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Unit 7 Literature of American Romanticism

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Title: Unit 7 Literature of American Romanticism


1
Unit 7 Literature of American Romanticism
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2
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4
I. Historical Introduction
  • 1. History of the Age (p52)
  • The census
  • The Westward Movement (frontier egalitarianism)
  • Industrialization (contrasting riches and
    poverty)
  • The life style
  • Education (literacy)

5
I. Historical Introduction
  • 2. Literary Characteristics
  • American Romanticism
  • American Transcendentalism
  • American Renaissance

6
American Romanticism
  • 1. Historical Background
  • The first half of the 19th century
  • Radical changes in all aspects of American life
  • burgeoning industrialism
  • great immigration
  • westward expansion
  • a variety of foreign influences (derivative)
  • playground for romantics magazines

7
Foreign Influences
  • 1. Sir Walter Scott(???.???)
  • Border tales and Waverly(???) romances
    American historical romance
  • 2. Byron (??)
  • Oriental romances American Indian romance
  • Imagination for lyrics of love and passion and
    despair.
  • 3. Robert Burns (???.??)
  • Imagination for lyrics of love and passion and
    despair.
  • 4. William Wordsworth(??.????)
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge (???.??.????)
  • Lyrical Ballads(?????)

8
American Romanticism
  • 2. General characteristics
  • A rebellion against the objectivity of
    rationalism. (subjective)
  • The feelings, intuitions and emotions were more
    important than reason and common sense.
  • Not think of the world as a ticking watch made by
    God thought of the world as a living, breathing
    being.
  • Emphasized individualism, placing the individual
    against the group, against authority.
  • Affirmed the inner life of the self (subconscious)

9
American Romanticism
  • Cherished strong interest in the past, especially
    the medieval.
  • Attracted by the wild, the irregular, the
    indefinite, the remote, the mysterious, and the
    strange.
  • Interested in variety.
  • mystery, romance and adventure
  • literary forms ballad, lyric, sentimental
    comedy, problem novel, historical novel, gothic
    romance, metrical romance, sonnet and critical
    essay

10
American Romanticism
  • 3. Distinct Features
  • Tended to be moralize, to edify(?????)rather than
    to entertain.
  • Presented an entirely new experience alien to
    European culture
  • the westward expansion
  • wilderness
  • axe
  • exotic landscape
  • quaint civilization of a primitive race
    (Indians)
  • the myth of a New Garden of Eden in America
  • American Puritanism
  • Convention an escape from society and a return
    to nature

11
American Transcendentalism
  • 1. Historical Background
  • Flourished in New England from 1830s to the Civil
    War.
  • Romantic idealism on Puritan soil.
  • A system of thought originating from
  • Unitarianism
  • New-Platoism
  • German idealistic philosophy
  • The revelations of Oriental-mysticism

12
American Transcendentalism
  • The Transcendental Club (The movements center)
  • Delighted in abstract discussion
  • Published their journal The Dial (1840-1844)

13
American Transcendentalism
  • 2. Transcendentalism
  • Derived from the Latin verb transcendere
  • Defined as the recognition in man of the capacity
    of acquiring knowledge transcending the reach of
    the five senses, or of knowing truth intuitively,
    or of reaching the divine without the need of an
    intercessor

14
American Transcendentalism
  • 3. General characteristics
  • intuition by means of the five senses and beyond
  • spirit (oversoul) first (matter second)
  • nature symbolic of spirit or God
  • a healthy and restorative
    influence on human
  • mind
  • individual
  • self-reliant and unselfish

15
American Transcendentalism
  • feeling/heart thinking
  • over reason and head thinking
  • religion
  • an emotional communication between an
    individual soul and the universal Oversoul
    (Emerson)

16
American Transcendentalism
  • Oversoul is an all-pervading unitary
    spiritual power of
  • goodness, omnipresent and omnipotent,
    existing in nature
  • and in humanity alike and constituting the
    chief element of
  • the universe

17
American Renaissance (1836-1855)
  • American Romanticism culminated around the
  • 1840s in what has come to be known as New
  • England Transcendentalism or American
  • Renaissance

18
American Renaissance
  • ????????,?????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??,?????????????.????
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  • ?????????????????,?19
  • ??30???????????????,?
  • ??????????? ????????,
  • ?????????????????.

