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Non-food Sources for Biodiesel


Non-food Sources for Biodiesel Dr. Richard S. Sapienza METSS Corporation Westerville, OH. and Thomas Sapienza Strategic AgFuel Technologies Phoenix, AZ Observations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Non-food Sources for Biodiesel

Non-food Sources for Biodiesel
  • Dr. Richard S. Sapienza
  • METSS Corporation
  • Westerville, OH.
  • and
  • Thomas Sapienza
  • Strategic AgFuel Technologies
  • Phoenix, AZ

Observations of Climate Change
  • Evaporation rainfall are increasing
  • More of the rainfall is occurring in downpours
  • Corals are bleaching
  • Glaciers are retreating
  • Sea ice is shrinking
  • Sea level is rising
  • Wildfires are increasing
  • Storm flood damages are much larger

"I think the environment should be put in the
category of our national security. Defense of our
resources is just as important as defense abroad.
Otherwise what is there to defend? Robert
Recycling Carbon Dioxide
Biodiesel Feedstocks
  • Traditional The most common form of Biodiesel is
    that made by the transesterification of vegetable
  • In the US, soybeans provide the most common
  • In Europe, rapeseed canola provides the most
    common feedstock
  • Other Common Feedstocks
  • Sunflower oil is commonly used in France and
    Eastern Europe
  • Palm Oil is common in Malaysia
  • Used cooking oil is quickly becoming a common
  • Tallow is also becoming common and contains
    highly Saturated Fatty Acid Triglycerides.

  • Environment, Perils, Promises and Perplexities of
    Green Propaganda - analyzing our perceptions and
  • The diverse practices proclaim a 'correct'
    ethical or green choice, but make more tangible
    the contradictions and responsibilities that we
    encounter personally and as a society.
  • Biofuels policy has increased biofuel production
  • However, at a high cost
  • Feed prices up 60-100, or more
  • Total cost increases 25-33 billion/year
  • True retail cost of gasoline replaced over
  • Regressive effects on food and fuel prices
  • For little real gain
  • Energy security is lower
  • International scorn increased
  • Little net gain in energy supply

the other oil shock
Biofuels accounted for almost half the increase
in worldwide demand for vegetable oils last year
  • shortages and soaring prices for vegetable oils
    are the latest, most striking example of a
    developing global problem costly food.
  • foodstuffs, climbed 37 percent last year
  • protests have erupted
  • And all this is happening even as global climate
    change may be starting to make it harder to grow
    food in some of the places best equipped to do
    so, like Australia.
  • in Chongqing, China, announced a limited-time
    cooking oil promotion in November, a stampede of
    would-be buyers left 3 people dead and 31
  • in the developing world, cooking oil is an
    important source of calories and represents one
    of the biggest cash outlays for poor families

"An Agricultural Crime Against Humanity"
Biofuel Policy Effect
costs of other feed ingredients
68.5 of these increases attributed to biofuels
costs to domestic soybean users
Soyoil Price
Soymeal Price
Emerging Feedstocks
  • Plants that can thrive under adverse conditions
    Jatropha curcas
  • Hydroxylated Fatty Acid Triglycerides Castor Oil
    and Lesquerella Oil
  • Short-chain Fatty Acid Triglycerides Cuphea
  • Microalgae That Produce Lipids

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Oils and (Biodiesel) Esters Characteristics
  • Jatropha, like the oil palm, grows as a tree that
    produces fruit with oil-bearing seed
  • not eaten by animals and is a vigorous, drought
    and pest resistant plant
  • low cost and high yielding
  • 40-60 g oil/100 g seed kernels
  • Grown in many places
  • methyl esters from Jatropha oil meet the
    standards for biodiesel
  • Goldman Sachs cites Jatropha curcas as one of the
    best candidates for future biodiesel production
  • Jatropha, biodiesel crop, will make money at
    crude oil prices a third below their current
    level, according to U.K.-based D1 Oils Plc teamed
    up with oil giant BP
  • Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer and
    Daimler to cooperate in Jatropha biodiesel
  • Jatropha diesel already fulfills the EU norm for
    biodiesel quality".

