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NASA Commercial Crew Program

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Title: NASA Commercial Crew Program


1
NASA Commercial Crew Program
NASA Commercial Crew Program Overview
Commercial Crew Program
Reference Information
2
NASA Commercial Crew Program - Page 1 of 2
  • Commercial Crew Program
  • - Commercial Crew Development (CCDev)
  • In 2009, NASA began commercial crew initiatives
    to stimulate the private sector to develop and
    demonstrate human spaceflight capabilities that
    could ultimately lead to the availability of
    commercial human spaceflight services for both
    commercial and government customers.
  • -- Two phases of the CCDev program (CCDev 1 and
    2) were awarded to American commercial firms for
    the purpose of fostering research and
    development.
  • --- In February 2010, NASA awarded a total of 50
    million CCDev 1 development funds to Blue
    Origin, Boeing, Paragon, Sierra Nevada, and
    United Launch Alliance.
  • --- In April, 2011, NASA awarded a total of
    nearly 270 million for CCDev 2 to Blue Origin,
    Boeing, Sierra Nevada, and SpaceX.
  • - Commercial Crew integrated Capability (formerly
    CCDev 3)
  • In February 2012, NASA began a new initiative,
    the Commercial Crew integrated Capability
    (CCiCap), to facilitate industrys development of
    an integrated crew transportation system (CTS)
    which included spacecraft, launch vehicle, ground
    and mission systems.
  • -- On December 10, 2012, NASA awarded a total of
    1,167 million to Boeing, Sierra Nevada, and
    SpaceX for first phase contracts to conduct
    activities that will enable future certification
    of commercial spacecraft as safe to carry humans
    to the ISS.
  • - Certification Products Contract (CPC) - Phase 1
  • The first phase of the CPC involved the review of
    the integrated crew transportation systems
    through the creation of a certification plan that
    resulted in the development of engineering
    standards as well as tests and analyses of the
    crew transportation systems designs.
  • -- On December 10, 2012, NASA awarded a total of
    29.5 million to Boeing, Sierra Nevada, and
    SpaceX.

3
NASA Commercial Crew Program - Page 2 of 2
  • Commercial Crew Program (Continued)
  • - Commercial Crew Transportation Capability
    (CCtCap) - Phase 2
  • CCtCap is the second phase of the two-phase
    certification plan for commercially built and
    operated integrated crew transportation systems.
    Through its certification efforts, NASA will
    ensure that the selected commercial
    transportation systems meet the agencys safety
    and performance requirements for transporting
    NASA crews to the ISS.
  • -- Two Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)
    based, firm fixed-price contracts will be awarded
    following an open competition.
  • --- FAR is the principal set of rules in the
    Federal Acquisition Regulation System.
  • ---- The FAR System governs the acquisition
    process by which the government purchases goods
    and services.
  • --- On September 16, 2014, NASA awarded a total
    of 6.8 billion to Boeing and SpaceX.