19
Unitarianism
  • Represents a thoughtful revolt against orthodox
    Puritanism
  • Believes God as one being, rejecting the doctrine
    of trinity, stressing the tolerance of difference
    in religious opinion, and giving each
    congregation the free control of its own affairs
    and its independent authority
  • Lays the foundation for the central doctrines of
    transcendentalism

20
II. The Beginning of American Romanticism
(1810-1840)
  • Washington Irving
  • (followed Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774))
  • James Fenimore Cooper
  • (emulated Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832))
  • William Cullen Bryant
  • (learned from William Wordsworth
    (1770-1850))
  • Edger Allan Poe
  • (high romantics)

21
Washington Irving (1783-1859)???.??
  • 1. Reputation
  • The first (p60-61)
  • Father of American
  • Short Stories
  • Father of American
  • Literature

22
2. Life Story
  • born on Wall Street, New York City, (a rather
    wealthy
  • merchant family)
  • 1799 studied law
  • 1804-1805 in Europe for his health
  • 1809 first book A history of New York from the
    Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch
    Dynasty ????
  • 1809 his fiancee Matilda died at 17, and he
    remained a bachelor
  • 1812 editor of The Analectic Magazine(????) in
    Philadelphia
  • 1815 went to England (taking up authorship as a
    profession)

23
2. Life Story
  • 1819-1820 The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon,
    Gent ????
  • 1826 to 1829 attache(????) to the American envoy
    to Spain
  • 1829 to 1832 served as secretary to the American
    legation(???
  • ????) in London
  • 1832 returned to America
  • traveled extensively
  • settled down in his home Sunnyside, at
    Tarrytown by the
  • Hudson River
  • 1842-1846 appointed Minister to Spain
  • 1850 went to England
  • 1859 died

24
3. Washington Irvings Works
  • 3.1 essays
  • 3.2 history and biography
  • 3.3 tales or short stories
  • Sketch Book(1819-1820) ????
  • published in England
  • 33 stories
  • artistic material (of his native New York)
  • fascinating wilderness
  • legends and folktales
  • won him international popularity

25
Sketch Book????
  • Rip Van Winkle??.?.???
  • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ????
  • Setting a fictional ground of New England in
    which reality and imagination converge.
  • Theme distinctly American
  • Characters archetypes like Rip Van Winkle and
    Ichabod Crane

26
Rip Van Winkle??.?.???
  • ?????????????????,????,
  • ????????,????????,????,???
  • ?????,??????,?????????,???
  • ???????,???????????.??????
  • ?,?????,?????????
  • Rip Van Winkle1.???????
  • 2.????

27
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ????
  • ?????????????????,?????
  • ?,???????,?????????????????
  • ???????,?????????????,?????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ?,?????????????,???????????
  • ?????????????,????????????
  • ?,???????????,???????????
  • ???,????????,??????????

28
The Authors Account of Himself ????
  • Para 1-2 fondness of new scenes and strange
    characters
  • and manners. (????,????)
  • passion in books
  • Para 3-5 this inclination is more reasonable
  • beautiful natural scenes in America
  • Europes charms
  • historical relics
  • gigantic race
  • Para 6 exotic materials in his works

29
4. Style of His Works
  • 4.1 graceful, refined, fluent and dignified
  • models of perfect English
  • allusions to Shakespeare's works, Bibles and
  • mythology
  • 4.2 sentimental, romantic, retrospective
  • 4.3 humorous, ironic
  • 4.4 theme change, mutability (upset the natural
    order
  • of things)

30
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 1. Summary of the short story
  • 2. Analysis of the short story
  • 2.1 Setting
  • 2.1.1 Tarry Town
  • the eastern shore of the Hudson river
  • one of the quietest places in the whole
    world
  • 2.1.2 After American Revolutionary War
  • 2.2 Atmosphere
  • isolated, tranquil, retired, unchanged, dreamy,
    cozy,
  • gothic (hollow, old tree, creek, bridge, dark
    night,
  • graveyard, ghost and goblin), mysterious

31
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 2.3 Plot
  • Conflict Crane versus another suitor Brom
    Bones
  • Crane versus the
    inhabitants in Sleepy Hollow
  • change versus old tradition
  • city versus
    countryside
  • Climax Para 61-65
  • Denouement an air of mystery

