/ 99.9 of Giardia /99.99 of viruses
  • TTHMs lt 0.08 ppm
  • Cllt4 ppm max 0.2 minimum
  • Action Levels
  • Lead, Pb 0.015 ppm Cu 1.3 ppm (corrosion
    control)

14
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • Resource Conservation and
  • Recovery Act (RCRA, 1976)

15
RCRA OVERVIEW
  • Coverage
  • General Provisions
  • Office of Solid Waste, Authorities of the EPA
  • Hazardous Waste Management
  • State / Regional Solid Waste Plans
  • Duties of the Secretary of Commerce
  • Federal Responsibilities
  • Miscellaneous Provisions
  • Research, Development and Information
  • Underground Storage Tank
  • Demonstration Medical Waste Program
  • Subtitles of RCRA
  • Subtitle A
  • Subtitle B
  • Subtitle C
  • Subtitle D
  • Subtitle E
  • Subtitle F
  • Subtitle G
  • Subtitle H
  • Subtitle I
  • Subtitle J

16
RCRA OVERVIEW
  • Subtitle C
  • Establishes a management system that regulates
    hazardous waste from the time it is generated
    until its ultimate disposal.
  • Subtitle D
  • Promote and encourage the environmentally sound
    disposal of non-hazardous waste.

17
Subtitle D Solid Waste (for non-HW Solids)
  • Proper Design/Operation of MSW Landfills
  • Location rectrictions
  • Liners 2 of clay (bottom/walls)
  • Operation Waste Covered
  • GW Monitoring
  • Closure/Post-closure care
  • Corrective Action
  • Financial Assurance

18
RCRA OVERVIEW
  • Subtitle I
  • Regulates petroleum products and hazardous
    substances stored in underground tanks
  • Subtitle J
  • Regulates and tracks biomedical wastes
  • management

19
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (USTs) 10 of volume
SUBTITLE (I)
  • Hazardous Substances PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
    (Inventory 1984)
  • PERFORMANCE STANDARS (Dec 22, 1998)
  • Spill/OVERFILL PROTECTION
  • CORROSION PROTECTION
  • LEAK DETECTION (0.1 GPH MINIMUM)
  • Removal/In-situ Closure depending in age
  • Plans submitall to EPA/State

20
RESOURCE CONSERVATION RECOVERY ACT
(1976)Cradle - to- Grave Law for active
regulated facilities
  • Amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965
  • Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Generators (LQG, SQG, CESQG)
  • Transporters
  • Treatment, Storage Disposal Facilities (TSDF)
  • Identification and listing of HW and manifest
    preparat.
  • Corrective Action (TSDF)
  • RFA RCRA Facility Assessment of SWMUs by EPA
  • Interviews, records of operations, Visual
    Inspection, if released
  • suspected to conduct
  • RFI - RCRA Investigation by OWNER
  • CMS - Corrective Measures Study
  • CMI - Corrective Measures Implementation
  • Cleanup Criteria Health-Risk based (TLVs,
    MCLs, WQS or ACL)
  • ACL-Alternate Concentration Level

21
Hazardous Waste Definition
  • Is a solid waste, or combination of solid
    wastes, which because of its quantity,
    concentration, or physical, chemical or
    infectious characteristics, may cause, or
    significantly increase in mortality or an
    increase in serious irreversible or
    incapacitating reversible, illness or pose a
    substantial present or potential hazard to human
    health or the environment when improperly
    treated, stored, transported, or disposed of or
    otherwise managed.

22
Hazardous Waste Definition
  • Listed by EPA (Table 9-2 king)
  • By Characterization
  • Ignitable FPlt140F (D001)
  • Corrosive Phlt2 orgt12.5 (D002)
  • Reactive Release Heat/Toxic Gas (D003)
  • Toxic, TCLP Test (D003-DO43)
  • TCLP-Toxicity Charasteristic Leachability
    procedure
  • EPA PUBLICATION SW - 846
  • FATE transport- simulates a landfill leach
    environment (8 metals, 6 pesticides 26 organics)

23
Ignitability (D001)
  • A liquid that has a Flash Point lt 140º F (60º C)
  • A non liquid capable, under normal conditions, of
    spontaneous and sustained combustion
  • An ignitable compressed gas per DOT
  • And oxidizer per DOT

24
Corrosivity (D002)
  • An aqueous material with a pH lt2 or gt12.5
  • A liquid that corrodes steel at a rate gt ¼ inch
    per year at a temperature of 55º C (130º F)

25
Reactivity (D003)
  • It is normally instable and readily undergoes
    violent change without detonation.
  • It reacts violently with water.
  • It generates toxic gases, vapors of fumes in
    dangerous quantities when mixed with water.

