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Cronus

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Polidoro da Caravaggio 16th-century engraving of Saturnus – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cronus


1
Cronus ?????? Saturnus
Polidoro da Caravaggio 16th-century engraving
of Saturnus
2
?????? ?? ?????? (???????
??? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????, ???????
???????? ?? ?????? (?????) ????? (?????).
?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????, ??
??? ????? ?? ??? ??? - ??????? (?????). ?????
????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ??
?????? ?? ????. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca
1. 1 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd
A.D.) "Ouranos the Sky fathered other sons on
Ge (Earth), namely the Titanes Okeanos, Koios,
Hyperion, Kreios, Iapetos, and Kronos the
youngest also daughters called Titanides
Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe, Dione,
Theia."
(?????? , krónos
The Temple of Saturn, Villa Torlonia, Rome
3
????? ????? ?????? (????), ???? (????) ???????
(????). ???? ???? ?? ????????? (?????), ????
?????. ??????? ??? ???????, ???? ????? ?? ????
????? ??? ??? ????? ?????. ??? ???? ???? ??????.
??? ?????? ??? ?????, ?????? ????? ??????? ?????
????? ?????? ????, ?????? ??, ????, ????? ??
????, ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????, ???
?????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????! ?????????,
????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????, ??? ????? ??? ???
?????. ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????.
??????? ???? ?????, ????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?????
?? ????, ??? ?????? ?? ???????, ??? ?? ????-????
?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????. ??????? ????
????, ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????. ???? ???? ??
????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??
?????????? (???? ?????), ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???
???????. ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???, ???? ???? ???
???????, ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????????. ?? ????
("????????") ???? ???? ????? ????????????, ????
???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???
?????. ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???,
?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????- ????? ??? ???.
(????? ????? / ?????????? ???????)
Giorgio Vasari and Gherardi Christofano The
Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus), 16th
century Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
4
  • Hesiod, Theogony 147 ff (trans. Evelyn-White)
    (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.)
  • "She Gaia the Earth lay with Ouranos (Sky) and
    bare deep-swirling Okeanos, Koios and Krios and
    Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rheia, Themis and
    Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely
    Tethys. After them was born Kronos the wily,
    youngest and most terrible of her children, and
    he hated his lusty sire. And again, she bare the
    Kyklopes, overbearing in spirit, Brontes, and
    Steropes and stubborn-hearted Arges.
  • And again, three other sons were born of Gaia and
    Ouranos, great and doughty beyond telling, Kottos
    and Briareos and Gyes the Hekatonkheires. From
    their shoulders sprang a hundred arms, not to be
    approached, and each had fifty heads upon his
    shoulders on their strong limbs, and irresistible
    was the stubborn strength that was in their great
    forms. For of all the children that were born of
    Gaia and Ouranos, these were the most terrible,
    and they were hated by their own father from the
    first. And he used to hide them all away in a
    secret place of Gaia so soon as each was born,
    and would not suffer them to come up into the
    light and Ouranos rejoiced in his evil doing.And
    he Ouranos used to hide them all the
    Hekatonkheires away in a secret place of Gaia
    (Earth) so soon as each was born, and would not
    suffer them to come up into the light and
    Ouranos (Sky) rejoiced in his evil doing. But
    vast Gaia (Earth) groaned within, being
    straitened, and she made the element of grey
    flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her
    plan to her dear sons. And she spoke, cheering
    them, while she was vexed in her dear heart My
    children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will
    obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of
    your father for he first thought of doing
    shameful things.'

Central part of a large floor mosaic, from a
Roman villa in Sentinum (now known as
Sassoferrato, in Marche, Italy), ca. 200250 C.E.
Aion- Uranus , the god of eternity, is standing
inside a celestial sphere decorated with zodiac
signs, in between a green tree and a bare tree
(summer and winter, respectively). Sitting in
front of him is the mother-earth goddess, Tellus
(the Roman counterpart of Gaia) with her four
children, who possibly represent the four
seasons. Glyptothek, Munich
5
So she said but fear seized them all, and none
of them uttered a word. But great Kronos the wily
took courage and answered his dear mother
Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I
reverence not our father of evil name, for he
first thought of doing shameful things. 'So he
said and vast Gaia (Earth) rejoiced greatly in
spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put
in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him
the whole plot.