4
Credit NASA
5
- December 9, 2013
2 Partners Boeing, SpaceX Scope Full
Certification Plus Initial ISS Missions Total
Amount Awarded Boeing and SpaceX 6.8B
Legend CPC - Certification Products Contract
CCtCAP - Commercial Crew Transportation
Capability ISS - International Space Station
Credit NASA
6
Commercial Crew Program
Development 1 2 (CCDev 1 2)
Integrated Capability (CCiCap)
In 2010 2011, NASA selected commercial firms to
develop crew vehicle concepts and technology.
In 2012, 3 commercial firms were selected by NASA
to complete end-to-end design for a crew vehicle
system.
NASA Crew Certification
In late 2012, NASA selected 3 companies to
conduct activities under contracts to enable
future certification of commercial spacecraft as
safe to carry humans to the ISS.
7
Commercial Crew Development 1 (CCDev 1)
In February 2010, NASA selected five commercial
firms to develop crew transportation concepts and
technology demonstrations for human spaceflight
using Recovery Act Funds. Under CCDev 1, NASA
announced 50 million in stimulus-package
funding. Winning contractors used the money to
support commercial crew launch vehicles and other
hardware that NASA hopes will be available to
ferry crews to the ISS.
Credit Sierra Nevada Corporation
The two commercial firms awarded the largest
funding were Sierra Nevada Corporation of
Louisville, CO was awarded 20 M in CCDev 1
stimulus funding. The Dream Chaser (above)
entry is based on NASAs old HL-20 lifting body.
The Boeing Companys Houston based Space
Exploration Division is working with Bigelow
Aerospace to design a capsule (right) capable of
flying on multiple launch vehicles. Boeing
received 18 M to advance the CCDev 1 work. The
three other firms selected were Blue Origin
(3.7 M) from Kent, WA Paragon Space Development
Corporation (1.44 M) from Tucson, AZ and United
Launch Alliance (6.7 M) from Centennial, CO.
Credit Boeing
8
Commercial Crew Development 1 - SNC Dream Chaser
Test Vehicle
February 2010 - The partially completed Dream
Chaser atmospheric test vehicle was shown while
NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver speaks at
the University of Colorado, Boulder. The
atmospheric flight test vehicle was first used as
the static test article. The atmospheric flight
test vehicle was used in 2012 for drop tests.
Credit NASA
The Dream Chaser is planned to carry a crew of
seven to and from low Earth orbit. The spacecraft
is developed by SpaceDev, a wholly-owned
subsidiary of Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC).
The vehicle launches vertically on an Atlas V
and returns from space by gliding and landing at
almost any aircraft runway in the world. The
19,800 lbs spacecraft has a length of 29.5 ft
with a wing span of 22.9 ft.
Credit NASA
9
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Boeing CST-100
Spacecraft
Boeing has matured the design of its CST-100
spacecraft (left) under the CCDev 1 Space Act
Agreement with NASA. The CST-100 will be bigger
than Apollo and be able to launch on a variety of
different rockets, including Atlas, Delta and
Falcon. It uses a simple systems architecture
and existing, proven components. The "100" in
CST-100 refers to the 100 kilometers (62.1 miles)
from the ground to low Earth orbit. The service
module uses batteries instead of solar arrays for
power, so the nominal flight profile calls for
docking at the International Space Station (ISS)
on the day of launch. It is designed to remain at
the station for as long as seven months in a
lifeboat role.
Replace with Latest Image
Credit Boeing
The CST-100 can carry a crew of seven and is
designed to support the ISS and the Bigelow
Aerospace Orbital Space Complex (right). In 2010,
Bigelow Aerospace had anticipated construction of
their first space station beginning in early
2014, and the station was planned to be available
by 2015 for client use. Bigelow Aerospace
astronauts would arrive in a commercial crew
capsule to set up the first module
(Sundancer-One) and bring supplies.
Credit Boeing
10
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Blue Origin
Delta Clipper-Experimental
The first lift-off (left) and landing (right) of
the Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X) on August
18, 1993 are shown. The DC-X was never designed
to achieve orbital altitudes or velocity, but to
demonstrate the concept of vertical take-off and
landing. The Blue Origin New Shepard vehicle is
based on the DC-X design.
Credit NASA
Credit NASA
The New Shepard system is a rocket-propelled
vehicle designed to routinely fly multiple
astronauts into suborbital space at competitive
prices. In addition to providing the public with
opportunities to experience spaceflight, it will
provide researchers the capability to fly
experiments into space and a microgravity
environment. The New Shepard vehicle is named
after the first American astronaut in space, Alan
Shepard.
11
Commercial Crew Development 2 (CCDev 2)
On May 29, 2012, the Sierra Nevada flight test
vehicle was lifted by a helicopter near the Rocky
Mountain Metropolitan Airport in Jefferson
County, CO. The captive-carry test of the
full-scale orbital crew vehicle marked the
completion of another CCDev 2 milestone. Future
plans call for the flight test vehicle to be
released to evaluate the design's handling during
the landing phase of a mission. Just like the
space shuttle before it, Dream Chaser will go
through extensive testing to prove its wings will
work.
Credit Sierra Nevada Corporation
NASA awarded approximately 270 million to four
commercial companies in April 2011 to continue
development of commercial rockets and spacecraft
capable of safely flying astronauts into low
Earth orbit and to the International Space
Station. For the second round of agreements,
proposals selected were Blue Origin - 22 M to
continue to develop the "New Shepard" spacecraft
designed to take off and land vertically. Sierra
Nevada Corporation - 80 M to continue the design
of the Dream Chaser lifting body. Space
Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) - 75 M to
develop an escape system for a crewed version of
its Dragon capsule that has flown cargo to and
from the ISS. The Boeing Company - 92.3 M to
continue development of the CST-100 crew capsule
including maturation of the design and
integration of the capsule with a launch vehicle.
12
Commercial Crew Development 2 - SpaceX Dragon
Spacecraft Crew Configuration
Trunk
Unpressurized Cargo
Spacecraft
Forward Hatch
Solar Array (Stowed)
International Docking Adapter
Crew (7 Maximum)
Credit SpaceX
The Dragon spacecraft crew configuration is
similar to the cargo configuration except the
spacecraft houses the crew and not the
pressurized cargo it will dock to the ISS using
the International Docking Adapter (IDA) and not
berth to the ISS using the ISS Common Berthing
Mechanism. The nose cap and thermal radiators are
not shown above.
13
Commercial Crew Development 2 - SpaceX
On October 7, 2012, the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket
lifted off (left) from Launch Complex 40 at Cape
Canaveral Air Force Station, FL. The launch
successfully placed the Cargo Resupply Services,
Phase 1, Flight 1 mission Dragon on course for
the first operational commercial mission to the
International Space Station (ISS). The SpaceX
Dragon, Version 2, crew spacecraft will also be
launched by the Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The
reusable capsule can carry a crew of seven
astronauts to the ISS and lands on the ground
using rocket engines and landing legs.
Credit SpaceX
Dragon Cargo Spacecraft
Second Stage
First Stage
The SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo spacecraft is
shown (right) attached to the Earth-facing side
of the ISS Harmony module on October 14, 2012.
The Dragon was berthed to Harmony on October 10
using the ISS robotic arm. The Dragon carried 882
lbs of supplies to the ISS and spent 21 days at
the ISS before returning 1,673 lbs to Earth. The
Dragon, Version 2, crew spacecraft will
rendezvous and then dock to the ISS.
Credit NASA
14
Commercial Crew Development 2 - SpaceX Boeing
On March 16, 2012, NASA conducted a review of the
SpaceX crew vehicle layout using the Dragon
engineering model (left) equipped with seven
seats and representations of crew systems. The
primary goal of the tests was to determine
whether the layout would allow astronauts to
maneuver effectively in the vehicle. Several
veteran space shuttle astronauts and NASA
engineers conducted the evaluation during a pair
of two-day long reviews. SpaceX successfully
completed the CCDev 2 crew accommodations
milestone.
Credit SpaceX
In April 2012, Boeing dropped a mock-up of its
CST-100 commercial crew capsule over the Nevada
desert at the Delamar Dry Lake near Alamo, NV.
The successful testing of the spacecraft's three
main landing parachutes from 11,000 ft completed
a CCDev 2 milestone. Personnel are shown
inspecting the CST-100 following the parachute
drop test. Additional tests scheduled in 2012
included a second parachute drop test, a landing
air bag test series, a forward heat shield
jettison test and a maneuvering/attitude control
engine hot fire test.
Credit Wikimedia Commons
15
Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap)
In August 2012, NASA announced new agreements
with three American commercial companies,
totaling about 1.1 billion, to design and
