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The History with Marine Science


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Title: The History with Marine Science

The History with Marine Science
  • Navigation/Exploration Early Science Modern Era
  • 3000 BC Polynesians (mid-Pacific Islands) or
    Phoenicians (Mediterranean, Britain, West Africa)
  • 700s BC Greeks as first cartographers (chart
    makers) word ocean from okeanus (river).
  • 300s BC Chinese invented the compass, which did
    not arrive in the West until 1100s AD by Arabs.
    Admiral Zheng He 1403-1433, good will


Polynesian Exploration From Indo-china eastward
into the Pacific 30,000 years ago to New Guinea
and Philippine Is. by 20,000 years. Expansion to
mid-Pacific island about 2,500 years ago,
reaching Hawaii by 450-600 AD (or about 1,500
years ago).
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Mediterranean Advances Library of Alexandria
(235BC to 415 AD) housed all knowledge of the
region. Ancients may have been more advanced
than remaining records suggest. Eratosthenes
(second librarian) was first to calculate the
circumference of the earth (230 BC). His estimate
was 46,250 km and the actual is 40,000 km. He
was also the first cartographer to place
longitude and latitude lines of orientation on
his charts.
Eratosthenes chart (ca 300 BC)
Later Hipparchus (ca 120 BC) divided the globe in
360º of arc. Ptolemy (ca 150 AD) defined the
present coordinate system (W-E N-S), and divided
degrees into 60 minutes and minutes into 60
Early European Advances Prince Henry of Portugal
(the Navigator mid-1400s AD), encouraged the
use of the compass. Established first known
institute of marine science and navigation. Not
until after Columbus discovered the New World
in 1492 did the Americas appear on charts. First
circumnavigation of the globe was performed by
Ferdinand Magellan between 1519-1522.
Waldseemuller Chart (1507).
Gerhardus Mecator, in 1569, modification still
distorts higher latitudes. A further
modification known as a Miller projection is used
to day.
Magellan was seeking trade routes to the Orient.
He died in 1521 while in the Phillipines Islands.
Only 13 of his crew circumnavigated Earth.
James Cook (1st marine scientist?) HMS Endeaver,
Adventure, Resolution, and Discovery 3
expeditions of the Pacific (1768-1780) Rediscovere
d the Hawaiian Islands and most of what the
Polynesians had settled over 1000 years earlier!
By 1700s, charts were becoming more elaborate and
included currents and wind data, not just
coastlines and bottom obstructions. Gulf Stream
chart by Ben Franklin and seaman cousin Timothy
Folger, 1769. The road map to fast
trans-Atlantic travel.
US Navy Involvement 1838-1842 Lt. Charles
Wilkes lead the US Exploring Expedition that
circumnavigated the globe including charting part
of Antarctica.
Formal Database Established on Navigation
Charts. Matthew Maury, 1847, as Director of
Bureau of Charts. Launched research into
understanding current and wind systems
globally. Maury was a pencil pusher, a
cartographer not a mariner. Revised charts were
distributed free of charge in exchange for more
ship log data from captains.
Challenger Expedition (1872-1876) Charles
Thompson and John Murray lead the first purely
oceanographic expedition to focus on life at sea,
as well as physical and chemical conditions where
it was found. Over 362 sampling stations
resulted in discovery of more than 4000 species.
Searched to depths of gt3000 m and found organism!
There was life below 600 m.
Charles Darwins voyages on HMS Beagle
(1831-1836) were less extensive.
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Fridtjof Nansen First Professor of Oceanography
Fram expedition in the Arctic ice cap
(1893-1897). Proved there was no land mass under
the Arctic ice pack.
20th Century Oceanography WWI the sea becomes
an important battlefield, thus an impetus for
advances in naval science and technology. German
Sonar (Echosounding) maps the seafloor in 1925
Meteor Expedition.
Glomar Challenger, 1960s Ocean floor drilling to
study seafloor formation and age.
Kaiko JAMSTEC Japanese marine science
consortium ROV remote operated vehicle Depth
of 11,000 m Alvin WHOI Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institute Manned submersible depth of 4,500 m
deep sea vent studies.
Satellites Sea level seafloor topography
(TOPEX/Poseidon). Ocean surface
temperature. Plankton productivity. Navigation