And Ouranos (Sky) came, bringing on night and
longing for love, and he lay about Gaia (Earth)
spreading himself full upon her. Then the son
from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and
in his right took the great long sickle with
jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own
father's members and cast them away to fall
behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his
hand for all the bloody drops that gushed forth
Gaia (Earth) received, and as the seasons moved
round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great
Gigantes perhaps the Kouretes with gleaming
armour, holding long spears in their hands and
the Nymphai whom they call Meliai all over the
boundless earth. And so soon as he had cut off
the members with flint and cast them from the
land into the surging sea, they were swept away
over the main a long time and a white foam
spread around them from the immortal flesh, and
in it there grew a maiden Aphrodite . . . But
these sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos
(Sky) used to call Titanes (Strainers) in
reproach, for he said that they strained and did
presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance
for it would come afterwards."
Giovanni Battista Galestruzzi after Polidoro da
Caravaggio The Castration of Uranus, 17th
century Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
6
??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????, ????? ???? ????
???? ????????.
????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????. ???????????
????? ?? ???? ????? ????????, ??? ?? ??
?????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????
???? ????.
Thomas Cole The Titan's Goblet, 1833 Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York
7
?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????
????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????
???? ??????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??????????
??????? ????? ???? ??????.
René-Antoine Houasse, Saturn Abducting Cybele
(detail), 1676, Salon of Venus, Château de
Versailles
Thomas Regnaudin , Saturn abducting Cybele,
between 1675 and 1687, marble, Musée du Louvre,
Paris
8
????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????, ???
?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????. ?? ??? ??????
????? ?? ?????????, ???????, ?????, ??????????
?????????????.
Francisco de Goya, Saturn Eats His Child,
1819-1823, Museo del Prado, Madrid
9
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 4 - 5 (trans.
Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) "But
Kronos once again after deposing Ouranos bound
the Kyklopes and confined them in Tartaros. He
then married his sister Rhea. Because both Ge
(Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) had given him
prophetic warning that his rule would be
overthrown by a son of his own, he took to
swallowing his children at birth. He swallowed
his first-born daughter Hestia, then Demeter and
Hera, and after them Plouton and Poseidon.
Angered by this, Rhea, when she was heavy with
Zeus, went off to Krete and gave birth to him
there in a cave on Mount Dikte . . . the armed
Kouretes stood guard over him in the cave,
banging their spears against their shields to
prevent Kronos from hearing the infants voice.
Rhea meanwhile gave Kronos a stone wrapped in the
swaddling-cloths to swallow in place of his
newborn son. When Zeus was grown, he engaged
Okeanos daughter Metis (Counsel) as a colleague.
She gave Kronos a drug, by which he was forced to
vomit forth first the stone and then the children
he had swallowed."
Johann Ladenspelder Saturn, 16 century Blanton
Museum of Art
10
Peter Paul Rubens, Saturn devouring his son,
1636-38, Prado Museum, Madrid
11
Ovid, Fasti 4. 197 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry
C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) "Saturnus Kronos
received this oracle Best of kings, you shall
be knocked from power by a son. Jabbed by fear,
he devours his offspring as each was born, and
entombs them in his bowels. Rhea often complained
of much pregnancy and no motherhood, and mourned
her fertility. "
Jan Gossaert Cybele Beseeching Saturn to Spare
Her Child, 1520s The Bowes Museum
12
?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????
???? ?????. ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????,
??????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????
??????? ??-??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????. ???
???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????, ???? ??
???? ????? ???? ????? ????.
Hesiod, Theogony 453 (trans. Evelyn-White)
(Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) "But Rhea was
subject in love to Kronos and bare splendid
children, Hestia, Demeter, and gold-shod Hera and
strong Haides . . . and the loud-crashing
Earth-Shaker Poseidon, and wise Zeus . . .