32
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 2.4 Character
  • Archetype??
  • An archetype is an original model of a person,
    ideal example, or a prototype after which others
    are copied, patterned, or emulated a symbol
    universally recognized by all.
  • Ichabod Crane pretentious intellectualism
  • Ichabod meaning inglorious in Hebrew
  • the glory is departed from
    Israel

33
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • New Englander
  • appearance bizarre, effete(???)
  • a city-slicker(??????)
  • hypocritical, shrewd, commercial (money
    worship), avaricious(???)superstitious,
    narrow-minded

34
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
35
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • Brom Bones anti-intellectualism
  • Herculean the greatest of the Greek heroes, a
    paragon (??)of masculinity (para 26)
  • a country bumpkin(???)
  • rough, vigorous, boisterous(???), arrogant
  • inwardly very good-hearted, clever

36
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • Katrina (androcentric????? narrative type)
  • a country coquette
  • blooming, plump,
  • whimsical(???) and capricious (?????)

37
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 2.5 Theme
  • On the surface, it is a romantic love story
  • To be sorrowful over the changes that were taking
    place in the countryside, in the life of the
    cities.

38
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 2.6 Technical devices
  • 2.6.1 point of view
  • The first-person-at-the-second-hand point of view
  • omniscience----spectator
  • Narrator
  • 1 Geoffrey Crayon
  • 2. Diedrich Knickerbocker
  • 3. a pleasant, shabby, gentlemanly old fellow

39
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • 2.6.2 symbolism
  • bosom, hollow
  • 2.6.3 imagery
  • vivid description
  • 2.6.4 style
  • 2.6.5 tone
  • humorous, ironic

40
? ? ? ?
Film Clip
41
Questions for The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and
its Movie Version The Sleepy Hollow
  • Master storyteller Tim Burton(??.??, Batman,
  • Edward Scissorhands) directs the eerie,
    enchanting
  • version of the classic tale.
  • What is the profession of the protagonist Crane?
    Is he welcome to the village?
  • What is the personality of Crane? And Katrina?
  • Does the headless horseman exist?
  • Does Crane leave the sleepy hollow and how?
  • What is the style of the short story and the
    movie? Is there anything in common. If there is,
    what is it?
  • Do you prefer the original story or the movie?
    Why?

42
Quiz
  • 1. Washington Irving is hailed as Father of
    .
  • And his book titled won
    him international
  • popularity , in which and
    are
  • the two stories well known to the readers.
  • 2. As archetypes, what do Rip Van Winkle and
    Ichabod
  • mean respectively?
  • 3. What do you think of Washington Irvings
    writing style?

43
Summary of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow takes place
    in Tarrytown, NY. It is about a Schoolteacher
    (Ichabod Crane), who falls in love with the
    beautiful Katrina Van Tassel, the daughter of a
    farmer. Katrina Van Tassel, has but another
    suitor--the muscular, strong, handsome Brom
    Bones, who brags about the number of fights he
    has fought, and runs around on strong horses with
    his gang, causing trouble and mischief.

44
Summary of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • When Crane was invited to a party at
    the Van Tassel's house, he rode there, on a
    spirited horse called Gunpowder that he borrowed
    from his friend Hans Van Ripper. When he got to
    the Van Tassel's house, everyone there sat down
    to dinner. After the lovely feast of Dutch food
    such as cakes, pies, preserved fruits, and all
    sorts of broiled, smoked and roasted meats, the
    music began. Everyone danced about. Ichabod Crane
    danced with Katrina Van Tassel.

45
Summary of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • Brom Bones sat in a corner glaring at
    the dancing couple. Then everyone sat down to
    listen to stories. The tales were fascinating!
    They were haunting and exciting! They were
    stories about ghosts and goblins. The favorite
    tale was about the headless horseman, who haunted
    the graveyard at night.

46
Summary of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • After the party, Ichabod Crane heads
    home through the graveyard. On his way, the
    headless horseman chases him. He chases him to
    the bridge, where Ichabod believes that the
    horseman's head is thrown at him.

47
Summary of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • The next morning, Gunpowder appeared at
    his master's (Hans Van Ripper) house without
    Ichabod Crane. The town issued a search for
    Ichabod, but instead of finding him, they found
    Gunpowder's saddle. When they looked near the
    bridge where Andre was captured, they found
    Ichabod Cranes hat, and a few yards away they
    found a smashed pumpkin.