  • Jatropha oil is hydroscopic - absorbs water and
    needs nitrogen blanketing on steel tanks.
  • Right from the time of expelling, the oil needs
    to be kept in storage conditions that prevent
    undue degradation. Exposure to air and moisture
    must be minimized - hence the need for nitrogen
    blanket on the tanks.
  • Makes Jatropha high in acid, therefore tendency
    to degrade quickly, particularly if not handled
    properly through the supply chain. Will affect
    catalyst use increasing cost?

  • 48 of seed is oil
  • high uniformity and consistency in a naturally
  • 90 hydroxylated fatty acids
  • Allergens and ricin not present in oil
  • high yielding, as much as 350-650 kg oil /hectare
  • requires moderate rainfall and can withstand long
    periods of drought
  • uncomplicated crop that requires little attention
  • 24 of seed is oil
  • 60 hydroxylated fatty acids
  • Gum with high value produced with oil

Lubricity of Castor Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Castor FAME based additive significantly improves
the pour point of other vegetable biodiesel
without greatly affecting other properties such
as density, viscosity and flash point
EMA/ISO Lubricity Limit
Castor Biodiesel
  • Castor and Lesquerella oil prices are relatively
    high making them impractical for use as biodiesel
  • castor oil (food grade) is used in food
    additives, flavorings, and candy (i.e.,
  • esters are important ingredients in various
    cosmetics and toiletries.
  • However, increased lubricity at low levels (lt1)
    may provide an effective lubricity enhancer for
    low sulfur diesel fuels.
  • Castor FAME products can act as cold flow
    improver additives for biodiesel
  • Low volume, high value markets

  • Plant indigenous to North America, can be grown
    in many US regions
  • Produces predominantly short-chained fatty acids
    C80 and C100
  • This is not FAME Biodiesel but a straight
    vegetable oil (SVO) fuel
  • Small, sticky seeds
  • Agronomics not yet developed harvesting

Cuphea Oil Viscosity
Viscosity and Fuel Performance
  • Normal Vegetable oils have high viscosity which
    leads to injector coking and eventual engine
  • Reduced viscosity of Cuphea oil makes it a
    candidate for a fuel without transesterification
  • Cuphea oil and mixtures with 2 Diesel performed
    well in engine durability tests.
  • Performance exceeded food vegetable oils and
    petroleum 2 Diesel.

Simple extraction of materials
Palm oil press
Algaethe other biomass
  • Grows wherever you wont find terrestrial biomass
  • Grows where few other plants could survive
  • Hot climes
  • Salt water
  • Macroalgae
  • Seaweed, kelp
  • Fast growing marine and freshwater plants that
    can grow up to 60 m in length
  • Emergents
  • Plants that grow partially submerged in bogs and
  • Microalgae
  • Microscopic photosynthetic organisms
  • Single cell plants - Efficiency of microbes
    combined with the ability to capture CO2
  • Produce up to 60 of their body weight as
    natural oil or lipids
  • Lipids as feed for biodiesel production

Solar bioreactor microalgae
oil biodiesel
Algae-to-biofuel with CO2 Sequestration
  • 90 by weight of the algae is captured
    ("sequestered) carbon dioxide
  • Produces approximately 20 times the normal
    production volume for field crops
  • Requires 5 of the normal water requirements for
    field crops
  • Can be built on non arable lands and close to
    major city markets
  • Can work in a variety of environments urban,
    suburban, countryside, desert etc.
  • Does not use herbicides or pesticides
  • Will have very significant operating and capital
    cost savings over field agriculture
  • Will drastically reduce transportation costs to
    market resulting in further savings,
  • Will be easily scalable

The percentage of oil in a microalga may reach a
level as high as 80 of its dry weight, but an
average figure would be nearer 40. No higher
plant makes that much oil.
  • Algae look deceptively concentrated
  • The ponds tend to have about 0.2 to 0.4 gram/
  • Even at 70 per barrel oil, algal oils are a
    tough sale for dedicated biofuels facilities
  • unknown) cost for oil extraction