These great Kronos swallowed as each came forth
from the womb to his mother's knees with this
intent, that no other of the proud sons of
Ouranos (Heaven) should hold the kingly office
amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from
Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Sky) that he was
destined to be overcome by his own son, strong
though he was, through the contriving of great
Zeus.Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but
watched and swallowed down his children and
unceasing grief seized Rhea. But when she was
about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men,
then she besought her own dear parents, Gaia
(Earth) and starry Ouranos (Sky), to devise some
plan with her that the birth of her dear child
might be concealed, and that retribution might
overtake great, crafty Kronos for his own father
and also for the children whom he had swallowed
down. And they readily heard and obeyed their
dear daughter, and told her all that was destined
to happen touching Kronos the king and his
stout-hearted son. So they sent her to Lyetos, to
the rich land of Krete, when she was ready to
bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children.
Him did vast Gaia (Earth) receive from Rhea in
wide Krete to nourish and to bring up. Thither
came Gaia carrying him swiftly through the black
night to Lyktos first, and took him in her arms
and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret
places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount
Aigeion but to Kronos the mightily ruling son
of Ouranos (Sky), the earlier king of the gods,
she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling
clothes. Then he took it in his hands and thrust
it down into his belly wretch! he knew not in
his heart that in place of the stone his son was
left behind, unconquered and untroubled, and that
he was soon to overcome him by force and might
and drive him from his honours, himself to reign
over the deathless gods.
Rheia hands the omphalos stone wrapped in
swaddling cloth to Kronos as a substitute for the
infant Zeus. Marble , Bas relief, metope
Capitoline Museum, Rome
13
???? ??? ????
Hermann Steinfurth The Education of Jupiter on
Mount Ida in Crete, 1846
14
????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????, ???? ???? ?????
????? ?? ???? ????????.
Hesiod, Theogony 453 (trans. Evelyn-White)
(Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) After that, the
strength and glorious limbs of the prince
increased quickly, and as the years rolled on,
great Kronos the wily was beguiled by the deep
suggestions of Gaia (Earth), and brought up again
his offspring, vanquished by the arts and might
of his own son, and he vomited up first the stone
which he had swallowed last. And Zeus set it fast
in the wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under
the glens of Parnassos, to be a sign thenceforth
and a marvel to mortal men. And he set free from
their deadly bonds the brothers of his father,
sons of Ouranos the Hekatonkheires and Kyklopes
whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And
they remembered to be grateful to him for his
kindness, and gave him thunder and the glowing
thunderbolt and lightening for before that, huge
Gaia (Earth) had hidden these. In them he trusts
and rules over mortals and immortals."
Ubaldo Gandolfi, Zeus with Cybele Expelling
Chronos, c.1770
15
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 10
(trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.)
"Now some say that Zeus wrestled here at
Olympia, Elis with Kronos himself for the
throne, while others say that he held the games
in honour of his victory over Kronos. The record
of victors include Apollon, who outran Hermes and
beat Ares at boxing." Pausanias, Description of
Greece 8. 2. 2 "The Olympic games . . . are
traced back to a time earlier than the human
race, the story being that Kronos and Zeus
wrestled there, and that the Kouretes were the
first to race at Olympia."
16
??? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????. ???? ???
???? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????. ????? ?????
???????, ??? ??? ????, ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??
?????? ???????. ?????, ????? ?? ???? ????, ?????
???? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????.
??? ??? ???? ?? ???????, ?????? ??-??? ?????
?????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????,
???? ?????, ???? ???? ???? ????????. ?????? ????
??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????, ????
???? ???????, ??????? ???? ?????? ?????. ?? ?????
???????? ???? ???? ????, ??????? ????? ?????
?????.
Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, The Fall of the
Titans, 1596-98 Statens Museum for Kunst
Copenhagen
17
Hesiod, Theogony 390 ff (trans. Evelyn-White)
(Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) "The Olympian
Lightener Zeus called all the deathless gods to
great Olympos, and said that whosoever of the
gods would fight with him against the Titanes, he
would not cast him out from his rights, but each
should have the office which he had before
amongst the deathless gods he said, too, that
the god who under Kronos had gone without
position or privilege should under him be raised
to these, according to justice."
Joachim Wtewael The Battle Between the Gods and
the Titans, c. 1600 Art Institute, Chicago
18
????????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????
??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????. ??, ???????? ?????
?? ???? ?????, ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????, ?????
