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Phrases and Clauses


Phrases and Clauses A Phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and does not contain a verb and its subject. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phrases and Clauses

Phrases and Clauses
  • A Phrase is a group of related words that is used
    as a single part of speech and does not contain a
    verb and its subject.
  • A clause is a group of words that contains a verb
    and its subject.

Prepositional Phrase
  • A prepositional phrase is a group of words
    consisting of a preposition, a noun or pronoun
    that serves as the object of the preposition, and
    any modifiers of that object. (The object of the
    preposition may be compound.)
  • Gabbie and her brother walked in front of the
  • Bailey and Kaenen waved to us.
  • Inside the small cabin Megan and Brenna found
    shelter from the cold.

Adjective Phrase
  • An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase
    that modifies a noun or pronoun.
  • A book of jokes might make a good gift.
  • Liza, Megan, and Julia are the musicians that
    appeared on the magazine cover.
  • Marcus is the young boy in that picture on the
    wall next to his grandfather.
  • Is that your car with the flat tire in the

Adverb Phrase
  • An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that
    modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
  • My brother looks like my uncle.
  • They found the note in an old book.
  • Later in the afternoon, the storm brought high
    winds and rain.
  • The same movie has been playing for eight weeks.

Participles and Participial Phrases
  • A participle is a verbal, or verb form, that can
    be used as an adjective.
  • Present participles end in ing.
  • The comedian was amusing.
  • Past participles usually end in d or ed.
  • That faded rug belonged to my grandmother.
  • Hopelessly lost and worried, Zach stopped and
    asked the police officer for directions.
  • A participial phrase consists of a participle and
    its modifiers and complements. A participial
    phrase is used as a adjective.
  • Imagining herself in space, Justine dreamed she
    was an astronaut.
  • She imagined a young woman floating smoothly
    outside a space capsule.
  • Soon, soothed by these pleasant thoughts, she
    drifted off to sleep.

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
  • A gerund is a verbal, or verb form, that ends in
    ing and is used as a noun.
  • ( Do not confuse a gerund with a present
    participle used as part of a verb phrase or as an
  • Subject Cooking is an art for some people.
  • Predicate Nominative His favorite pastime is
  • Object of a Preposition The road is closed
    because of flooding.
  • Direct Object Has the camera crew finished
  • A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and its
    modifiers and complements. A gerund phrase is
    used as a noun.
  • Approaching the dog slowly was the most sensible
  • The poem celebrated the gentle blossoming of a
  • By moving through the crowded room, the mayor
    was able to greet all his supporters.

Infinitive and Infinitive Phrases
  • An infinitive is a verbal, or verb form, that can
    be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. An
    infinitive usually begins with to.
  • Nouns To solve the puzzle was a challenge.
  • Adjective The fastest way to get home is on
    the expressway.
  • Adverb The hikers were too tired to take
    another step.
  • An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive
    and its modifiers and complements. An infinitive
    phrase may be used as an adjective, an adverb, or
    a noun.
  • After his operation, Brent will use leg
    exercises to strengthen his knee.
  • Vivian was proud to display her drawings.
  • To rescue those people Marcus had a lot of

Appositives and Appositive Phrases
  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside
    another noun or pronoun to identify or explain
  • Appositives are often set off from the rest of
    the sentence by commas. However, when an
    appositive is necessary to the meaning of the
    sentence or is closely related to the word it
    refers to, no commas are necessary.
  • The write Toni Morrison is a respected American
  • Bill Cosby, a comedian and an actor, has
    written several books.
  • An appositive phrase consists of an appositive
    and its modifiers.
  • Miss Dominigues, a teacher at the Douglas
    school, is my aunt.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., the well-known leader
    in the civil rights movement, was also a

Independent and Subordinate Clauses
  • An independent (or main) clause expresses a
    complete thought and can stand by itself as a
  • The poet received many awards.
  • Lucille Clifton wrote Sisters, and Diana Chang
    wrote Saying Yes.
  • A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not
    express a complete thought and cannot stand alone
    as a sentence.
  • A word such as that, since, or what signals the
    beginning of a subordinate clause.
  • that I memorized
  • what she said
  • since many people enjoy poetry
  • The meaning of a subordinate clause is complete
    only when the clause is attached to an
    independent clause.
  • Lineage, which is a poem by Margaret Walker,
    is about her ancestors.
  • When I read Americo Paredes poem Guitarreros,
    I really liked it.

The Adjective Clause
  • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that
    modifies a noun or a pronoun. Unlike an adjective
    or adjective phrase, an adjective clause contains
    a verb and its subject. An adjective clause
    usually follows the word it modifies and tells
    which one or what kind. An adjective clause is
    usually introduced by a relative pronoun.
  • Relative Pronouns
  • that which who whom which
  • Those who are competing in the next race should
    take their staring positions.
  • I especially like stories that contain suspense.
  • Science, which is taught by Ms. Pitrello, is my
    favorite class.
  • Have you met the man who lives next door?
  • The woman for whom she works does medical

The Adverb Clause
  • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that
    modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
    Unlike an adverb or adverb phrase, an adverb
    clause contains a verb and its subject. Ad adverb
    clause tells how, when, where, why, to what
    extent, how much, how long, or under what
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • after although as as if as long as
    as soon as as though
  • because before how if in order that
    since so that
  • than though unless until when whenever
  • wherever whether while
  • Jake missed the game because he overslept.
  • If Milan is late, Imani will be unhappy.
  • Before we played the game, we had a long

The Noun Clause
  • A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a
    noun. A noun clause may be used as a subject, a
    complement (predicate nominative, direct object,
    indirect object), or an object of a preposition.
  • Common Introductory Words for Noun Clauses
  • How when who if where
    whoever that whether
  • Whom what which whomever whatever
    whichever why
  • Subject That I love baseball is a well-know
  • Predicate Nominative Bread was what Deryn made
    for the picnic.
  • Direct Object He knew which bear was in the
  • Indirect Object I will give whoever wins the
    race a trophy.
  • Object of a Preposition She is grateful for
    whatever help she can get.

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