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  • The feed ingredient game has changed
  • Limiting resource feedstocks, not demand
  • Feedstock prices bid up to energy value
  • Higher petroleum prices biofuels profits
  • Even without federal support biofuel production
    would be increasing
  • Common near term answer to the initially high
    cost of non-food biofuels is to aim for niche
    coproduct opportunities
  • METSS focus on additive values
  • SAFTech is to make algae the coproduct of
    existing viable business

Sustainable Processes
  • Attempt to satisfy
  • Investor demand for unprecedented capital
  • Social demand for low present and future
    environmental impact
  • While producing
  • Highest quality products
  • Minimum use of raw material
  • Minimum use of energy
  • Minimum waste
  • In an ethical and socially responsible manner

  • LipoDiesel, clean-burning, renewable energy form
    that is harvested from the organic fat deposits
    suctioned away during liposuction.
  • A perfect synthesis of economy, environmental
    awareness, and painless cosmetic surgery
  • something the American consumer has been crying
    out for
  • Wed go from an obesity epidemic to an obesity
  • "LipoDiesel is a win-win, a slam dunk, Americans
    will have the bodies they desire, and enjoy total
    energy independence.
  • Congress could authorized a bill to subsidize
    mandatory liposuctions with funding from a new
    tax on gym memberships.
  • The Ford Lipodiesel, the Ford Flabgrabber SUV,
    will be unveiled in 2009

Strategic Adipose Reserve
  • Q What is the diesel fuel equivalent of a pound
    of excess human fat? A 8.74 lb fat/gallon.
  • Now you're thinking about the immense energy
    trapped in the nation's collective gut. (extra
    fat lbs. of avg. American) x ( of Americans)
    lbs. available fat (lbs. available fat) / (8.74)
    "Strategic adipose reserve, in diesel gallons.
  • 20lb x 300,000,000 people/ 8.74 686 million
    gallons the stored fat energy wouldn't be enough
    to run our nation's vehicles for 2 days. That is
    absolutely mindboggling.

Biodiesel Production Costs
21 million facility 30 Million Gallon Per-unit costs Total
Fixed costs (10 years 8 APR) -0.27 -8.2 m
Variable costs -0.071 -2.1 m
Vegetable oil costs (per gallon) -1.00 -28.9 m
Methanol (per gallon) -0.95 -3.4 m
Glycerol offset (per gallon) 7.50 18.1 m
Total (per gallon) 0.816 -24.5 m
Three Biodiesel Generations
  • Most commonly produced biodiesel is first
    generation methyl ester (FAME Fatty Acid Methyl
  • Neste Oil's NExBTL renewable diesel is second
    generation biodiesel - production of middle
    distillate from vegetable oils pure hydrocarbons
    which by their properties and quality are
    chemically similar to fossil diesel -- "green
    diesel". Wider feedstock base can be utilized in
    the production process. Due to quality, it is
    possible to blend tens of percents into diesel.
  • Third generation utilizes gasification and
    Fischer-Tropsch technology and any feedstock
    which contains carbon can be utilized.

Estimated changes 2008/2009 vs. 2007/2008
Matching Raw Material and Desired Product
Oxidation States
Ethylene Glycol, Ethyl Acetate
Polystyrene, Polyvinylchloride
Ethylene, Polyethylene
Methanol, Ethanol
Carbon Monoxide
Glycerin, Phenol
Carbon Dioxide
Acetic Acid
Natural Gas
  • By a factor of 105, most accessible carbon atoms
    on the earth are in the highest oxidation state
  • However, there is plenty of available carbon in
    lower oxidation states closer to that of most
    desired chemical products
  • High availability and the existence of
    photosynthesis does not argue persuasively for
    starting from CO2 or carbonate as raw material
    for most of the organic chemistry industry
  • But, the same might not necessarily be true for
    the transportation fuels industry, especially if
    the energy carrier is carbonaceous but onboard
    CO2 capture is not feasible