??? ?????? ??????. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound
907 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th
B.C.) "Prometheus Yes, truly, the day will
come when Zeus, although stubborn of soul, shall
be humbled, seeing that he plans a marriage i.e.
with the goddess Thetis that shall hurl him into
oblivion from his sovereignty and throne and
then immediately the curse his father Kronos
invoked as he fell from his ancient throne, shall
be fulfilled to the uttermost . . . Such an
adversary is he now preparing despite himself, a
prodigy his son by Thetis irresistible, even
one who shall discover a flame mightier than the
lightning and a deafening crash to outroar the
thunder a prodigy who shall shiver the trident,
Poseidon's spear, that scourge of the sea and
shaker of the land. Then, wrecked upon this evil,
Zeus shall learn how different it is to be a
sovereign and a slave."
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Jupiter and
Thétis, 1811 Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence
"She sank to the ground beside him, put her left
arm round his knees, raised her right hand to
touch his chin, and so made her petition to the
Royal Son of Cronos" (Iliad, I.)
19
  • ??????? (?????? Saturnus , ???????? (Satres
    ,??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????. ????? ?? ?????
    (?Satus ? ?????), ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????.
    ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????
    (?????? ??????), ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????
    ?? ????? ??????? ??????? (????????? ???????) ???
    ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????,
    ???, ?????. ??????? ????? ???? Ops) - "???"),
    ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????. ?????, ??????? ???
    ??????, ???? ?-497 ????"? ??????? ????
    ???????????, ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ???. ???, ????????? Saturnalia )) ?? ?17
    ?????? ????? ???? ?????. ?? ??? ?? ???? , ???
    ???? ??????. ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????
    ????. ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????
    ???????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??
    ??? ????? ??????. ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????
    ?? ????? ???? ???? ????????. ????? ????? ????? ??
    ????, ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???????. ??? ????
    ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???? (???????- ?????? ?????)
    ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? Saturni dies)
    ??????? (Saturday

Temple of god Saturn in Rome
Relief, so-called "Throne of Saturn". Marble, 1st
century AD or 16th copy. From Italy, Louvre
Museum, Paris
20
The obverse of a silver denarius of Lucius
Memmius Galeria showing the head of Saturn.
A silver Roman Republican denarius of M. Nonius
Sufenas showing a bust of Saturn with harpa and
baetyl.
The reverse of a silver denarius of Lucius
Appuleius Saturninus showing Saturn driving a
quadriga.
The reverse of an antoninianus of Gallienus
showing Saturn with a long harpa.
Michele Fabris(1644-1684) Saturn
21
????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ????, ??? ??
????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ????????. ???? ????
???? ?'???????' ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????
?????? ????. ?????? ????? ????? ?? - ???? ?????
????? ??? ???? ??? - ????? ??????? - ?? ???????
????? ???? ????????, ????? ???? ??????, ??????
?????. ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????. ??? ???????
????????? ???? ?????, ?????, ????? ?????????. ??
??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????
??????? F????a
Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 6
(from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 1. 554)
(Greek epic C8th B.C.) "The author of the War
of the Giants says that Kronos took the shape of
a horse and lay with Philyra, the daughter of
Okeanos. Through this cause Kheiron was born a
kentauros his wife was Khariklo."
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola
(Parmigianino), Saturn (as a horse) and Philyra,
c. 1534
22
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9 (trans.
Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) "The
Titanes had children . . . Kheiron, a
double-formed kentauros, was born to Kronos and
Philyra."
Jacques Fabien Gautier after Giulio Romano The
Oceanid Philyra, naked, seen from behind, her
arms around Saturn in the form of a horse
emerging from the clouds and preceded by Cupid
brandishing a scythe. c.1743 British Museum,
London
23
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 13 "When Saturnus
Kronos was hunting Jove Zeus throughout the
earth, assuming the form of a steed he lay with
Philyra, daughter of Oceanus. By him she bore
Chiron the Centaur, who is said to have been the
first to invent the art of healing. After Philyra
saw that she had borne a strange species, she
asked Jove to change her into another form, and
she was transformed into the tree which is called
the linden."
Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio after Rosso
Fiorentino Saturn (Transformed into a Horse),
Philyra, Cupid with Scythe, 1527 Museum of Fine
Arts , Budapest
24
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1231 ff
(trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) "By
nightfall they the Argonauts were passing the
Isle of Philyra. This was where Kronos son of
Ouranos, deceiving his consort Rhea, lay with
Philyra daughter of Okeanos in the days when he
ruled the Titanes in Olympos and Zeus was still a
child, tended in the Kretan cave by the Kouretes
of Ida. But Kronos and Philyra were surprised in
the very act by the goddess Rhea. Whereupon
Kronos leapt out of bed and galloped off in the
form of a long-maned stallion, while Philyra in
her shame left the place, deserting her old
haunts, and came to the long Pelasgian ridges.
There she gave birth to the monstrous Kheiron,
half horse and half divine, the offspring of a
lover in questionable shape."
Philyra and Saturn Bernard Lépicié after
Parmigianino , 1722-1724
25
Giulio Bonasone ca Saturn in the guise of a
horse being suckled by the nymph
Philyra 1513-1576 The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
26
????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ???
??? ????-???? ?? ???????, ?? ???? ???? ?????,
???? ??-???????? "??? ???? ????????? ?????? ??
?????? ?????" (???????, "????? ?????).
CRONUS KING OF THE GOLDEN AGE Kronos ruled over
the first generation of mankind during the
so-called Golden Age of Man, a time of
prosperity, peace and general ease. When Zeus
came to power these had been replaced by the
Silver, who in turn were succeeded by the Bronze,
the Hero, and the Iron races. In the time of
Kronos it was said the animals spoke with a human
voice. Hesiod, Works and Days 109 ff (trans.
Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.)
"First of all the deathless gods who dwell on
Olympos made a Golden Race of mortal men who
lived in the time of Kronos when he was reigning
in heaven. And they lived like gods without
sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and
grief miserable age rested not on them but with
legs and arms never failing they made merry with
feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they
died, it was as though they were overcome with
sleep, and they had all good things for the
fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit
abundantly and without stint. They dwelt in ease
and peace upon their lands with many good things,
rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods. But
after earth had covered this generation--they are
called Pure Spirits (daimones hagnoi) dwelling on
the earth (epikhthonioi), and are kindly,
delivering from harm, and guardians of mortal
men for they roam everywhere over the earth,
clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and
cruel deeds, givers of wealth i.e. agricultural
bounty for this royal right also they received."
Sir Edward John Poynter The Golden Age, 1875
27
Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 1 (from Oxyrhynchus
Papyri 7) (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd
B.C.) "Animals could speak like men in the
reign of Kronos. But anon, they say, Zeus changed
all things to the contrary and in no happy mood,
Zeus, the just, dispensing injustice, he robbed
four-footed things of speech and, as if we had
not strength enough even to bestow on others, he
changed this hapless race to human kind . . .
This is the tale of Aesop of Sardis, whom, when
he sang his story, the Delphinans received in no
kindly wise." Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 192
(from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) "In the Golden
Age when Kronos ruled It was the time when
birds and creatures of the sea and four-footed
animals could talk in the same way as the
Promethean clay . . (lacuna) in the time of
Kronos, and even before. Just is Zeus, yet unjust
was his ruling when he deprived the animals of
their speech, and--as though we were in a
position to give part of our voice to
others--diverted it to the race of men."
Johann Theodor de Bry Das goldene Zeitalter,
Kupferstich, 1608 Universitätsbibliothek Salzburg
28
José Manuel Félix Magdalena The Golden Age
29
  • ??? ???? ???? ???????? / ?????????? ??? ?????
    89-114 (????? ?????? ???? ?????)
  • ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???
    ?????? ????, ?? ??? ????? ???????.
  • ???? ???? ?? ????? ???, ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??
    ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????
  • ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????, ???? ???
    ?? ????, ?? ??? ????? ??? ????,
  • ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????, ????? ???
    ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????.
  • ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???, ???
    ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????,
  • ?? ???? ????? ?????. ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????
    ????? ????? ?? ????.
  • ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????, ?? ?????
    ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????.
  • ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???, ??????
    ??????, ???? ?? ????? ??????,
  • ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????, ?? ?????