48
Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) ???.??.?
  • 1. Reputation
  • Established a new symbolic poetry
  • Formulated the new short story in the detective
    and science fiction line
  • Developed an important artistic theory
  • Laid foundation for analytical criticism

49
2. Life Story a short life of poverty, anxiety,
and tragedy
  • Born in Boston of actor parents
  • 18 months after his birth, his father
    left the family
  • Poes mother died of tuberculosis
  • Lived with his foster parents, Mr. and Mrs. Allan
    in England and Scotland till 1820
  • They returned to Richmond, Virginia where Poe was
    privately tutored till 1826
  • Entered the University of Virginia in Feb
  • In Dec, withdrew from the university
    because of a
  • debt of 2,000 in drinking and gambling

50
2. Life Story
  • Enlisted in the U.S. Army in May
  • Appointed to the U.S. Military Academy in West
    Point in July 8 months later provoked a
    dismissal by deliberate neglect of duties
  • Lived as a hack writer (????)in Baltimore till
    1835
  • Turned to write short stories
  • 1835 worked as an assistant editor for the
    Southern
  • Literary Messenger till 1837
  • 1837 fired
  • moved to Philadelphia and edited several
  • newspapers and magazines

51
2. Life Story
  1. His wife died
  2. Moved back to Richmond
  3. Died on October 7 of congestion of the brain

52
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62
3. Edgar Allan Poe s Major Works
  • 3.1. Poems
  • To Helen ??? (1831)
  • The Raven ?? (1845)
  • (his most famous narrative poem)
  • Annabel Lee ?????
  • 3.2. Short stories
  • Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque
    ????(Ligeia ???)
  • The Fall of the House of Usher ??????

63
4. Subjects and themes of Poes Poetry and
Fiction (exotic)
  • 4.1. Subjects
  • dying ladies
  • sickness
  • abnormal love
  • 4.2. Themes
  • estrangement (??)
  • disappearance
  • silence
  • oblivion (??)
  • all ideas which suggest non-being

64
5. Poes Literary Theories
  • 5.1 A theory of poetry
  • short poems
  • sustain the level of emotion in the reader
  • purpose of poetry
  • the creation of beauty ?????????????
  • potential topic
  • the death of a beautiful woman
  • The immediate object of poetry
  • indefinite pleasure, not truth

65
5. Poes Literary Theories
  • Music is essential
  • alliteration, assonance, and repetition
  • Tone
  • awesome, sad and melancholy
  • Melancholy was the most appropriate tone for
    poetry and that the death, then, of a beautiful
    woman is, unquestionably the most poetical topic
    in the world, because it provokes the deepest
    melancholy. (The Philosophy of Composition)
  • ????????????????,??????????????????????,
    ???????????????? (????)

66
5. Poes Literary Theories
  • 5.2 A theory of Tale (short stories)
  • brevity
  • unity of impression and thematic totality
  • decide the effect first and then determine the
  • incidents
  • aim of the tale truth rather than beauty
  • The merit of a work of art judged by its
  • psychological effect upon the reader

67
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • 1. About Helen
  • Helen's unconventional birth
  • Leda and the Swan
  • the daughter of Zeus and Leda

68
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • Marriage to Menelaus
  • Helen and Menelaus (??
  • ??) When he finally found
  • Helen in Troy, Menelaus
  • raised his sword to kill her. He
  • had demanded that only he
  • should slay his unfaithful wife
  • but, when he was ready to do
  • so, she dropped her robe from
  • her shoulders, and the sight of
  • her beauty caused him to let
  • the sword drop from his hand.
  • A flying Eros(??) and
  • Aphrodite (?????)
  • (on the left) watch the scene.

69
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • Seduction by Paris (a
  • Trojan prince)
  • The Love of Helen and
  • Paris a love that soon
  • fainted, when Helen
  • realized that Paris is not a
  • man of courage and strong
  • character.

70
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • Helen was described by
  • Christopher Marlowe as
  • having "the face that
  • launched a thousand ships.

71
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • Odysseus is most famous
  • for the ten eventful years
  • he took to return home
  • after the ten-year Trojan
  • War and his famous
  • Trojan horse trick.