develop the next generation of U.S. human
spaceflight capabilities, enabling a launch of
astronauts in the next five years. Advances made
by these companies under newly signed Space Act
Agreements, through the agencys Commercial Crew
integrated Capability (CCiCap) initiative, are
intended to ultimately lead to the availability
of commercial human spaceflight services for
government and commercial customers to low Earth
orbit. CCiCap is the third round of the crew
development program and was originally called
CCDev3.
Credit Sierra Nevada Corporation
The selected subcontractors will perform tests
and mature their integrated designs. The three
CCiCap partners selected were Sierra Nevada
Corporation of Louisville, CO was awarded 212.5
million to continue the Dream Chaser
(above). Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
of Hawthorne, CA was awarded 440 million to
advance the Dragon spacecraft. The Boeing Company
from Houston, TX was awarded 460 million to
continue the design of the CST-100 capsule
(right).
Credit Boeing
16
Commercial Crew integrated Capability - SNC
Credit NASA
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems'
team members tow the Dream Chaser flight vehicle
along a concrete runway at Dryden Flight Research
Center, CA for range and taxi tow tests. The
ground testing will validate the performance of
the spacecraft's nose skid, brakes, tires and
other systems prior to captive-carry and
free-flight tests scheduled for later in 2013.
17
Commercial Crew integrated Capability - SpaceX
The SpaceX Crew Dragon is shown at sunrise (left)
awaiting its first pad abort flight test from
Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral, FL on May 6,
2015. The Crew Dragon test configuration
consisted of the Crew Capsule and the Trunk,
mounted to a test stand. No astronauts were
aboard the capsule during the test, but a
human-sized crash test dummy was fastened inside
the capsule to mimic the ride. The test lasted
less than two minutes simulating how the Crew
Dragon would carry astronauts to safety if an
emergency occurred on the launch pad.
Crew Capsule
Trunk
Test Stand
Credit NASA
Eight SuperDracos engines ignited simultaneously
propelling the spacecraft off the pad
(right). The engines are integrated directly into
the sides of the vehicle rather than carried on
top of the vehicle as with previous launch abort
systems. This configuration provides astronauts
escape capability from the launch pad all the way
to orbit and allows the spacecraft to use the
same thrusters to land on the ground at the end
of a mission. - After the engines terminated, the
trunk jettisoned, the drogue and then main
parachutes deployed and slowed the vehicle before
landing in the water. - Select https//www.youtube
.com/watch?v1_FXVjf46T8 to view the first SpaceX
Crew Dragon pad abort test.
Credit SpaceX
18
Commercial Crew integrated Capability - Boeing
Two NASA astronauts conducted flight suit
evaluations inside this fully outfitted test
version of Boeing's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft
on July 22, 2013. The exterior of the spacecraft
resembles Boeing's heritage Apollo-era capsule
but its interior is a reflection of modern
technology including ambient sky blue LED
lighting and tablet technology. NASA astronaut
Serena Aunon (left) enters the spacecraft prior
to testing her maneuverability inside the
capsule.
On February 17, 2016, NASA and Boeing Engineers
dropped a full-scale test article of the
Starliner into the Langley Research Centers 20
ft deep Hydro Impact Basin (right). Although the
spacecraft is designed to land on land, Boeing is
testing the spacecrafts systems in water to
ensure astronaut safety in the unlikely event of
an emergency during launch or ascent. Testing
allows engineers to understand the performance of
the spacecraft when it hits the water, how it
will right itself and how to handle rescue and
recovery operations. The test is part of the
qualification phase of testing and evaluation for
the Starliner system to ensure it is ready to
carry astronauts to and from the International
Space Station.
Credit NASA
19
NASA Crew Certification Certification Products
Contract (CPC) - Phase 1
On Dec. 10, 2012, NASA announced the next step to
launch American astronauts to the International
Space Station (ISS) ending the agencys reliance
on Russia for these transportation services. The
first contract phase, known as the Certification
Products Contracts (CPC) began January 22, 2013
and ended May 30, 2014. The CPC began the process
of ensuring integrated crew transportation
systems will meet agency safety requirements and
standards. The second phase of the certification
contract, Commercial Crew Integrated Capability,
included the final development, testing and
verifications necessary to allow crewed
demonstration flights to the ISS.
Credit SpaceX
NASA awarded a total of 29.58 million to three
CPC - Phase 1 contractors. The partners selected
were Sierra Nevada Corporation - 10.0 million
for the Dream Chaser spacecraft. Space
Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) - 9.59
million. An artist concept of the SpaceX Dragon
Version 2 spacecraft preparing to dock to the ISS
is shown above. The Boeing Company - 9.99
million. The artist concept shows the Boeing's
CST-100 capsule (right) approaching the ISS.
Credit Boeing
20
NASA Crew Certification Certification Products
Contract (CPC) - Phase 1
During the CPC - Phase 1, the first Dream Chaser
free-flight (left) occurred at Dryden Flight
Research Center, CA on October 26, 2013. The test
was part of the Commercial Crew Integrated
Capability Initiative. The test vehicle, without
a pilot in the cockpit, was released from a
Sikorsky S-64 helicopter and flew the correct
flightpath to touchdown less than a minute later.
Just prior to landing, the left main landing gear
failed to deploy resulting in a crash landing.
The landing gear was modified from the U.S. Air
Force's F-5E Tiger fighter jet. The vehicle was
found upright, with the crew compartment intact,
and all systems inside still in working order.
Credit Sierra Nevada Corporation
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) officials said
earlier this year each landing test would begin
with a drop from 12,000 ft and last between 30
and 40 seconds as the Dream Chaser flies at an
approximately 23-degree glide angle, ending with
a flare maneuver about 300 ft above the desert
and touchdown at a speed of more than 200 mph.
The artist concept (right) shows the SNC Dream
Chaser spacecraft docked to the International
Space Station.
Credit Sierra Nevada Corporation
21
NASA Crew Certification Commercial Crew
Transportation Capability (CCtCap) - Phase 2
CCtCap is the second phase of the NASA two-phase
certification plan for commercially built and
operated integrated crew transportation systems.
In September 2014, NASA awarded a total of 6.8
billion CCtCap contracts to Space Exploration
Technologies (SpaceX) - 2.6 billion. The
upgraded Dragon (left) is shown in Earth
orbit. The Boeing Company - 4.2 billion. The
CST-100 (below) is shown prior to launch on an
Atlas V rocket in Florida. The scope of both
contracts is the same, but the price is different
because Boeing and SpaceX are using different
approaches.
Credit SpaceX
- In September 2014, after the awards were made,
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) filed a protest
with the Government Accountability Office (GAO).
The GAO denied SNCs protest on January 5,
2015. - A September 2016 report by NASAs Office
of Inspector General stated it was unlikely
either Boeing or SpaceX would be certified to
carry NASA astronauts before late 2018. -- In
October 2016, Boeing announced the CST-100
demonstration test flights to the ISS had been
delayed with the uncrewed flight in June 2018
followed by the crewed flight in August 2018. --
In December 2016, SpaceX announced the upgraded
Dragon demonstration test flights to the ISS had
been delayed with the unpiloted flight in the
fourth quarter of 2017 and the crewed flight in
the second quarter of 2018. -- The certified
flights to the ISS with NASA astronauts would
follow.
Credit Boeing
22
Reference Information - Page 1 of 2
  • Images
  • NASA, SpaceX, Sierra Nevada Corporation, The
    Boeing Company, Wikimedia Commons
  • Text
  • http//commercialcrew.nasa.gov/
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  • http//www.nasa.gov/
  • Jump Start by Frank Morring, Jr Aviation Week
    and Space Technology February 8, 2010 Volume
    172, Number 6, page 23 - companies awarded NASA
    stimulus funding to continue development of crew
    transportation systems
  • http//boeing.mediaroom.com/
  • The New Space Race by Frank Morring, Jr Aviation
    Week and Space Technology April 25/May 2, 2011
    Volume 173, Number 15, pages 24 to 26 - a second
    round of CCDev funding was awarded to companies
    to develop possible crew transportation systems
  • http//www.bigelowaerospace.com/
  • http//www.spacex.com/
  • Standard Interface by Frank Morring, Jr.,
    Aviation Week Space Technology, June 4/11,
    2012, page 34 - commercial crew vehicles will use
    International Docking Adapter to dock to ISS
  • http//spaceflight.nasa.gov/
  • http//mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/
  • https//spaceflightnow.com/