    ?????, ????????, ??? ????.
  • ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??
    ???? ??? ????? ??? ???.
  • ?? ????? ????, ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???
    ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????.
  • ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????, ???? ?????
    ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????.
  • ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????, ?????? ??
    ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????.

Pietro da Cortona, The Golden Age Fresco, Sala
della Stufa, Palazzo Pitti, Florence
30
Hesiod, Works and Days 156 ff (trans.
Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.)
"Zeus the son of Kronos made yet another, the
fourth race of men, upon the fruitful earth,
which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like
race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the
race before our own, throughout the boundless
earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part
of them, some in the land of Kadmos at
seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks
of Oidipous, and some, when it had brought them
in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for
rich-haired Helene's sake there death's end
enshrouded a part of them. But to the others
father Zeus the son of Kronos gave a living and
an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at
the ends of earth. And they live untouched by
sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the
shore of deep swirling Okeanos, happy heroes for
whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet
fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the
deathless gods, and Kronos rules over them for
the father of men and gods released him from his
bonds. And these last equally have honour and
glory."
Lucas Cranach the Elder , The Golden Age, circa
1530, Alte Pinakothek, Munich
31
Plato, Laws 713a (trans. Bury) "Plato employs
the myth of the Golden Age of Kronos in his
description of an ideal state ruled by a
philospher-elite Long ages before even cities
existed . . . there existed in the time of
Kronos, it is said, a most prosperous government
and settlement . . . Well, then, tradition tells
us how blissful was the life of men in that age,
furnished with everything in abundance, and of
spontaneous growth. And the cause thereof is said
to have been this Kronos was aware of the fact
that no human being is capable of having
irresponsible control of all human affairs
without becoming filled with pride and injustice
so, pondering this fact, he then appointed as
kings and rulers for our cities, not men, but
beings of a race that was nobler and more divine,
namely, Daimones (Spirits). He acted just as we
now do in the case of sheep and herds of tame
animals we do not set oxen as rulers over oxen,
or goats over goats, but we, who are of a nobler
race, ourselves rule over them. In like manner
the god, in his love for humanity, set over us at
that time the nobler race of Daimones who, with
much comfort to themselves and much to us, took
charge of us and furnished peace and modesty and
orderliness and justice without stint, and thus
made the tribes of men free from feud and happy.
And even today this tale has a truth to tell,
namely, that wherever a State has a mortal, and
no god, for ruler, there the people have no rest
from ills and toils and it deems that we ought
by every means to imitate the life of the age of
Kronos, as tradition paints it." Cf. The
Daimones of Hesiod's Works and Days above.
Johann Wilhelm Baur, The golden Age The earth
gave all fruits voluntarily, 1659 (Ovid, Met. I,
104)
32
Joachim Wtewael, The Golden Age, 1605,
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
33
Hans von Marées (18371887) Goldenes Zeitalter
(I) Neue Pinakothek
Hans von Marées Goldenes Zeitalter (II) Neue
Pinakothek
34
Orphic Hymn 13 to Cronus (trans. Taylor) (Greek
hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) "To Kronos,
Fumigation from Storax. Eternal father, mighty
Titan, hear, great sire of gods and men, whom all
revere endued with various counsel, pure and
strong, to whom increase and decrement belong.
Hence matters flowing forms through thee that
die, by thee restored, their former place supply
reincarnation. The world immense in everlasting
chains, strong and ineffable thy power contains
father of vast eternity, divine, O mighty Kronos,
various speech is thine blossom of earth and of
starry skies, husband of Rhea, and Prometheus
wise. Obstetric power and venerable root, from
which the various forms of being shoot no parts
peculiar can thy power enclose, diffused through
all, from which the world arose. O best of
beings, of a subtle mind, propitious hear, to
suppliant prayers inclined the sacred rites
benevolent attend, and grant a blameless life, a
blessed end passage after death to Elysion."
Giorgio Vasari, The first fruits from earth
offered to Saturn, 1555-1557, Palazzo Vecchio
Museum
35
?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????
?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????.