72
The Shrine
  • This shrine to the deified
  • Menelaus and Helen was
  • build on the hill of Profitis
  • Ilias (?????????? )
  • about 5 kilometers
  • southeast of Sparta.

73
The Odyssey
  • Odyssey mainly centers on
  • the Greek hero Odysseus (or
  • Ulysses, as he was known in
  • Roman myths) and his long
  • journey home following the
  • fall of Troy. It takes
  • Odysseus ten years to reach
  • Ithaca after the ten-year
  • Trojan War. In his absence, it
  • is assumed he has died, and
  • his wife Penelope and son
  • Telemachus must deal with a
  • group of unruly suitors

74
To Helen (classical beauty)
  • 2. Outline
  • Stanza 1,2
  • Helen beauty, an impression of a real beautiful
    woman
  • Hyacinthus
  • Naiad
  • Helens beauty is soothing. (provides security
    and safety)

75
To Helen
  • Stanza 3
  • god-Psyche the goddess of the soul in Greek
  • mythology.
  • inaccessible image of the
    hearts desire
  • The poet associates Helen with Psyche.
  • Psyche becomes a far-off idealized, unreal woman
  • (window-niche, statue-like)

76
To Helen
  • 3. Poe uses allusions to classical names and
    places, as well as certain kinds of images in
    Greek myths and epics (hyacinth, Naiad, Psyche
    barks of yore, wanderer)

77
Hyacinthus
  • In the myth, Hyacinthus
  • was a beautiful youth loved
  • equally by the god Apollo
  • and the West Wind, Zephyr.
  • Jealous that Hyacinth
  • preferred the radiant archery
  • god Apollo, Zephyrus blew
  • Apollo's discus off course, so
  • as to injure and kill Hyacinth.
  • When he died, Apollo didn't
  • allow Hades to claim the
  • young man rather, he made
  • a flower, the hyacinth, from
  • his spilled blood.

78
Naiad
  • Naiad????,
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • a type of nymph
  • who presided over
  • fountains, wells,
  • springs, streams,
  • and brooks.

79
Cupid and Psyche
  • Psyche ???,?Cupid?
  • ?
  • In Greek and Roman
  • mythology, Psyche was the
  • personification of the
  • passion of love

80
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 1. Raven
  • A talking bird whose only utterance is
    Nevermore
  • Take the idea from Charles Dickenss novel
    Barnaby Rudge (1841) ?????
  • Grip the ravens seemingly
    nonsensical(???) comments often reveal greater
    truths to the reader than to the characters
    (serve a more symbolic prophetic purpose).
  • Draw on the traditional association of the bird
    with ill-omen and death

81
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 2. Outline
  • Lines 16 One night when I was half reading and
    half napping, I heard a tapping on the door.
  • Lines 712 The tapping woke me up and I realized
    that I had been trying to find something that
    could ease my sorrow for the lost Lenore.
  • Lines 1318 I tried to calm down and to convince
    myself that it was something late visitor coming.
  • Lines 1924 I apologize for not hearing the
    gentle rapping because I was nearly napping.

82
  • Lines 2530 On opening the door, I found only
    darkness. I could not help murmuring the name of
    my lost lover and I heard an echo of that name.
  • Lines 3136 Upon returning into the chamber, I
    heard a louder tapping. I decided to find out who
    it was
  • .
  • Lines 3742 I opened the window and found a
    raven perching upon a bust of Pallas.

83
  • The Raven perching upon a bust of Pallas
  • Pallas (Pallas Athena)is
  • the goddess of wisdom,
  • peace, strategy,
  • handicrafts and reason.
  • She is the virgin patron
  • of Athens, which built
  • the Parthenon(????
  • ?)to worship her.

84
  • Lines 4348 I began to smile and asked the name
    of the raven. It answered Never more for the
    first time.
  • Lines 4954 I was greatly surprised at seeing
    such a talking bird.
  • Lines 5560 The bird spoke only that word
    Nevermore.
  • Lines 6166 I tried to persuade myself that the
    bird could only say this word. He did not mean to
    answer my question.

85
  • Lines 6772 Then I began to ponder why the bird
    frequently utter the word.
  • Lines 7378 Without speaking, I engaged myself
    in guessing the meaning of the word. At the same
    time, I thought of my lost Lenore who would not
    touch my velvet chair any more.
  • Lines 7984 I could not find a proper answer, so
    I wanted to drink nepenthe (???) so that I could
    forget my Lenore.