Reactivity
26
Toxicity (D004-D043)
  • Add 38 organic constituents
  • Develops regulatory levels based on subsurface
    fate and transport models
  • Replace EP test protocol with TCLP

27
Listed Hazardous Waste
  • Non-specific source waste (F list)
  • Specific source waste (K list)
  • Commercial Chemical Product (P and
    U list)

28
Non-specific source waste (F list)
  • Spent Solvent
  • Electroplating
  • Petroleum Refinery Oil/Water Separation Floats
    and Sludges
  • Dioxin Containing Wastes
  • Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Production Waste

29
Specific Source (K)
  • Identified by industry
  • Wood Preserving
  • Production of Inorganic Pigment
  • Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
  • Production of Organic Chemicals
  • Production of Inorganic Chemicals

30
Discarded Commercial Chemical (P U)
  • Over 350 commercial products
  • P-Listed wastes as acute waste
  • U-Listed wastes as toxic waste
  • Unused chemical grade formulation
  • Off-specification commercial chemical products or
    manufacturing chemical intermediates
  • Residues, contaminated soil, water or debris
    resulting from clean-up of spills.

31
Hazardous Waste Generators Requirements
  • HW Determination
  • ID Number
  • Pre transport Standard
  • Manifest
  • Exception Report
  • Temporarily Storage
  • Reporting
  • Recordkeeping

32
HW Generator Classifications
  • CESQG Generador de pequeñas cantidades
    condicionalmente Exento
  • lt100kg/Mo (lt220lbs/Mo)
  • SQG Generador de pequeñas cantidades
  • 100Kg-1000Kg/Mo (220lbs-2200lbs/Mo)
  • LQG Generador de grandes cantidades
  • gt1000Kg/Mo (gt2200lbs/Mo)

33
HW TRANSPORTERS
  • OBTAIN an EPA ID NUMBER
  • COMPLY WITH MANIFEST SYSTEM
  • DELIVER HW TO TSD FACILITY
  • MAKE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE IN SPILL
  • NOTIFY NRC
  • DOT WRITTEN REPORT
  • COMPLY WITH DOT 49 CFR Parte 171-180

34
TSDF Requirements
  • EPA ID Number
  • Waste Analysis Plan
  • Security
  • Inspections
  • Personnel Training
  • Special Handling
  • Location Standards
  • Preparedness and Prevention
  • Contingency Plan

35
HW TSD Units
  • Containers Closed, Compatible, 50
  • Bldgs Prevent soils/water contact
  • Drip Pads Prevent preserving solution leaks
  • Land treatment Microbes/sunlight degradation
  • Landfills Nonliquid HW w/ Double liner over 3
    compacted soil, 2 leachate collection/removal
    system, Leak detection, run-off control, wind
    dispersion

36
HW TSD Units Cont
  • Surface Impoundments- Ponds, lagoons w HW/2
    liners Leachate collet/Removal, Leak Detection,
    Run off control, Wind Dispersion
  • Waste Piles For treatment, 2 liners Leachate
    colled/removal, Leak Detection, Run-off Control,
    wind Dispersion

37
HWMUs CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
  • - How the HWMU will be closed
  • How/When final closure will beachieved
  • Max amount
  • Methods for removal, decontamination
  • GW Monitoring
  • Notify EPA 60 day
  • Begin closure 30 days/180 days to complete
  • Certification by PE
  • Post closure care 30 YRS

38
RCRA OVERVIEW
  • Ground Water Monitoring
  • Surface Impoundments
  • Landfill
  • Land Treatment Facility
  • Waste Pile
  • Continuous Monitoring during 30 years after the
    facility closed

39
RCRA OVERVIEW
  • Closure Requirements
  • Description of how the facility will be closed
  • An estimate of the maximum amount of waste the
    facility will handle
  • Decontamination Procedures
  • An estimate of the year of closure
  • A schedule for closure
  • Certification

40
Financial Requirements
  • Two Categories
  • Financial Assurance for Closure and Post Closure
  • Liability Coverage for Injury and Property Damage