23
Reference Information - Page 2 of 2
  • Text (Continued)
  • http//spacenews.com/
  • https//oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/
  • http//news.bbc.co.uk/
  • Space Slide by Guy Norris, Aviation Week Space
    Technology, October 24-November 6, 2016, page 62
    - delays push Boeing and SpaceX crewed flights to
    ISS out to late 2018, at earliest
  • http//www.spaceref.com/
  • http//www.hq.nasa.gov/
  • http//www.space.com/
  • http//www.parabolicarc.com/
  • Video
  • SpaceX first Crew Dragon pad abort test
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v1_FXVjf46T8

End
24
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25
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26
History of Commercial Orbital Transportation
Services - Page 1 of 2
  • NASA explored a program for International Space
    Station (ISS) services in the mid 1990s titled
    Alternate Access. While NASA funded Alternate
    Access no further than preliminary studies, this
    program convinced numerous entrepreneurs that the
    ISS could emerge as a significant market
    opportunity.
  • After years of keeping orbital transport for
    human spaceflight in-house, NASA concluded that
    firms in a free market could develop and operate
    such a system more efficiently and affordably
    than a government bureaucracy.
  • In November 2005, Michael D. Griffin, the NASA
    Administrator, believed that when the engine of
    competition is engaged these services would be
    provided in a more cost-effective fashion than if
    the government would do it. He also believed
    that, with the advent of the ISS, there will
    exist for the first time a strong, identifiable
    market for routine transportation service to
    and from low Earth orbit, and this will be only
    the first step in what will be a huge opportunity
    for truly commercial space enterprise.
  • Furthermore, since such services were
    unavailable by the end of 2010 and NASA's own
    Crew Exploration Vehicle was not ready, NASA was
    forced to purchase Orbital Transportation
    Services on foreign spacecraft such as the
    Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress
    spacecraft, the European Space Agency's Automated
    Transfer Vehicle, or the Japan Aerospace
    Exploration Agency's H-II Transfer Vehicle.
  • NASA asserted that once Commercial Orbital
    Transportation Services (COTS) was operational,
    it would no longer procure Russian cargo delivery
    services.
  • - COTS helped industry develop and demonstrate
    crew cargo space transportation capabilities.