86
  • Lines8590 I asked the bird whether there was
    balm in Gilead??(???????????) to find out where
    the bird was from.
  • Lines 9196 I asked whether I could see my
    Lenore in Heaven, but he answered nevermore.
    The answer reinforces the melancholy atmosphere
    and thus pushes the poem naturally to a climax.

87
  • Lines 97102 I grew angry and asked the bird to
    leave, but the bird replied nevermore.
  • Lines 103108 The raven remained unmoved and I
    could not escape from the deep sorrow any longer.
  • It took Edgar Allan Poe four years to complete
    this poem. It reads very rhythmical. It is the
    most rhythmical poem in American literature.

88
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 3.Theme
  • Literally, the poet expressed his lament over the
    death of his beautiful beloved woman
  • Comprehensively he expressed his sadness over the
    life

89
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 4. Symbolism
  • Raven
  • An ominous symbol of bitterness, distress, and
    desperation
  • Knowledge and divine providence

90
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 5. Rhyme
  • Lines rhyme
  • Internal rhyme (Line 9, 10)
  • Alliteration
  • Assonance (Line 11)

91
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 6. Rhythm
  • Octameter trochee ?????
  • Line 1 ???
  • Line 2 ???
  • Line 3 ???
  • Line 4 ???
  • Line 5 ???
  • Line 6 ???,refrain

92
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 7. Figure of Speech
  • Personification
  • Onomatopoeia (rap, tinkle)

93
The Raven (the beauty of the form)
  • 8. Mood
  • grotesque
  • melancholy, gloomy, solemn

94
  • Annabel Lee
  • by Edgar Allan Poe

95
Annabel Lee
  • 1. Introduction
  • Published two days after Poes death
  • an idealized account of Poes child wife,
    Virginia Clemm, who died at the age of 25

96
Annabel Lee
  • 2. Brief Summary
  • I and Annabe Lee lived in this kingdom by the sea
    and loved each other
  • Annabel Lee died
  • Why?
  • the angels in heaven envied
  • The poet was also shut off from her by her
    relatives who carried her off for burial
  • Their love was so strong that neither the forces
    of heaven nor of hell could separate the two
    lovers
  • The poet continued to commune with her through
    dreams

97
Annabel Lee
  • 3. Verse Form
  • 3.1 Ballad
  • A ballad is a simple storytelling poem that is
    meant to be
  • sung or recited.
  • This poem has the following qualities which are
    similar to a
  • ballad
  • A storytelling poem
  • supernatural elements
  • About love, dealing with the common people

98
Annabel Lee
  • the same basic rhyme and meter (although Poe
    varies the length of his stanzas to some extent)
  • refrains or repeating passages

99
Annabel Lee
  • 3.2 Rhyme
  • Lines rhyme
  • Internal rhyme a word within a line rhymes with
    the word at
  • the end of the line.
  • Line 34 (beams, dreams)
  • Line 36 (rise, eyes)
  • Line 38 (tide, side)

100
Annabel Lee
  • 3.3 Meter
  • Most of the lines consist of four feet (stressed
    syllables)
  • alternated by three feet.
  • Some variations in line length occur in stanza
    five and six.
  • L34-37 anapestic rhythm ????
  • Like a drumbeat as the poem reaches its
    emotional climax.

101
Annabel Lee
  • 4. Figures of Speech
  • alliteration
  • s in this kingdom by the sea
  • h not half so happy in heaven
  • b never beams, without bringing me dreams/Of
    the
  • beautiful Annabel Lee
  • m many and manymaiden there lived
  • l loved with a loveAnnabel Lee

102
Annabel Lee
  • symbolism
  • Wind symbolizes Annabel Lees fatal disease
  • In a larger sense, represents a sudden
    tragedy or the
  • influence of fate
  • repetition refrains (??)
  • ANNABEL LEE
  • In this kingdom by the sea

103
Annabel Lee
  • 5. Mood
  • Stanza1,2 quiet, mournful
  • Stanza 3, 4 more emphatic
  • Stanza 5defiant
  • Stanza 6solemn

104
??????
  • ????????????????????,?????????????????????.
  • ??????????????????????,????,?????????????,??
    ????????????,?????????????,??????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????.