Kronos, the god who devoured his own children
(Poseidon representing the sea, Demeter the
earth, Hera the air, and Hestia heavenly fire)
symbolised the destructive ravages of time, which
consumed all. As the King of the Golden Age, and
of the Islands of the Blessed, he represented the
passing of the ages. The name Kronos, means
simply time (khronos). Cicero, De Natura Deorum
2. 24 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st
B.C.) "Another theory also, and that a
scientific one, has been the source of a number
of deities, who clad in human form have furnished
the poets with legends and have filled mans life
with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was
handled by Zeno and was later explained more
fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example,
an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece
that Caelus Ouranos the Sky was mutilated by
his son Saturnus Kronos, and Saturnus himself
thrown into bondage by his son Jove Zeus now
these immoral fables enshrined a decidedly clever
scientific theory. Their meaning was that the
highest element of celestial ether or fire
Ouranos the Sky, which by itself generates all
things, is devoid of that bodily part which
required union with another for the work of
procreation. By Saturnus Kronos again they
denoted that being who maintains the course and
revolution of the seasons and periods of time,
the deity so designated in Greek, for Saturnus
Greek name is Kronos, which is the same as
khronos, a space of time. The Latin designation
Saturnus on the other hand is due to the fact
that he is saturated or satiated with years
(anni) the fable is that he was in the habit of
devouring his sons - meaning that Time devours
the ages and gorges himself insatiably with the
years that are past. Saturnus is bound by Jove
Zeus in order that Times courses might not be
unlimited, and that Jove might fetter him by the
bonds of the stars."
Pieter Christoffel Wonder, Time, 1810,
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
36
Angelo Zaccarini and Giacomo Zampa, Cronos
(Allegory of Time ), 18th Century, fresco,
Emilia Romagna, Forlì, Lombardini Monsignani
Palace
Martin Josef Geeraerts An Allegory of Time, 1769
37
The astrological Saturn, by Hans Sebald Beham,
1539. Saturn is shown here as the Grim Reaper, a
lame old man, and the ruler of Capricorn and
Aquarius.
38
  • Kronos-Saturn represents Saturday in a mosaic
    depicting the seven days of the week. He rides on
    a stool carried by two winged gods. Roman Villa
    at Orbe-Bosceaz, Orbe, Switzerland, 3 century CE.

39
POUSSIN, Nicolas Helios and Phaeton with Saturn
and the Four Seasons, c. 1635 Staatliche Museen,
Berlin
40
Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse Time displays ruins and
masterpieces, 1822, Musée du Louvre
41
Father Time is not always a hard parent, and,
though he tarries for none of his children, often
lays his hand lightly upon those who have used
him well making them old men and women
inexorably enough, but leaving their hearts and
spirits young and in full vigor. With such people
the gray head is but the impression of the old
fellows hand in giving them his blessing, and
every wrinkle but a notch in the quiet calendar
of a well-spent life. Charles Dickens, Barnaby
Rudge A Tale of the Riots of Eighty
Pompeo Girolamo Batoni Time orders Old Age to
destroy Beauty, 1746 The National Gallery, London
42
?"???" ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????
???? ???? . ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? (????????
??? ??? ????? ????? ??????) ?????? ????? ?? ??
????? ???? (??????? ????). ????? ?????? ?????
???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????. ?????? ??????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ????
??????? ????. ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????.
Simon Vouet Saturn, Conquered by Amor, Venus and
Hope, 1645-46 Musée du Berry, Bourges
43
????? ????? ?? ?????, ?????? ????
Simon Vouet Time Vanquished by Hope, Love, and
Beauty, 1627 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
44
Jean-François de Troy An Allegory of Time
Unveiling Truth, 1733 The National Gallery, London
Francois Lemoyne Time Saving Truth from
Falsehood and Envy, 1737 The Wallace Collection,
London
45
"???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???." ( ???? ??
???????) ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?????
?? ???? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??
????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????
Attributed to Guercino Chronos Admonishes
Eros, in the presence of Aphrodite and Mars,
1624 -1626 São Paulo Museum of Art
Anthony Van Dyck Time clipping Cupids wings,
c.1627
46
SCHÖNFELD, Johann Heinrich Allegory of Time
(Chronos and Eros), 1630s Galleria Nazionale
d'Arte Antica, Rome
47
???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????, ????
????
