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Solar Radiation (Electromagnetic and Atmospheric Energy)


Solar Radiation (Electromagnetic and Atmospheric Energy) Created By: Mr. Kreeger – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solar Radiation (Electromagnetic and Atmospheric Energy)

Solar Radiation (Electromagnetic and Atmospheric
  • Created By
  • Mr. Kreeger

Homework and Page References
  • Page References
  • Page 478-480, 484-486, 491
  • Homework
  • Explain in 2 to 3 sentences why shorter
    wavelength radiation is more harmful than longer
    wavelength radiation.
  • Do numbers 7-9 on page 486
  • Do numbers 16 and 17 on page 493
  • Draw the phase change diagram and label what is
    occurring at each section of the diagram (Project
    Grade- Due in 3 days)

Table of Contents
  • Components and factors in the Atmosphere.
  • Electromagnetic Energy
  • Solar Energy
  • Visible Light
  • Matter and Electromagnetic Energy
  • Refraction
  • Scattering
  • Absorption
  • Earths Energy
  • Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation
  • Heat and temperature
  • Temp
  • Temp Scales
  • Heat
  • Calories
  • Specific Heat

Components and factors in the Atmosphere
  • Weather is the state or Condition of the
    atmosphere at a particular time
  • Meteorology is the study of weather
  • Atmospheric variables are changes in weather such
    as temp, air pressure, moisture, precip., wind
    speed and cloud cover

Components and factors in the Atmosphere cont..
Components and Factors in the Atmosphere
Formula Name Proportion
N2 Nitrogen 78
O2 Oxygen 20
H2O Water (vapor) 0-4
Ar Argon 0.934
CO2 Carbon Dioxide 0.037 (370 ppm)
Ne Neon 18.2 ppm
He Helium 5.24 ppm
CH4 Methane 1.5 ppm
H2 Hydrogen 0.6 ppm
N2O Nitrous Oxide 0.3 ppm
O3 Ozone 0.04 ppm
CFCs Chlorofluorocarbon 0.0002 ppm
Electromagnetic Energy
  • All EM energy travels through space at speed of
  • Shorter wavelengths greater frequency (More
  • Longer wavelengths shorter frequency (less

Video clip of Electromagnetic energy
Solar Energy
  • Energy from sun? major source of energy for
    earth, sun produces all frequencies of energy.
  • Visible Light- Small area of EM spectrum
    (4.010-57.010-5), greatest intensity of all
    EM energy.

Matter and Electromagnetic Energy
  • When EM energy hits materials it can be
  • Refracted-Bent
  • Scattered- Reflected and Refracted
  • Absorbed
  • Any material that is a good absorber of EM energy
    is a good radiator. Energy radiated longer
    wavelength than absorbed.
  • Dark rough surfaces best absorbers

Energy Transfer in Atmosphere
  1. Convection- Heat energy transferred by movements
    of liquids and gases? Caused by density diff in
  2. Conduction- Transfer of heat energy by collision
    of atoms, most effective in solids
  3. Radiation- Transfer EM energy through space
    (Transverse Waves) No medium needed, travels
    straight at speed of light.

Heat and Temperature
  • Temperature- Measure of the average Kinetic
    Energy of molecules within a substance.
  • Heat- Total Kinetic Energy of the particles in a
    sample of matter
  • Two jars same temp one jar 50ml of water other
  • 25ml of water.
  • If temp is same? Avg KE is same
  • Heat energy is diff because larger volume of
  • Water more molecules in motion greater
  • Total KE-More heat energy
  • Heat always flows from high to low temp. Hot
    object loses KE cold object gains KE

Video Clip of Temp and Heat
Heat Energy
Temp scales
Scale Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
Water Boils 212F 100C 373.15K
Water Freezes 32F 0C 273.15K
Comment Introduced in 1724, 0 F lowest temp he could measure (combining salt, ice, water) Introduced, by Celsius and Linnaeus in 1745 adopted in 1948 ?C 5/9 (?F 32) ?F 1.8 ?C 32 (very useful when cooking in foreign countries) Introduced, not surprisingly, by Lord Kelvin (1800s), 0K absolute zero
Temp scale Picture
Heat and Temperature
  • c. Calories- The quantity of heat needed to
    raise the temp of 1 gram of liquid water by 1C.
  • A joule is defined as the amount of energy
    expended by a force of one newton moving an
    object one meter in the same direction as the
  • 1 Joule .24 cal
  • d. Specific Heat- Quantity of heat required to
    raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1C.
  • All substances have a different specific heat
    value. (Refer to Earth Science Reference Tables)
  • Takes water 32X longer to heat up than Lead
    higher specific heat more energy required to heat
    up substance.

Table of Specific Heat
Type of Material Specific Heat
Water 4.18 Joule/gC
Basalt .84 Joule/gC
Granite .79 Joule/gC
Lead .13 Joule/gC
Heat Energy and Phase Changes
  • Latent heat- Normally when we heat things up
    temp increases
  • During phase changes the temp of a substance does
    not change b/c the addition of energy used to
    convert substance from one phase to another.

Heat Energy and Phase Change Cont..
  • Adding heat c. Losing Heat
  • Melting (S-L) 1. Freezing (L-S)
  • Evaporation (L-G) 2. Condensation (G-L)
  • Sublimation (S-G) 3. Sublimation (G-S)
  • Heat gained or loss can be found by multiplying
    mass of a substance by latent heat value? Varies
    w/ substance and type of change. (Qcm?T),
    c-specific heat, m-mass of object, ?T-Diff in temp

Ideas of Latent Heat
Which processes are Sensible Heat? Latent Heat?
Water and Latent Heat
Video clip of Latent Heat
Latent Heat
Water and Latent Heat Cont..
  • Heat of Fusion-Heat added to 1g of ice at -100C
    KE increases temp of ice rises to 0C(Melting pt),
    temp stops rising until all ice changed to
    liquid. T stays same even though heat is
  • Heat of Vaporization-When ice melts to liquid at
    0C, temp rises to 100C (boiling pt) temp stops
    rising b/c all water must turn into gas.(540 cal)
  • Read left to right-Heating energy gained
  • Read right to left-Heat loss, energy released to
    environment fuel for storms.