27
History of Commercial Orbital Transportation
Services - Page 2 of 2
  • In the wake of the 2003 Columbia disaster,
    President George W. Bush decided to complete the
    ISS and retire the shuttle by 2010. At the same
    time, he directed NASA to begin development of
    new launch vehicles, capsules and landers to
    carry astronauts back to the moon by the early
    2020s. Beginning in 2005, NASA then developed the
    Constellation program to implement those
    directives spending some 9 billion over five
    years.
  • Orion was Constellations spacecraft to
    transport astronauts to/from low Earth orbit as
    well as send them to the moon and back.
  • In 2009, President Barack Obama set up a panel
    of outside experts to review NASA's plans and how
    much they might ultimately cost. The panel
    concluded that NASA could not afford to implement
    Constellation, or any other reasonable
    exploration program, without an additional 3
    billion or so per year, primarily to make up for
    earlier budget reductions.
  • The panel favored a shift to commercial launch
    services to carry astronauts to and from low
    Earth orbit while NASA focused on the development
    of a new heavy-lift rocket system that would
    enable eventual flights to the moon, nearby
    asteroids, or even the moons of Mars.
  • In February 2010, President Barack Obama
    proposed the cancellation of the Constellation
    program due to it being too costly, over budget,
    behind schedule, and lacking in innovation. He
    also endorsed using commercial crew
    transportation to/from low Earth orbit.
  • The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 authorized
    NASA appropriations for fiscal years 2011 - 2013
    including a long-term goal for human spaceflight
    to expand a permanent human presence beyond low
    Earth orbit.
  • Commercial operational cargo flights to the ISS
    started in 2012 and continue. As of late 2016, it
    is unlikely Boeing and SpaceX will carry NASA
    astronauts to the ISS before December 2018.

28
Dragon Spacecraft - Page 1 of 2
  • Space Exploration Technologies Corporation
    (SpaceX) is an American space transport company
    founded by PayPal co-founder Elon Musk in June
    2002. It has developed the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9,
    both of which are partially reusable launch
    vehicles. SpaceX is also developing the Dragon
    series of spacecraft orbited by Falcon 9
    launchers. SpaceX designs, tests and fabricates
    the majority of their components in-house,
    including the Merlin, Kestrel, and Draco rocket
    engines. SpaceX is based in Hawthorne, CA.
  • On 18 August 2006, NASA announced that SpaceX
    had won a Commercial Orbital Transportation
    Services contract worth 278 million to
    demonstrate cargo delivery to the International
    Space Station (ISS) with a possible option for
    crew transport.
  • In December 2008, NASA announced the selection
    of the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle and Dragon
    spacecraft to resupply the ISS after the Space
    Shuttle retired. The 1.6 billion contract
    represented a minimum of 12 flights.
  • Dragon
  • A free-flying, reusable spacecraft developed by
    SpaceX. Initiated internally by SpaceX in 2005,
    the Dragon spacecraft consists of a pressurized
    capsule and unpressurized trunk used for Earth to
    low Earth orbit transport of pressurized cargo,
    unpressurized cargo, and/or crew members.
  • To ensure a rapid transition from cargo to crew
    capability, the cargo and crew configurations of
    Dragon are almost identical with the exception of
    the crew escape system, the life support system
    and onboard controls that allow the crew to take
    over control from the flight computer when
    needed. This focus on commonality minimizes the
    design effort and simplifies the human rating
    process, allowing systems critical to Dragon crew
    safety and ISS safety to be fully tested on
    unmanned demonstration flights.

29
Dragon Spacecraft - Page 2 of 2
  • Dragon (Continued)
  • For cargo launches, the inside of the spacecraft
    is outfitted with a modular cargo rack system
    designed to accommodate pressurized cargo in
    standard sizes and form factors. For crewed
    launches, the interior will be outfitted with
    crew couches, controls with manual override
    capability and upgraded life-support.
  • Characteristics/capabilities include
  • - Overall length is 20 ft and maximum diameter is
    12.1 ft
  • - Fully autonomous rendezvous with manual
    override capability in crewed configuration
  • - 13,228 lbs payload up-mass to LEO 6,614 lbs
    payload down-mass to Earth
  • - Payload Volume 245 cubic ft pressurized, 490
    cubic ft unpressurized
  • - Supports up to 7 passengers in crew
    configuration
  • - Two-fault tolerant avionics system with
    extensive heritage
  • - Reaction control system with 18 MMH/NTO
    (monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide)
    thrusters, designed and built in-house these
    thrusters are used for both attitude control and
    orbital maneuvering
  • - 2844 lbs of propellant supports a safe mission
    profile from sub-orbital insertion to ISS
    rendezvous to re-entry
  • Integral common berthing mechanism (CBM), with
    LIDS or APAS support, if required
  • - Designed for water landing under parachute for
    ocean recovery
  • - Lifting re-entry for landing precision and
    low-gravity
  • - Ablative, high-performance heat shield and
    sidewall thermal protection

