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Listening

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Review - Communication Process Part 2 - Listening Activity Active listening – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Listening


1
  • Review - Communication Process
  • Part 2 - Listening
  • Activity Active listening

2
The Communication Process
  • Environment

Message Encoded
Message Decoded
Frame of
Frame of
L I S T E N E R
S P E A K E R
Noise
Noise
Reference
Reference
Feedback
3
Building Speaker Confidence
  • Types of Anxiety
  • Situational anxiety caused by factors present
    in a specific speaking situation
  • Trait internal anxieties an individual brings
    to the speaking situation

4
Part 2- Listening
  • What is the difference between hearing and
    listening?
  • List at least two ways in which you can prepare
    yourself physically and intellectually to listen
    to a speech.
  • When you are a listener, how can you encourage a
    speaker?

5
Part 2- Listening
  • 5 Stages of Listening

1. Sensing
VISUAL
VOCAL
VERBAL
6
5 Stages of Listening
  • Sensing
  • At this stage you listen to what is said
    (verbally and nonverbally).
  • Improving your listening reception
  • Focus your attention on the speakers verbal and
    nonverbal messages. Avoid focusing your attention
    on what youll say next if you begin to rehearse
    your responses, youre going to miss what the
    speaker says next.
  • Avoid distractions in the environment
  • Maintain your role as listener and avoid
    interrupting.

7
Part 2- Listening
  • 5 Stages of Listening

1. Sensing
2. Interpreting
VISUAL
VOCAL
VERBAL
8
5 Stages of Listening
Interpreting -
  • After receiving the message, you process it you
    extract the meaning from the message.
  • Improve your interpreting/understanding
  • Avoid assuming you understand what the speaker is
    going to say before he or she actually says it.
  • Ask questions for clarification, if necessary
    ask for additional details or examples if theyre
    needed.
  • Rephrase (paraphrase) the speakers ideas into
    your own words.

9
Part 2- Listening
  • 5 Stages of Listening

1. Sensing
2. Interpreting
3. Evaluating
VISUAL

VOCAL
VERBAL
10
5 Stages of Listening
  • Evaluating-
  • Once youve received, understood, and have the
    message in memory, you need to evaluate it.
  • Resist evaluation until you fully understand the
    speakers point of view. This is not always easy,
    but its always essential. If you put a label on
    what the speaker is saying (ultraconservative,
    bleeding-heart liberal), youll hear the
    remainder of the messages through these labels.
  • Distinguish facts from opinions and personal
    interpretations by the speaker.

11
Part 2- Listening
  • 5 Stages of Listening

1. Sensing
2. Interpreting
3. Evaluating
4. Responding
VISUAL
VOCAL
VERBAL
12
5 Stages of Listening
  • Responding
  • Of course, a speaker expects a response.
  • Support the speaker throughout the speakers
    conversation by using (and varying) listening
    cues, such as head nods and minimal responses
    such as I see or mm-hmm.
  • Own your responses. Take responsibility for what
    you say. Instead of saying, Nobody will want to
    do that say something like I dont want to do
    that. Use the anonymity that most social
    networks allow with discretion.
  • Avoid being a thought-completing listener who
    listens a little and then finishes the speakers
    thought.

13
Part 2- Listening
  • 5 Stages of Listening

1. Sensing
2. Interpreting
3. Evaluating
4. Responding
VISUAL
5. Remembering
VOCAL
VERBAL
14
5 Stages of Listening
  • Remembering
  • It would help little if you received and
    understood the message but didnt remember it.
  • Focus your attention on the central ideas.
  • Avoid focusing on minor details that often lead
    to detours in listening and in conversation.
  • Organize what you hear summarize the message in
    a more easily retained form, but take care not to
    ignore crucial details or qualifications.
  • Repeat names and key concepts to yourself or, if
    appropriate, aloud.

15
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16
Selecting topic, purpose and central idea
  • When a speaker is enthusiastic about his or her
    ideas, how do listeners usually react?
  • List the six criteria discussed in this chapter
    for writing a specific purpose statement.
  • What is the difference between the specific
    purpose and the central idea?

17
Guidelines for Finding a Good Topic
  • Select a topic that
  • Fits requirements of assignment
  • Showcases your experiences and knowledge
  • Interests you
  • You can make interesting and valuable to your
    audience

18
Defining the General Purpose
  • Establish a general purpose to help bring your
    topic under control.
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To entertain

19
Defining the Specific Purpose
  • What exactly to you want to accomplish in your
    speech?
  • Topic Foodborne illnesses
  • General Purpose To inform
  • Specific Purpose To tell my listeners how to
    protect themselves from foodborne illnesses

20
Defining the Central Idea
  • What exactly to you want your audience to
    remember from your speech?
  • Topic Foodborne illnesses
  • General Purpose To inform
  • Specific Purpose To tell my listeners how to
    protect themselves from foodborne illnesses
  • Central Idea Monitoring food temperatures is a
    great way to avoid foodborne illnesses

21
Narrow your topic
Lets use football as an example
  • Football
  • - Explain divisions / conferences
  • - Explain job of coaching
  • - Explain history
  • - Explain artificial vs. natural turf

22
Determine the Main Points
  • Brainstorm for possible main points
  • Narrow to 3 5 possible main points

23
Brainstorming Activity
  • Narrow down the following broad subjects to
    specific, manageable topics
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Musical groups
  • Illegal drugs
  • Saving money

24
(No Transcript)
25
Understanding Audience Types
  • Friendly
  • Heard you speak before
  • Positive to what you are saying
  • Sold on your topic
  • Speaking to the Friendly Audience
  • Any pattern of organization
  • Audience participation
  • Warm, enthusiastic delivery
  • Verbal and visual supports

26
Understanding Audience Types
  • Neutral
  • Consider themselves objective
  • Open to new information
  • Looking for logic and facts
  • Speaking to a Neutral Audience
  • Problem-solution organization
  • Controlled, authoritative delivery
  • Expert, non-flashy verbal and visual supports

27
Understanding Audience Types
  • Uninterested or indifferent
  • Short attention span
  • Wish they were somewhere else
  • Will be polite but probably will take a mental
    holiday
  • Speaking to an Uninterested Audience
  • Three-point or brief organization
  • Dynamic, entertaining delivery
  • Humorous, colorful, and powerful verbal and
    visual supports

28
Understanding Audience Types
  • Hostile
  • Predisposed to dislike you or your topic
  • This audience is the greatest challenge
  • Speaking to a Hostile Audience
  • Topical, time, or spatial organization
  • Calm, controlled delivery
  • Objective, expert supports avoid narratives and
    humor

29
How to Use Audience Information
  • Determine evidence and emotional appeals
  • Select visual aids and attention-getters
  • Improve credibility
  • Relate topic to audience
  • Motivate and persuade

30
Timed Speech Activity
  • My car (10 sec)
  • What you had for breakfast/lunch (30 sec)
  • Your job (1 min)
  • What do you want to do when you graduate? (1.5
    min)
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