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Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Most Excellent Architects, Painters, and Sculptors, 2nd edition, Forence, ... Socrates died at the age of 70. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in
Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by
the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was
painted between 1509 and 1510.
"Raphael received a hearty welcome from Pope
Julius, and in the chamber of the Segnatura he
painted... Aristotle and Plato, with the Ethics
and Timaeus respectively, and a group of
philosophers in a ring about them. Indescribably
fine are those astrologers and geometricians
drawing figures and characters with their
sextants. He further adorned his work with a
perspective and many figures, so delicately and
finely finished that Pope Julius caused all the
other works of the other masters, both old and
new to be destroyed, that Raphael alone might
have the glory of replacing what had been done.
Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Most Excellent
Architects, Painters, and Sculptors, 2nd edition,
Forence, 1568
The School of Athens represents all the greatest
mathematicians, philosophers and scientists
from classical antiquity gathered together
sharing their ideas and learning from each
other. These figures all lived at different
times, but here they are gathered together
under one roof.
The School of Athens is one of a group of four
main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza that
depict distinct branches of knowledge.
Commentators have suggested that nearly every
great Greek philosopher can be found within the
painting. Plato da Vinci Aristotle Giuliano
da Sangallo Heraclit Michelangelo Apelles
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In the centre of the fresco, at its
architecture's central vanishing point, are the
two undisputed main subjects Plato on the left
and Aristotle, his student, on the right.
Aristotle 384 322 BCE was a Greek
philosopher. His writings cover many subjects
including physics, biology, zoology,
metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry,
theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics
and government and constitute the first
comprehensive system of Western philosophy.
Plato 428/427 or 424/423 BC 348/347 BC was a
philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also a
mathematician, student of Socrates, and founder
of the Academy in Athens, the first institution
of higher learning in the Western world.
Both figures hold modern (of the time), bound
copies of their books in their left hands, while
gesturing with their right. Plato holds Timaeus,
Aristotle his Nicomachean Ethics Plato's Timaeus
was, even in the Renaissance, a very influential
treatise on the cosmos, whereas Aristotle
insisted that the purpose of ethics is
"practical" rather than "theoretical" or
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Sapho din Lesbos
Socrates 470/469 BC 399 BC) was a classical
Greek (Athenian) philosopher, credited as one of
the founders of Western philosophy. Socratic
thinking revolve around self knowledge - Gnothi
se auton. From Socrates, the man becomes a
problem for himself. "Your person is your soul"
he said.
One of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I
know that I know nothing. Saying he knows
nothing, Socrates is not an ignorant or not
trying to assert the uselessness of
knowledge. This is not an abdication or a cause
for resignation, but, on the contrary, is the
first step to be able to know something. "I know
that I don't know anything, but I know that I
know more than I know."
The trial and execution of Socrates took place in
399 BC. Socrates was tried on two charges
corrupting the youth and impiety. More
specifically, Socrates' accusers cited two
"impious" acts "failing to acknowledge the gods
that the city acknowledges" and "introducing new
After the vote on Socrates' guilt, his prosecutor
proposed the death penalty. The jury voted for
death as the penalty. Apparently in accordance
with his philosophy of obedience to law, he
carried out his own execution, by drinking the
hemlock provided to him. Socrates died at the
age of 70.
Socrates was acquitted in 2012 after 2500 years
from death, in a new process, symbolically, in
Sappho was a Greek lyric poet, born on the island
of Lesbos. Her birth was sometime between 630
and 612 BC, and it is said that she died around
570 BC, but little is known for certain about
her life. The bulk of her poetry, which was
well-known and greatly admired through much of
antiquity, has been lost. But, her immense
reputation has endured through surviving
Sappho's poetry centers on passion and love for
various people and both sexes. The word lesbian
derives from the name of the island of her birth,
Lesbos, while her name is also the origin of the
word Sapphic.
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Heraclitus of Ephesus c. 535 c. 475 BCE was a
pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He was called
"The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher".
Heraclitus is famous for his insistence on
ever-present change in the universe, as stated
in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the
same river twice" - Panta rhei, "everything
flows. He believed in the unity of opposites,
stating that "the path up and down are one and
the same", all existing entities being
characterized by pairs of contrary properties.
For Hegel, Heraclitus's great achievements were
to have understood the nature of the infinite,
which for Hegel includes understanding the
inherent contradictoriness and negativity of
reality, and to have grasped that reality is
becoming or process.
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Parmenides of Elea - 5th century BCE - was an
ancient Greek philosopher. He was the founder of
the Eleatic school of philosophy. The single
known work of Parmenides is a poem, On Nature,
which has survived only in fragmentary form.
In this poem, Parmenides describes two views of
reality. In "the way of truth" (a part of the
poem), he explains how reality (coined as
"what-is") is one, change is impossible, and
existence is timeless, uniform, necessary, and
unchanging. In "the way of opinion," he explains
the world of appearances, in which one's sensory
faculties lead to conceptions which are false and
deceitful. These ideas strongly influenced the
whole of Western philosophy.
Hypatia (born c. AD 350 370 died 415) was a
Greek Alexandrine Neoplatonist philosopher in
Egypt who was one of the earliest mothers of
  • No written work, widely recognized by scholars as
    Hypatia's own,
  • has survived to the present time.
  • A partial list of Hypatia's works
  • as mentioned by other antique and medieval
  • or as posited by modern authors
  • A commentary on the 13-volume Arithmetica by
  • A commentary on the Conics of Apollonius.
  • Edited the existing version of Ptolemy's
  • Edited her father's commentary on Euclid's
  • She wrote a text "The Astronomical Canon".