30
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle - Page 1 of 3
  • Falcon 9 - SpaceX is developing a family of
    launch vehicles that will provide light, medium
    and heavy lift capabilities to launch spacecraft
    into any altitude and inclination, from low Earth
    to geosynchronous to planetary missions. Falcon 1
    was the first privately developed liquid fuel
    rocket to achieve Earth orbit. It is a small,
    partially reusable rocket capable of placing 1480
    lbs into low Earth orbit. It also functioned as a
    test bed for developing concepts and components
    for the larger Falcon 9. Like Falcon 1, Falcon 9
    is a two stage, liquid oxygen and rocket grade
    kerosene (RP-1) powered launch vehicle. It is in
    the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)
    class with a 17 ft diameter payload fairing. It
    delivers medium sized payloads into low Earth,
    geosynchronous, or transfer orbits.
  • First Stage - The Falcon 9 tank walls and domes
    are made from aluminum lithium alloy. SpaceX uses
    an all friction stir-welded tank. Like Falcon 1,
    the interstage, which connects the upper and
    lower stage for Falcon 9, is a carbon fiber
    aluminum core composite structure. The separation
    system is a larger version of the pneumatic
    pushers used on Falcon 1.
  • Nine SpaceX Merlin engines power the Falcon 9
    first stage with 125,000 lbs sea level thrust per
    engine for a total thrust on liftoff of just over
    1.1 million lbs. After engine start, Falcon is
    held down until all vehicle systems are verified
    to be functioning normally before release for
    liftoff.
  • SpaceX is developing a privately funded,
    re-useable launch system. Currently, the
    technology is under development for the first
    stages of the Falcon family of rockets.
  • - The first successful controlled landing of an
    orbital rocket first stage on the ocean surface
    was achieved in April 2014.
  • - In January 2015, a test flight attempted to
    land the Flight 5 operational mission returning
    first stage on a floating landing platform.
    Although the booster was guided to the target,
    the landing was unsuccessful.
  • -- SpaceX successfully landed the Falcon 9
    booster on Landing Site 1 at Cape Canaveral Air
    Force Station, FL, and launched 11 Orbcomm
    communication satellites on December 21, 2015.

31
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle - Page 2 of 3
  • Second Stage - The second stage tank of Falcon 9
    is a shorter version of the first stage tank and
    uses most of the same tooling, material and
    manufacturing techniques. This results in
    significant cost savings in vehicle production.
  • - A single Merlin engine powers the Falcon 9
    upper stage with an expansion ratio of 1171 and
    a nominal burn time of 345 seconds. For added
    reliability of restart, the engine has dual
    redundant pyrophoric igniters.
  • - Following a nominal liftoff on June 28, 2015 of
    the Flight 7 operational mission to the
    International Space Station, the Falcon 9 second
    stage experienced an overpressure event in the
    liquid oxygen tank resulting in the loss of the
    mission.
  • -- The event was initiated by a flawed strut
    inside the second stage. The strut will be
    replaced on subsequent upper stages, and
    additional hardware quality audits throughout the
    vehicle have occurred.
  • SpaceX Merlin Engine - The main engine, called
    Merlin, was developed internally at SpaceX, but
    draws upon a long heritage of space proven
    engines. The pintle style injector at the heart
    of Merlin was first used in the Apollo Moon
    program for the lunar module landing engine.
  • - Propellant is fed via a single shaft, dual
    impeller turbo-pump operating on a gas generator
    cycle. The turbo-pump also provides the high
    pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators
    which then recycles into the low pressure inlet.
    This eliminates the need for a separate hydraulic
    power system and means that thrust vector control
    failure by running out of hydraulic fluid is not
    possible. A third use of the turbo-pump is to
    provide roll control by actuating the turbine
    exhaust nozzle (on the second stage engine).

32
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle - Page 3 of 3
  • Characteristics/capabilities include
  • - Length 180 ft, Width 12 ft
  • - Mass (to low Earth orbit, 17.1 ft fairing)
    735,000 lbs
  • - Mass (to geosynchronous transfer orbit, 17.1 ft
    fairing) 733,800 lbs
  • - Thrust (vacuum) 1,110,000 lbs

33
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Page 1 of 3
  • CCDev 1
  • NASA awarded 50 million through funded
    agreements to further the commercial sectors
    capability to support transport of crew to and
    from low Earth orbit. President Obama asked NASA
    to partner with the aerospace industry in a
    fundamentally new way, making commercially
    provided services the primary mode of astronaut
    transportation to the ISS.
  • - Through an open competition for funds from the
    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009,
    NASA awarded Space Act Agreements to the five
    firms. The Space Act Agreements were designed to
    foster entrepreneurial activity leading to
    high-technology job growth in engineering,
    analysis, design and research, and to promote
    economic growth.
  • -- All Space Act Agreements were designed to
    partially fund the development of system
    concepts, key technologies, and capabilities that
    could ultimately be used in commercial crew human
    space transportation systems.
  • -- The selected teams also proposed matching
    funds from other sources that would leverage the
    taxpayer investment.
  • The five companies and how they were expected to
    spend the CCDev 1 investment are
  • 1.) The Sierra Nevada Corporations investment
    (20 M) supports the development of a human-rated
    spacecraft vehicle that is fully reusable,
    pressurized, and capable of transporting humans
    to low Earth orbit and return to Earth along a
    1.5g glide path and land horizontally. Dream
    Chaser had already undergone 6 years of design
    maturity using the Company's internal research
    and development funding and previous NASA
    funding.
  • - SNC has a 45 year tradition of developing and
    providing high technology electronics, avionics,
    and communications systems.