41
Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)Prevent
unreasonable risk for manufacturing, handling and
use
  • Test before for manufacturing
  • Set Standards for manufacturing, handling and use
  • PCBs banned after July 79
  • Asbestos
  • regulates labeling and disposal

42
Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
  • TSCA GOALS
  • Designed to protect human health and the
    environment by regulating chemicals in commerce
  • Designed to provide front end regulation
  • Fills in gaps left by other environmental laws
  • Regulates chemical substances
  • Specific Substances
  • PCBs, 40 CFR 761
  • Asbestos
  • Radon
  • Lead

43
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act (Dec 1980)-Love
Canal ,Time Beach in Missouri
  • Immediate Reporting of Hazardous Substances
    Spills/Releases to Environment Exceeding RQ
  • National Contingency Plan-FRAMEWORK for
    preliminary assessment, investigation
    remediation - Funds for cleanup ( From tax on
    Petroleum/Chemical Industries)
  • National Priority List (NPL) Hazard Ranking
    System (HRS) to include in NPL for contaminated
    sites
  • Release scored above the HRS and
  • each state designates a release as its highest
    priority
  • Identification of Potentially Response Party
    (PRP)
  • On Scene Coordinator-EPA Representative
  • Identify nature/extent of contamination, review
    alternatives and select the best option

44
OIL HS SPILL RESPONSE
  • PHASE I-DISCOVERY OR NOTIFICATION
  • PHASE II-PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INITIATION OF
    ACTION
  • PHASE III- CONTAINMENT, COUNTERMEASURE, CLEANUP
    AND DISPOSAL
  • PHASE IV-DOCUMENTATION COST RECOVERY

45
Phase I Discovery or Notification
  • Immediate report to NRC, Local Fire Dept, LEPC,
    SERC exceeding the RQ of HS (RQ Exercise)
  • 1- 800-424-8802
  • Extremely Hazardous Substances
  • (40 CFR 355)

46
Real Estate Transaction
  • INNOCENT LANDOWNER/PURCHASER-DO ALL
    APPROPRIATE INQUIRES (NOT ACCEPTABLE IF
    OBVIOUSNESS OF CONTAMINATION)
  • Environmental Site Assessment Pre-acquisition
  • PHASE I Interviews with owner, government
    agencies and
  • previous owners
  • - Consult city and county tax records for
    property
  • information
  • - Include any nearby swamps, overgrown
    fields,
  • railroads tracks
    investigation
  • - Use ASTM protocol E 15 27/E 1528 by
    owner
  • (include NPL 1mile radius CERCLIS ½ mile
    radius)
  • PHASE II Involve sampling of Recognized
  • Environmental Condition
  • ASTM E 1903 Protocol

47
Superfund Amendment Re-Authorization Act (SARA
Oct. 1986)
  • Reauthorizes the CERCLA hazardous substance funds
    collection
  • Incorporates the EPCRA (Emergency planning and
    community Right-to-know Act) Title III of SARA
    (prompted by Bhopal India- Methyl Isocyanate
    release, over 2000 persons died)
  • Standard Industrial Classification
  • Example,SIC Codes 20-39

48
Emergency planning and community Right-to-know
Act SARA Title III
  • Emergency Planning (Section 301-303)
  • SPCC, FRP, RCRA contingency Plan, CAA section 112
    (r) OSHA 1910.119 PSM serve as references to
    prepare this document
  • Emergency Release Notification (Section 304)
  • Community RTK reporting (Section 311/312)
  • Send copies of MSDSs or list to LEPC, SERC and
    Fire Dept (311)
  • Submit emergency hazardous chemical Inventory
  • (Tier IMandatory by chemical or II by hazard
    category, by March 1) (312) for certain affected
    facilities
  • Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report
    (Section 313)
  • Form R by July 1 (25,000/10,000 Lbs inventory)

49
OPA 90 Facilty Response Plan by EPA/USCG
  • OIL TANKS/VESSELS SPCC FRP
  • INTEGRATED CONTINGENCY PLAN
  • NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES
  • QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL
  • ENSURE AVAILABILITY OF RESOURCES
  • CONTRACT CERTIFICATION
  • EXERCISES DRILLING TRAINING
  • PLANS SUBMITALL TO EPA/USCG

50
ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AUDITS
ISO-14001 EMS
Objectives Ensure Compliance Identify
existing/Potencial liabilities Investigate
acquisitions/mergers
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