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INTRODUCTION TO ZOOLOGY

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO ZOOLOGY


1
INTRODUCTION TO ZOOLOGY
  • TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION

2
Meaning of zoology
  • ZOO
  • OLOGY
  • ANIMAL
  • THE STUDY OF

3
The Animal kingdom has two major divisions
  • Animals without a backbone
  • Invertebrates
  • Divided into 34 phyla but we will only study 9 of
    these
  • Animals with a backbone
  • Vertebrates
  • Divided into seven classes within one phylum -
    Chordata

4
TAXONOMY-the study of classification
  • The father of taxonomy was CAROLUS LINNAEUS
  • BORN IN SWEDEN IN 1707, he produced an extensive
    system of classification for both plants and
    animals
  • He used Phylogeny( the comparative study of
    Organismal structure)
  • He gave organisms a distinctive name he called a
    species epithet.

5
TAXONOMY-the study of classification
  • He organized specimens in an ascending series of
    groups of more and more distant relatedness.
    This is called a Hieriarical system and is now
    known as the BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE system
  • A two name system because he used the
    Genus and species name to identify the organism

6
LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION
  • In the animal kingdom there are seven mandatory
    ranks in ascending order from least inclusive to
    most inclusive
  • DOMAIN
  • KINGDOM
  • PHYLA
  • CLASS
  • ORDER
  • FAMILY
  • GENUS
  • SPECIES

7
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • An organisms scientific name is made up of
  • Genus- always capitalized
  • because it is a noun
  • species-always lower case
  • because it is an adjective
  • also, either written in Italics or
  • underlined to identify it
  • Example- Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens

8
Sometimes common names are very misleading
9
WHY A NEED FOR SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION?
  • In many places, the same animal is known by a
    different name.

10
Two definitions of species
  • 1. A species is a reproductive
  • community of populations that
  • occupies a specific niche in the
  • natural world.
  • 2. An interbreeding population of individuals
    having common descent and sharing
    characteristics.

11
A major goal of Taxonomists is to create a
Phylogeny
  • A phylogeny is a evolutionary tree that relates
    all extant species to all extinct species

12
KINGDOM NR.OF SPECIES
Bacteria....................................
.......... 4,000 Protoctists (algae, protozoa,
etc)......... 80,000 Animals, vertebrates.........
.................. 52,000 Animals,
invertebrates....................
1,272,000 Fungi...................................
.............. 72,000 Plants......................
........................ 270,000 Total number of
described species... 1,750,000 Possible nr. with
unknown species 14,000,000
13
Comparison of Huoman and Domesticated dog
classification
  • HUMAN DOG
  • Kingdom Animalia Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata Chordata
  • Class Mammalia Mammalia
  • Order Primates Carnivora
  • Family Hominidae Canidae
  • Genus Homo Canis
  • Species sapiens familarias

14
CHARACTERISTICS USED FOR CLASSIFICATION
  • 1. Morphology- looks like something else
  • 2. Biochemical similarities- DNA is alike
  • 3. Embryology-embryos are similar as they develop
  • 4. Cytology- chromosomal size, shape number
  • 5. Most important- Breeding Potential- the
    ability to breed together and produce fertile
    offspring

15
DOMAINS OF LIFE
  • ARCHAEA-life extremists, found in the harshest
    environments on earth
  • Extreme halophiles (salt lovers)
  • Extreme thermophiles (heat or cold lovers)
  • Methanogens (eat CO2, H and N and excrete
    methane gas
  • BACTERIA- organisms without a membrane-bound
  • nucleus or organelles
  • Cyanobacteria-photosynthetic blue-green
    bacteria
  • Eubacteria-true bacteria
  • EUKARYOTA- organisms with membrane bound nucleus
    and organelles-divided into four kingdoms
  • Animalia
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Protista

16
KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  • ALL CAN MOVE AT SOME POINT IN LIFE CYCLE
  • ARE HETEROTROPHIC
  • FIRST APPEARED 700 MYA
  • (sponges, jellyfish, corals)
  • CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION 550 MYA
  • RESULTED IN ALL MAJOR BODY PLANS IN EXISTANCE
    TODAY

17
Phylum Porifera
  • means porebearing
  • ex. Sponges

18
Phlyum Cnidaria
  • Means stinging nettle
  • Representative organisms include jellyfish,
    hydras, sea anemones and coral

19
Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • Means flatworm
  • Example tapeworms, flukes and planaria

20
Phylum Nematoda
  • Means roundworm
  • Mostly parasitic
  • Examples include
  • Pinworms, heartworms, hookworms, large
    intestinal roundworms

21
Phylum Mollusca
  • Means soft-bodied
  • Representative organisms include
  • clams, squid, nautilus, octopus
  • And cuttlefish

22
Phylum Annelida
  • Means segmented worm
  • Examples include earthworms and leeches

23
Phylum Arthropoda
  • Means jointed leg
  • Examples include
  • insects, crustaceans and spiders

24
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Means spiny-skinned
  • Examples include sea urchins, starfish, sea
    cucumbers and sand dollars

25
Phylum Chordata
  • Means nerve chord
  • There are two superclass divisions
  • The jawless vertebrates
  • Superclass Agnatha
  • Seven Classes of jawed vertebrates
  • Superclass Gnastostomata

26
CLASS AGNATHA
  • JAWLESS VERTEBRATES
  • TWO GROUPS-HAGFISH AND LAMPREY

27
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
  • meaning cartilage fish
  • Example sharks, skates and rays

28
Class Actinoptergii
  • Means ray-finned fish
  • ex. Bass, perch, minnow

29
CLASS SARCOPTERGII
  • MEANS flesh-finned
  • ex. Lungfish

30
CLASS AMPHIBIA
  • Means double-life
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders
  • All have thin skin and reproduction is
  • tied to water

31
CLASS REPTILIANON-AVIAN REPTILES
means to creep Four families, turtles, snakes,
lizards and crocs
32
AVIAN REPTILES
FORMERLY CLASS AVES
33
CLASS MAMMALIA
Means breast animal
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