34
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Page 2 of 3
  • CCDev 1 (Continued)
  • 2.) The Boeing Companys investment (18 M)
    accelerated their Commercial Crew Vehicle design
    through Systems Design Review milestone as well
    as conducting technology and manufacturing
    demonstrations. This design was previously
    proposed for the COTS through the Systems
    Requirements Review level.
  • - As part of the Boeing CCDev team, Las
    Vegas-based Bigelow Aerospace provided
    requirements for crew transportation to support
    its planned Orbital Space Complex (orbital
    habitats), as well as additional investment and
    expertise in testing and validating the
    technologies necessary to construct and deploy
    the complex.
  • 3.) Blue Origins investment (3.7 M) supported
    selected risk mitigation activities related to
    the development of 1) a "pusher" launch escape
    system, which increases flight safety and lowers
    operating costs and 2) a composite crew test
    module, which lowers capsule weight and improves
    damage tolerance.
  • - Blue Origin is a privately-funded aerospace
    company organized by Amazon.com founder Jeff
    Bezos. Initially focused on sub-orbital
    spaceflight, the company has built and flown a
    test-bed of its New Shepard spacecraft design at
    their Culberson County, TX facility. Blue Origin
    is developing a sub-orbital space vehicle that
    will take off and land vertically and carry three
    or more astronauts to the edge of space. The
    spacecraft is based on technology that was used
    for the McDonnell Douglas DC-X and derivative
    DC-XA.

35
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Page 3 of 3
  • CCDev 1 (Continued)
  • 4.) Paragon Space Developments investment (1.44
    M) is developing an "Air Revitalization System,"
    a long lead component of the life support
    subsystem which is integral to the development of
    a human-rated life support thermal control
    system.
  • - Paragon Space Development Corporation was
    founded in 1993 by a team of engineers and
    Biosphere 2 crewmembers, Taber MacCallum and Jane
    Poynter. A full-service aerospace engineering and
    technology development firm, Paragon is a major
    supplier of the Environmental Control and Life
    Support System, and subsystem design for the
    aerospace industry.
  • 5.) United Launch Alliances investment (6.7 M)
    supported on-going human-rating studies and
    analyses to develop and demonstrate a Launch
    Vehicle Emergency Detection System that responds
    in real time to dynamically evolving conditions
    and provides reliable indication of an impending
    catastrophic condition.
  • - United Launch Alliance (ULA) is a joint venture
    of Lockheed Martin and Boeing. ULA was formed in
    December 2006 by combining the teams at these
    companies which provide spacecraft launch
    services to the government of the United States.
    Launch customers include both the Department of
    Defense and NASA, as well as other organizations.
    ULA products include the following launch
    vehicles Atlas V, Delta II, and Delta IV.

36
Commercial Crew Development 1 - Blue Origin
  • The New Shepard vehicle will consist of a
    pressurized Crew Capsule (CC) carrying
    experiments and astronauts atop the Propulsion
    Module (PM). Flights will take place from Blue
    Origins own launch site which is already
    operating in West Texas.
  • The PM will take-off vertically and accelerate
    for approximately two and a half minutes before
    shutting off its rocket engines and coasting into
    space.
  • The vehicle will carry rocket motors enabling
    the CC to escape from the PM in the event of a
    serious anomaly during launch.
  • - The CC would then land softly under a parachute
    at the launch site.
  • In space, the CC will separate from the PM and
    the two will re-enter the atmosphere and land
    separately for re-use.
  • - The PM will re-enter vertically re-starting its
    engines for a powered landing while the CC would
    land using a parachute.
  • -- Astronauts and experiments will experience no
    more than 6 g acceleration into their seats and a
    1.5 g lateral acceleration during a typical
    flight.
  • --- High-quality microgravity environments (lt10-3
    g) will be achieved for durations of 3 or more
    minutes depending on the missions trajectory.
  • - A sub-scale demonstration vehicle made its
    first flight on November 13, 2006.
  • If a DC-X type craft had been developed that
    operated in Earth's gravity, even with a minimum
    4-6 crew capacity, variants of it might be used
    for both Mars and moon missions.
  • -- The variant's basic operation would have to be
    reversed from taking off and then landing, to
    landing first then taking off.
  • -- If this could be accomplished on Earth, the
    weaker gravity found at both Mars and the Moon
    would make for dramatically greater payload
    capabilities.

37
Commercial Crew Development 2 - Page 1 of 2
  • CCDev 2
  • NASA awarded approximately 270 million to four
    commercial companies to continue development of
    commercial rockets and spacecraft capable of
    safely flying astronauts into orbit and to the
    International Space Station.
  • - The award was the second phase of the agency's
    Commercial Crew Development effort, known as
    CCDev 2.
  • The selection was based on how far the awards
    would move the companies toward their goals and
    the business plans of each project.
  • - The agency is hoping to save on development and
    operational costs by partnering with the
    commercial industry.
  • As the four companies continue their development
    plans under the agreement guidelines, the next
    step for NASA is to refine the strategy for the
    next round of development.
  • For the second round of agreements, the four
    proposals selected were
  • 1.) Blue Origin It used the 22 M in funds to
    accelerate work toward a full-up end-to-end
    system, including advancing the design of the
    space vehicle completing key system trade
    studies, designing the thermal protection system,
    defining the capsules biconic shape, and
    generating baseline definition architecture and
    system requirements.
  • 2.) Sierra Nevada Corporation The company used
    the 80 M funding to reach preliminary design
    review for the orbital vehicle and attempt to
    atmospheric drop tests the engineering test
    article that has undergone structural testing.
    The power for Dream Chaser is provided by the
    same hybrid propulsion technology used on the
    Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo
    suborbital spaceplanes, with a runway landing
    under the control of a pilot or autopilot.