105
??????
  • ???????????????????,????,????????????????,??
    ?????????????,?????????,??,??,?????????,?????????
    ??????,???,???,??????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????.

106
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) ????.??
  • 1. Reputation
  • A romantic writer (concerned about the American
    past, esp. Puritanism)
  • A master of psychological insight into moral
    isolation and human emotion
  • The first major novelist in English to wed
    morality to art

107
2. Life Story
  • Born on July 4 to a family with a long Puritan
    tradition in Salem, Massachusetts (His ancestor,
    Judge Hathorne presided at the notorious Salem
    witch trials)
  • 1808 his sea-captain father died of yellow fever
  • 1821-1825 studied at Bowdoin college in Maine (a
    friend of the poet Longfellow and Franklin
    Pierce, the 14th U.S. President)
  • returned to Salem to live in his mothers house
    and began his literary career
  • Engaged to Sophia Peabody
  • A surveyor at the Boston Custom House
  • 1842 Married and went to live at the Old Manse
    in Concord

108
2. Life Story
  • 1846-1849 Surveyor of the Customs at Salem
  • 1853-1857 U.S. consul in Liverpool (Pierce was
    elected President)
  • Returned home in Concord and spent the last four
    years in illness and depression.
  • Died on May 19 and was buried in Sleepy Hollow
    Cemetery in Concord

109
3. Nathaniel Hawthornes Novels
  • 1. Twice-Told Tales ???????(first collection of
    short stories) (1837)
  • 2. Mosses From an Old Manse ????(collection of
    short stories) (1846)
  • 3. The Scarlet Letter ?? (1850)
  • The Custom House ?? (the introductory
    chapter)
  • 4. The House of the Seven Gables
    ?????????(1851)
  • 5. The Blithedale Romance ???? (1852)
  • 6. The Marble Faun ???? (1860)
  • Note 6 was about Americans in Rome whereas all
    of his other works had
  • been set in Puritan New England.

110
4. Some of Nathaniel Hawthornes short stories
  • Vivid and symbolic images to embody great moral
    questions
  • 1. Ethan Brand ??.???
  • 2. Young Goodman Brown ??????.??
  • 3. Dr. Heideggers Experiment????????
  • 4. The Ambitious Guest ????
  • 5. The Great Stone Face ????

111
5. Themes of his Works
  • 1. The consequences of pride, selfishness and
    secret guilt
  • 2. The conflict between lighthearted and somber
    attitudes toward life
  • 3. The impingement (??)of past (esp. the Puritan
    past) upon the present
  • 4. The futility of comprehensive social reforms
  • 5. The impossibility of eradicating sin from the
    human heart
  • 6. Alienation and solitude
  • 7. Nature and natural impulses
  • 8. Unconscious fantasy and dream

112
6. Style of his Works
  • 1. Romance
  • imagination to reach psychological truth
  • 2. Symbols and setting
  • reveal the psychology of the characters
  • 3. Stories with narrative interest, ease in
    transition, coherence, and complexity
  • 4. Soft, flowing and almost feminine
  • 5. Ambiguity
  • or enjoys high frequency in his stories
  • multiple point of views
  • interpretation of symbols

113
7. Nathaniel Hawthornes Ideas
  • 1. Touch the deepest roots of mans moral nature
    (???????????,????)
  • 2. Focus on sin, which exists inside the man.
    Sin is the source of all the misfortunes.
  • 3. Pessimistic

114
The Scarlet Letter
  • 1. The Story (P201)
  • 2. Analysis of the novel
  • 2.1 Setting
  • Time Middle of the seventeenth century
  • Place Boston, Massachusetts (Puritan society)
  • 2.2 Character

115
The Scarlet Letter
  • Hester Prynne - the public sinner
  • Physically tall, young,pretty
  • The young woman was tall, with a
    figure of perfect elegance, on a large scale. She
    had dark and abundant hair, so glossy that it
    threw off the sunshine with a gleam, and a Face
    which, besides being beautiful from regularity of
    feature and richness of complexion, had the
    impressiveness belonging to a marked brow and
    deep black eyes.

116
The Scarlet Letter
  • ?????????,??????? ????
  • ????????,???????????????
  • ??????????????,?????????
  • ??????????,???????

