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Second generation Biofuels

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Second generation Biofuels Beyond Oxygenates Workshop session on Biofuel sources and supply May 2, 2008, Brookhaven National Laboratory The First Generation of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Second generation Biofuels


1
Second generation Biofuels
  • Beyond Oxygenates

Workshop session on Biofuel sources and
supply May 2, 2008, Brookhaven National
Laboratory
2
The First Generation of Biofuels
  • Alcohols process intensive of fermentation of
    sugars or simple molecules into mainly ethanol
  • Biodiesel esterification or transesterification
    of fatty acids contained in fats or oils
  • The two major first generation biofuels use
    specific feedstock, commodities competing with
    food for land.

3
Second Generation Biofuels Basic Requirements
  • Any biomass based fuel responding to engine and
    storage requirements
  • Transparent use minimize the boutique fuel
    impact on distribution
  • High EROEI
  • Environmentally friendly recycling atmospheric
    carbon

4
Issues with First Generation Biofuels
  • No transparency Must be kept separated before
    blending. This translates into required
    investments of storage and pumping equipment.
  • No transparency Require engine modifications,
    even minor ones (e.g. flex fuels for ethanol)
  • Differences in energy content Oxygenates
    (ethanol or biodiesel) hard to get approval from
    OEM

5
Environment and EROEI The Carbon Cycle
Any upgrade of biomass to a higher energy product
will be by spending energy
6
Savior Lipids
  • Nature, as it usually does, already finds the
    most efficient way of storing energy in Lipids.
    Plant first produce carbohydrates rich in oxygen,
    and then converts them in carbon-rich
    triglycerides, the most compact form of
    biological energy
  • It would make more sense to start with the
    highest energy content biomass.

7
Biomass Energy Crops Yields
  • Ethanol feedstock crops and Oilseed are
    comparable (approx. 55,000 MJ/ha)
  • Oil-rich algae potential for much higher yields
    (50 x higher?)

8
What are second generation biofuels?
  • Hydrocarbons fuels from two major paths
  • Fischer-Tropsch (FT) applicable to any biomass
    Biomass-to-Liquids (BTL)
  • Hydrotreatment of fatty acids (HTFA) (animal or
    vegetable oils and fat hydrolisates)
  • Carbon does not remember if coming from petroleum
    or biomass

9
Example Jet Fuels from Biomass
  • Both FT and HTFA produce aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • Both result in clean burning fuels
  • To meet Jet fuel ASTM D1655 for energy density
    and cold flow properties, FT and HTFA have to be
    hydrocracked, isomerized and reformed
  • Minimum aromatics set to 8 (seal issue)

10
Hydrotreatment of oil-rich biomass (1)
  • The fatty acids are hydrolyzed and de-carboxilated

11
Hydrotreatment of oil-rich biomass (2)
12
Jet fuel hydrocarbons (Chevron Aviation)
13
The Challenge
  • 1 ha Oil Palm produces 5 metric tonnes crude oil
    palm
  • 1 metric tonne 38.2 Gj
  • 1 ha Oil Palm could produce 5 38.2 0.60 115
    Gj of Jet fuel with a 60 yield (DARPA)
  • To Produce one day worth of jet fuel (28.9
    Petajoules), we would need to dedicate 251 103 ha
    of Oil Palm

14
Thank you!
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