38
Commercial Crew Development 2 - Page 2 of 2
  • CCDev 2 (Continued)
  • 3.) Space Exploration Technologies SpaceX used
    the 75 M award to speed development of its
    side-mounted pusher-type launch abort system
    including static testing. It also prepared the
    initial Dragon design for crew accommodation and
    evaluation by NASA astronauts.
  • 4.) The Boeing Company Boeing has built a
    CST-100 capsule pressure test article. Machined
    from two pieces of aluminum for strength, the
    article is a pathfinder for the second version
    that was built of lighter-weight 7075 aluminum
    alloy under the 92.3 M CCDev 2 funding. The
    award also included
  • - Evaluation of a lighter-weight engine for its
    pusher-type launch abort system.
  • - Parachute and airbag-inflation systems for
    water landing tests.
  • - Full-scale tests of the pyrotechnics that
    separates the CST-100 capsule from the service
    module prior to re-entry.

39
Commercial Crew Integrated Capability
  • The three Commercial Crew integrated Capability
    (CCiCap) initiative award winners used the
    funding to develop their vehicles to the next
    stage of providing domestic access to the
    International Space Station for U.S. astronauts.
    As of November 2014
  • - Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) with the
    smaller 212.5 M award completed 10 of 13 CCiCap
    milestones.
  • - Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX)
    completed 13 of 18 CCiCap milestones.
  • -- SpaceX received an extra CCiCap milestone to
    be completed by March 2015.
  • - The Boeing Company completed its CCiCap
    milestones.

40
NASA Crew Certification Certification Products
Contract (CPC) - Phase 1
  • The scope of the CPC - Phase 1 contracts
    included submittal and technical disposition of
    specific, early development certification
    products. The CPC effort allowed potential
    providers to better understand and align with
    NASA human spaceflight requirements and gave NASA
    early insight into vehicle designs and
    approaches. The companies submitted requests for
    alternate standards and variances to meeting the
    requirements. The variances, with insufficient
    data, showed NASA the areas that needed to be
    addressed in the design phase.
  • - Sierra Nevada Corporation, Space Exploration
    Technologies and The Boeing Company completed
    their CPC - Phase 1 contracts with NASA in 2014.
  • SpaceX Dragon Version 2 Configuration
  • In May 2014, SpaceX revealed its Dragon Version
    2 capsule. The spacecraft can carry a crew of
    seven astronauts to the International Space
    Station (ISS). A steering joystick and physical
    buttons for critical functions occupy the center
    section of the control panel. The reusable Dragon
    is expected to last up to 10 flights before
    needing significant refurbishment. Solar panels
    are located on the spacecraft trunk section. The
    attached nosecone is opened during docking
    maneuvers with the ISS.
  • - In the first year after contract award, SpaceX
    switched from a ground-based landing to a
    water-based landing.

41
NASA Crew Certification - Page 1 of 2 Commercial
Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) - Phase 2
  • The CCtCap contracts are designed to complete
    the NASA certification for human space
    transportation systems capable of carrying people
    to the ISS. Once certification is complete, NASA
    plans to use these systems to ferry astronauts to
    the ISS and return them safely to Earth.
  • - The contracts include at least one crewed
    flight test per company with at least one NASA
  • astronaut aboard to verify that the fully
    integrated rocket and spacecraft system can
    launch,
  • maneuver in orbit, and dock to the ISS, and
    validate that all its systems perform as
    expected.
  • - Once each companys test program has been
    completed successfully and its system achieves
    NASA certification, each contractor will conduct
    at least two, and as many as six, crewed missions
    to the ISS.
  • -- If all 12 post certification missions are
    flown, these contracts can support the ISS crew
    transportation needs into 2023.
  • -- The SpaceX and Boeing crew vehicles will carry
    four crew members on each mission, which will
    enable the crew complement on the ISS to increase
    from six to seven crew members.
  • -- The spacecraft will also serve as a lifeboat
    for astronauts aboard the ISS.
  • -- NASA also anticipates having a Russian crew
    member on each U.S. commercial crew
    transportation flight and one astronaut will
    continue to fly on Soyuz. This is being done to
    insure that a U.S. and Russian crew member will
    remain on the ISS in any contingency return of a
  • vehicle. This will be accomplished on a no
    exchange of funds basis.

42
NASA Crew Certification - Page 2 of 2 Commercial
Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) - Phase 2
  • As of June 2016, Boeing had completed 15 of the
    34 milestones (44 ) necessary to achieve
    certification and was scheduled to receive up to
    1.067 billion (25 ) of the total contract value
    in payment.
  • - The main causes identified by Boeing for their
    delay to 2018 of the first NASA astronauts
    flight test are
  • -- Supplier development delayed production.
  • -- A production flaw forced scrapping the lower
    dome structure used in the first crewed test
    flight.
  • -- Issues with qualification tests of minor
    components deferred schedules.
  • - Boeing has slipped the pad abort test from
    December 2016 to October 2017.
  • As of June 2016, SpaceX had completed 8 of the
    21 milestones (38 ), five less than planned
    under the original schedule, and received 469
    million (18 ) of the total contract value in
    payment.
  • - SpaceX also has a milestone left over from its
    earlier Commercial Crew Integrated Capability
    contract.
  • -- Milestone 14 specifies that SpaceX conduct an
    in-flight abort test of the Dragon spacecraft.
  • - SpaceX officials attributed their delay to 2018
    because
  • -- Capsule design challenges, specifically
    switching from a design that used a ground-based
    landing to a water-based landing.
  • -- The September 1, 2016 explosion of a Falcon 9
    on the pad at Cape Canaveral, FL during
    preparations for a static-fire test that grounded
    the upgraded Dragon launch vehicle.
  • --- A return to flight of the launch vehicle is
    scheduled for no sooner than January 2017.
  • - SpaceX completed the pad abort test May 6, 2015.
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