Pierre Mignard Time Clipping Cupids Wings,
1694 Denver Art Museum
Pompeo Batoni, Time clips the wings of Cupid,
c.1740-1743
48
Ivan Akimov Saturn Cutting off Cupids Wings with
a Scythe , 1802 Tretyakov Gallery
49

Joachim von Sandrart Minerva and Saturn protect
the Arts and Science from Jealousy and Lies,
1644 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien
50
Noël Coypel I The Triumph of Saturn on his
Chariot Pulled by Dragons (study), circa
1671 Château de Versailles
51
?? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? - ??
????. ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????
????? ????? ???, ???????, ?????? ?? ??? ???
?????? ???? ?????. ????? ??????? ??????, ???
??????, ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????. ????
????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????, ?????? ????
??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????. ???? ???? ???
??? ??? ??? ?????. ????, ??????? ?????? ??????,
?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??
?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??
????? ?????-?????? ????????? . ?????? ??? ?????
???? ?????, ??? ??? ???. ?????????? ??????? ?????
????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? , ??
?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? (???????
?????) ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????. ???
????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????
????? ???????, ????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????. ???? ????? ?????
????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????. ????? ??? ?? ??
????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???
?? ?? "??? ??????".
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo An Allegory with Venus
and Time, 1754-58 National Gallery, London
52
Anton Raphael Mengs, The Triumph of History over
Time (Allegory of the Museum Clementinum), 1772
ceiling fresco in the Camera dei Papiri, Vatican
Library,
53
???"? ????? ?????? ?? ???? "??????????? ???
??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????". (????
?, ??). ??????, ???? ????? ??? ??? ?, ????? ???
????????? " ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????
???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????
????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???.
?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????
????. ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????
????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?'
????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??
????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????
????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????
???? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????
??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???"? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????
?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????. ??? ???
???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???
???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????
?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??"? ????
????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????. ??????? ???
???? ?? ?? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????
????? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????
???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?'
???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????".
Antoine-Francois Callet, Saturnalia, 1782-3
54
  • ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? "?? ????" ?? ???????.

    ?? ?? ???? ?????? , ?? ??? ???? "???
    ??????", "???? ????? ?????????".
    ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??
    ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????
    ?????-???? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????
    ??????? ( ??????). ??? ??? ????
    ?? ??? ?? ????? (????)
  • Kronos was identified by the Greeks with the
    Phoenician god of time El Olam (El of Eternal
    Time), spelt Oulomos in Greek. The child
    sacrifices offered this god underlined the
    connection in the Greek mind.
  • Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4
    (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.)
  • "His Kronos' kingdom was strongest in the
    western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his
    greatest honour consequently, down even to
    comparatively recent times, among the Romans
    called by them Saturnus and the Carthaginians
    elsewhere the author mentions the Carthaginians
    sacrifice of children to the god, while their
    city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples,
    notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated
    in honour of this god and many places bore his
    name."
  • Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 655 ff (trans. Rouse)
    (Greek epic C5th A.D.)
  • "Now first appeared the golden crop of men the
    Golden Race of Mankind brought forth in the
    image of the gods, with the roots of their stock
    in the earth. And these dwelt in the Phoenician
    city of Beroe, that primordial seat which Kronos
    himself builded."

Gebel el Arak Knife Showing a canaanite deity,
possibly the god El Ivory (hippopotamus canine)
and flintstone blade. Circa 3300 - 3200 BC From
Gebel el-Arak, South of Abydos Musée du Louvre
55
?????? ????? ??? ???
http//www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanKronos.html http
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronus http//en.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Cronus http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cr
onus http//www.artcyclopedia.com/scripts/tsearch
.pl?tSaturntype2 http//www.wga.hu/frames-e.ht
ml?/html/v/vouet/2/10saturn.html http//en.wikipe
dia.org/wiki/Saturn_28mythology29 http//common
s.wikimedia.org/wiki/CategorySaturnus_(deus)
Johann Wolfgang von der Auwera Allegory of Time
(Kronos), ca.1736-56
56
???? ??, ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????
??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ???
??? http//assaffeller.com
Maarten van Heemskerck, Saturn Devouring a
Child, c. 1540
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