117
The Scarlet Letter
  • Spiritually strong defiance(??)of convention
    self-
  • reliance intelligent,
    compassionate
  • From sinner (a fallen woman)
    to an able woman

118
The Scarlet Letter
  • Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale - the secret sinner
  • Dimdark and weak
  • Dalevalley
  • Dimdale dim-interior of the minister.
  • Physically young, pale, delicate
  • Intellectually well educated, devoted to God,
    passionate in
  • his religion, and effective
    in the sermon.
  • hypocritical, self-centered

119
The Scarlet Letter
  • Pearl - a symbol
  • a reminder of Hesters love and passion
    (adulterous act)
  • moody, mischievous (??? )
  • more perceptive and more honest than adults
  • On the scaffold just before her fathers death,
    Pearl kisses him and at that point she ceases to
    be a symbol and becomes a flesh and blood person
    at the end.

120
The Scarlet Letter
  • A girl of rich and luxuriant beauty
  • ????????????,??????????????????,??????
    ??????????????????????,?????????????????????????,
    ?????????????????????????,?????????????????????

121
The Scarlet Letter
  • Her mothers treasure
  • But she named the infant Pearl, as
    being of great price, purchased with all she
    had, her mothers only treasure!
  • ??????????,??????????,?????????????,?
    ??????????!

122
The Scarlet Letter
  • Roger Chillingworth the real sinner
  • a man lack of human warmth
  • distorted soul
  • interested in revenge, not justice
  • calm in temperament, but keep evil intentions
  • He turns from a victim to a sinner.

123
The Scarlet Letter
  • He was small in stature, with a furrowed
    visage,
  • which, as yet, could hardly be termed aged. There
  • was a remarked intelligence in his features, as
    of a
  • person who had so cultivated his mental part that
  • it could fail to mould the physical to itself,
    and
  • become manifest by unmistakable tokens.
  • ?????,????,???????????
  • ?????????????,?????????
  • ?????????????,?????????
  • ??????

Film Clip
124
(No Transcript)
125
The Scarlet Letter
  • 2.3 Point of view (the narrator)
  • an unnamed customhouse surveyor who writes some
    two hundred years after the events he describes
    took place.
  • omniscient
  • a subjective narrator. He is clearly sympathetic
    to Hester and Dimmesdale.

126
The Scarlet Letter
  • 2.4 Themes
  • 2.4.1 Sin, Knowledge, and the Human Condition
  • A reminder of the story of Adam and Eve
  • In both cases, sin results in expulsion and
    suffering.
  • Sin results in knowledge, specifically, in
    knowledge of what it means to be human.

127
The Scarlet Letter
  • 2.4.2 The Nature of Evil
  • True evil arises from the close relationship
    between hate and love.
  • Evil is not found in Hester and Dimmesdales
    adultery, nor even in the cruel ignorance of the
    Puritan fathers.
  • Evil, in its most poisonous form, is found in the
    carefully plotted and precisely aimed revenge of
    Chillingworth, whose love has been perverted
    (????).

128
The Scarlet Letter
  • 2.4.3 Identity and Society
  • Hester desires determine her own identity rather
    than to allow others to determine it for her.
  • Hester stays, refiguring the scarlet letter as a
    symbol of her own experiences and character.

129
The Scarlet Letter
  • 2.5 Symbols
  • The Scarlet Letter
  • Originally stands for Adulterer, Arthur,
    Agony
  • Then Alone and alienation
  • Eventually comes to stand for Able,
    Admirable and Angel
  • The Meteor(??)
  • Pearl

130
(No Transcript)
131
The Scarlet Letter
  • The Rosebush Next to the Prison Door
  • ??,??????,??????,??????????,??????,??
    ??????????,??????,???????????????????????????????,
    ???????????????,?????????????.

132
Questions for the Scarlet Letter
  • Please name the four main characters in The
    Scarlet Letter.
  • Where does The Scarlet Letter take place?
  • What does Hester live on?
  • Where do Hester and her child Pearl live after
    Hester is released from prison?
  • How does Hester dress Pearl and herself?

133
??????,?????
  • For Emerson and Thoreau, nature was
    mans true home, and the age-old torment over
    sin, predestination and damnation was needless.
  • ????????????????????,???,?????.
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