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History of Nanomaterials

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Micrometer 1x 10-6 meters. Nanometer 1 x 10-9 meters (one billionth of a meter) ... Width of a human hair 50 micrometers (microns) 1 nm is 1/80,000th of a hair width. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Nanomaterials


1
Nanoscale Science and Engineering
Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of
Polymeric Biomedical Devices (NSEC - CANPBD) 
High School Teacher Workshop, June 10, 2008
2
Outline
  • What is Nanotechnology?
  • History of Human based nanotechnology
  • Nature - an Expert nanotechnologist
  • OSU NSEC

3
What is Nanotechnology?
  • Technology knowledge of using tools and
    machines to do tasks efficiently.
  • Nano
  • Micrometer 1x 10-6 meters
  • Nanometer 1 x 10-9 meters (one billionth of a
    meter)
  • Angstroms 1x 10-10 meters
  • Width of a human hair 50 micrometers (microns)
  • 1 nm is 1/80,000th of a hair width.
  • 1 nm is the width of a DNA
    molecule
  • Point of Comparison
  • Approx. 1.0 billion meters is the distance
    between Saturn and the Earth

4
Some Nano-Philosophy
  • Who Should Introduce Nanotechnology?
  • YOU SHOULD!
  • Why Introduce Nanotechnology?
  • Students Like Cutting Edge Topics
  • How to Introduce Nanotechnology?
  • Traditional Topics using New Systems
  • Where to Introduce Nanotech?
  • Chemistry, biology, physical science, math,
    etc.
  • What should be introduced?
  • Contrast macro and atomic world to
    nanoworld

5
Size Calibration
  • Red Blood Cell 10000 nm
  • Polio Virus 40 nm
  • Nano particles 10-100 nm
  • Atoms Cs (0.26 nm) H (0.01 nm)

6
Size Calibration (cont)
nm
0.1
1
10
102
103
104
Commercial magnetic nanoparticles
RBC
Bacteria
Proteins
DNA
Clq
Cell nucleus
Atoms and ions
Limit of optical resolution
IgG
7
History of Nanomaterials
  • 1974 The word Nanotechnology first coined by
    Nario Taniguchi, Univ. of Tokyo --- production
    technology to get ultra fine accuracy and
    precision 1nm
  • 1981 IBM invented STM scanning tunneling
    microscope which can move single atoms around
  • 1985 new form of carbon discovered --- C60
    buckminister fullerene 60 carbon atoms arranged
    in a sphere made of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons

8
History of Nanomaterials
  • Lycurgus chalice 4th Century A.D.
  • Appears green in reflected light and red if light
    is directed through it (70 nm particles of
    silver and gold in the glass)

Lycrugus cup with diffused light
Lycrugus cup with focused light
9
History of Nanomaterials
  • 1991 carbon nanotubes discovered graphitic
    carbon needles ranging from 4 nm 30 nm and up
    to 1 micron in length
  • ( Sumino Iijima)
  • 1993 First high quality quantum dots prepared
    --- very small particles with controlled
    diameters of CdS, CdSe, CdTe

10
History of Nanomaterials
  • 2000 First DNA motor made similar to motorized
    tweezers may make computers 1000 more powerful.

DNA motors can be attached to electrically
conducting molecules act as basic switches
Nature 406 (6796) 2000, 605-608.
11
History of Nanomaterials
  • 2001 prototype fuel cell made with nanotubes
  • 2002 Nanomaterials make stain repellant trousers
    Nano-care khakis have nanowhiskers (10-100 nm in
    length)

12
Nanometer Scale - Unknown Behavior
  • Magical Point on Length Scale, for this is the
    point where the smallest man-made devices meet
    atoms and molecules of the natural world.
  • Eugene Wong, Knight Rider Newspapers, Kansas City
    Star, Monday Nov. 8th, 1999
  • Just wait, the next century is going to be
    incredible. W are about to be able to build
    things that work at the smallest possible length
    scales, atom by atom . These little nanothings
    will revolutionize our industries and our lives.
  • R. Smalley, Congressional Hearings, Summer 1999.

13
Unknown Behavior
  • Chemistry is study of atoms and molecules with
    size less than 1 nm
  • Condensed matter Physics deals with an array of
    bound atoms or molecules with dimensions gt 100 nm
  • Quantum chemistry nor classical laws of Physics
    hold in 1- 100 nm range

14
Size Matters
  • Properties depend on size
  • Magnetic properties
  • Optical Properties
  • Melting points
  • Surface reactivity
  • Bulk materials of nanoparticles exhibit new
    properties
  • enhanced plasticity

15
Nature Expert in Nanotechnology
  • Nano airborne particles (100 -1000 nm) cause
    water to condense and form raindrops or
    snowflakes
  • Plankton varies in sizes from (1- 100 nm)
    Marine bacteria and viruses

16
Glucose and Glucose oxidase
All cells require glucose (0.6 nm) as a fuel for
metabolism. Energy is released from glucose
when it is precisely positioned relative to the
glucose oxidase enzyme ( 5 nm) Lock and key
mechanism common in biology
17
Actin and Myosin
Actin and myosin molecules form the system
responsible for muscle contraction. The system
operates by a series of steps where the head of
myosin molecule pulls the actin past itself by
1028 nm each step.
18
NATURE - Gecko Power
Gecko foot hairs typically have diameters of 200
500 nm. Weak chemical interaction between each
hair and surface (each foot has over 1 million of
these hairs) provides a force of10 N/cm2. This
allows Geckos to walk upside down across glass
ceilings.
19
Nanoparticles in Smoke from Fires
Bucky Balls (C60) were discovered in soot!
20
Ferrofluids Coated Iron oxide nanoparticles
(wikipedia)
  • Great demo
  • Buy ferrofluid, use
  • Synthesize ferrofluid

21
Microfluidic Focusing DNA Stretching
22
Synthesis of Multifunctional Lipopolyplex by
Microfluidic Focusing
10100300 ul/min
10200300 ul/min
23
Computational
  • Spartan molecular modeling
  • Simpler version Odyssey
  • You will get Spartan access through the Ohio
    Supercomputer Center (OSC)
  • Visualization tool
  • Start small molecules (25)
  • Bio-Nano systems (DNA, RNA, Peptides)
  • Chemistry in a Nano-drop

24
Computational
  • C60 - the fullerene that started it all.
  • Expensive
  • Toxic
  • Tough to work with in open lab
  • Not many applications
  • BUT GREAT EDUCATIONAL TOOL

25
All carbons are sp2
5 carbons in a ring 1 double bond protrudes, 2
internal
Copy/paste 5 membered ring (6 rings total)
Bucky-Bowl Copy/Paste Connect 2
26
References
  • Nano basics
  • http//www.begbroke.ox.ac.uk/learning/nano_basics.
    php
  • Biomedical Nanotechnology ed. Neelina H. Malsch
    Taylor and Francis, 2005.
  • Nano safety
  • http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/
  • Nano teaching materials
  • Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry, Edited by
    Kenneth Klabunde, John Wiley, 2001.
  • http//www.nanohub.org/

27
National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network
  • Network of centers around the country.
  • The network  provides extensive support in
    nanoscale fabrication, synthesis,
    characterization, modeling, design, computation
    and hands-on training. in an open, hands-on
    environment, available to all qualified users.
  • http//www.nnin.org

28
Nanoparticles
  • This site brings you particle, powder,
    nanoparticle, nanopowder, nanosphere,
    microsphere, micropowder, microbead, liposome,
    and bead information and resources in one
    convenient location.
  • www.nanoparticles.org

29
Molecular Modeling Software
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