As head of the Platonist school at Alexandria,
she also taught philosophy and
astronomy. Mathematician, astronomer, educator,
inventor, musician, philosopher, Hypathia of
Alexandria is a symbol of reason, science,
thinking without dogmas.
According to the contemporary source, Hypatia
was murdered by a Christian mob.
Some of them, therefore, hurried away by a fierce
and bigoted zeal, whose ringleader was a reader
named Peter, waylaid her returning home and,
dragging her from her carriage.
They took her to the church called Caesareum,
where they completely stripped her, and then
murdered her with tiles. After tearing her body
in pieces, they took her mangled limbs to a place
called Cinaron, and there burnt them.
Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570 BC c. 495 BC) was
an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and
founder of the religious movement called
Pythagoreanism. Pythagoras made influential
contributions to philosophy and religion in the
late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a
great mathematician, mystic, and scientist but
is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which
bears his name.
Epicurus (341270 BC) was an ancient Greek
philosopher as well as the founder of the school
of philosophy called Epicureanism. For Epicurus,
the purpose of philosophy was to attain the
happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia
peace and freedom from fear and aponia the
absence of pain and by living a self-sufficient
life surrounded by friends.
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Euclid (born unknown - died unknown) was a Greek
mathematician, often referred to as the "Father
of Geometry".
In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles
of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a
small set of axioms.
His Elements is one of the most influential works
in the history of mathematics, serving as the
main textbook for teaching mathematics
(especially geometry) from the time of its
publication until the late 19th or early 20th
Strabo (64/63 BC c. AD 24) was a Greek
geographer, philosopher and historian.
Strabo is most famous for his work Geographica,
which presented a descriptive history of people
and places from different regions of the world
known to his era
Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 90 c. AD 168) was a
Greco-Roman writer of Alexandria, known as a
mathematician, astronomer, geographer,
astrologer. Ptolemy was the author of several
scientific treatises, three of which were of
continuing importance to later Islamic and
European science.
Ptolemy's model, was geocentric and was almost
universally accepted until the appearance of
simpler heliocentric models during the
scientific revolution.
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Diogenes of Sinope was a Greek philosopher and
one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. He was
born in Sinope in 412 or 404 BCE and died at
Corinth in 323 BCE. He embarrassed Plato,
disputed his interpretation of Socrates and
sabotaged his lectures.
He believed that virtue was better revealed in
action than in theory. He used his simple
lifestyle and behavior to criticise the social
values and institutions of what he saw as a
corrupt society.
He begged for a living and slept in a large
ceramic jar in the marketplace.
He became notorious for his philosophical stunts
such as carrying a lamp in the daytime,
claiming to be looking for an honest man.
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(Heraclitus) Michelangelo with dark and pensive
air, sitting on the stairs with one arm resting
on a block of marble, is the last character
painted in this Fresco, and is Rafaels's homage
to the artist that ended the Sistine Chapel.
Images and Texts


Bach-Gounod - Ave Maria

Author Adrian TOIA
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