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United States Involvement in the Middle East

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Title: United States Involvement in the Middle East


1
United States Involvement in the Middle East
2
Words to Know (Write these vocabulary terms )
  • Iraq
  • Iran-Iraq War
  • Afghanistan
  • Persian Gulf War 1 (Operation Desert Storm)
  • Persian Gulf War 2 (Operation Iraqi Freedom)
  • War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom)
  • Saddam Hussein
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Kuwait
  • Al-Qaeda

3
U.S. Israel Relations
  • Strong American support for Zionism
  • Foreign Aid U.S. supports new nation of Israel
  • Security (Military)
  • Developmental (Economic)
  • Historically supportive relationship with few
    major issues

4
U.S. Iran Relations
  • Today U.S. and Iran do not have direct diplomatic
    relations. Why?
  • Post WWII U.S. interest
  • Shared a long border w/U.S.S.R. (cold war rival)
  • Oil
  • 1953 Mohammed Mossadeq elected Prime Minister
    (Socialist wanted to nationalize oil)
  • U.S./Britain help overthrow coup detat
    (CIA-Ajax)
  • Support establishment of Shah Reza Pahlavi

5
U.S. Iran Relations
  • Shah Pahlavis reign
  • Received much U.S. support
  • Staunch ally through six Presidents (1953-1978)
  • Harsh treatment of citizens
  • Secret police (SAVAK)
  • Torture
  • Iranian Islamic Revolution 1977-Jan. 1979
  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
  • Led revolution from exile in Paris
  • Shah flees Iran (health reasons?)

6
The Iranian hostage crisis
  • Diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United
    States.
  • Islamist students and militants took over the
    American embassy in support of the Iranian
    Revolution. Demanded the U.S. return the Shah to
    face trial
  • 53 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from
    November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981
  • 6 Americans escaped (Argo)

7
  • U.S. President Jimmy Carter
  • Negotiations
  • Military rescue failed
  • Economic Sanctions
  • 1980 Presidential Election Issue
  • Hostage release Jan. 21, 1981
  • Fear of Reagan???
  • Negotiations end economic santions.

8
Iraq History
British Mandate
  • Post WWI British colony

British Backed Monarchy
  • King Faisal chosen by England

Dictatorships
  • 1958 Baath Revolution

9
Baath Party
  • Secular (non-religious) government
  • Uses oil for government projects
  • Hussein begins to eliminate opponents
  • Arrests/Trials
  • Murder
  • Consolidates power 1979 (same time Iranian
    Revolution.

10
Iraq-Iran War
  • Saddam Hussein sees Iranian Revolution as a
    chance to regain Shatt al-Arab. Invades Iran
    September 22, 1980.
  • Sunni (Saddam Hussein) vs Shia (Khomeini) rivalry

11
Iraq-Iran War
  • The Iraqi offensive was initially successful,
    capturing the port city of Khorramshahr by the
    end of 1980.
  • Iranian resistance proved strong, however, and
    Iraqi troops had withdrawn from the occupied
    portions of Iran by early 1982.

12
Iraq-Iran War
  • War stagnates into trench warfare. (like WWI)
  • War of attrition
  • Horrific losses
  • U.S. supports Iraq
  • U.S. secretly helps Iran. (Iran Contra Scandal)

13
Iraq-Iran War
  • Iraq uses chemical weapons
  • Arabs, Soviet Union, Europe support Iraq.
  • Syria, Libya, North Korea, China support Iran.
  • Finally, in July, 1988, Iran accepts United
    Nationsmandated cease-fire
  • Cease fire original borders, nothing gained.
  • LOSS OF LIFE!!!!!!!!!!!

14
Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!)
  • Iraq claimed the land
  • Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (slant
    drilling)
  • owed to other countries for previous Iran-Iraq
    War.
  • Hussein thought no one would stop him

15
Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (slant
drilling)
Iraq claimed the land
  • Draw a 3rd copy of this graphic organizer on the
    right side of your notebook.

Hussein thought no one would stop him
Persian Gulf War
owed to other countries for previous Iran-Iraq
War.
16
Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
  • Why did Saddam invade Kuwait in 1990?

17
1st Persian Gulf War Starts (Operation Desert
Storm)
Iraq invaded Kuwait in August of 1990, under the
direction of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. The
Iraqi army took control of Kuwait in a very short
amount of time. The United nations responded to
the Iraqi invasion by demanding that Iraq
withdraw its troops from Kuwait. The United
nations asked other countries to cut off trade to
Iraq (Embargo) in an attempt to force them to
withdraw, that attempt failed. The United States
and thirty other countries formed a coalition and
began sending military troops into Saudi Arabia
over the next few months.
18
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19
  • The united Nations set a date for Iraq to leave
    Kuwait, Iraq rejected the date and refused to
    leave. The U.S. and their allies began attacking
    Iraq through the use of air power then by a
    ground assault. After a devastating battle
    resulting in many Iraqi deaths, the Iraqis were
    driven out of Kuwait.

20
  • Although the war was a decisive military victory
    for the coalition, Kuwait and Iraq suffered
    enormous property damage, and Saddam Hussein was
    not removed from power. In fact, Hussein was free
    to turn his attention to suppressing internal
    Shiite and Kurd revolts, which the U.S.-led
    coalition did not support, in part because of
    concerns over the possible breakup of Iraq if the
    revolts were successful. Coalition peace terms
    were agreed to by Iraq, but every effort was made
    by the Iraqis to frustrate implementation of the
    terms, particularly UN weapons inspections.

21
Afghanistan
  • On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda attacked two
    targets in the U.S. Al-Qaeda is a group of
    Islamic terrorists that were largely based in
    Afghanistan. They hijacked four airplanes and
    intentionally crashed two of them into the World
    Trade Center in new York. The third plane was
    crashed into the Pentagon in Virginia and the
    fourth crashed in rural Pennsylvania in route to
    its target, the White House in Washington, D.C.
    The terrorist attacks on that day killed nearly
    3,000 people.

22
Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
  • Why did the U.S. invade Afghanistan in 2001?

23
(No Transcript)
24
  • Osama bin Laden was blamed for the attacks, U.S.
    President George Bush called on other countries
    to help wage a war on terrorism to crush
    al-Qaeda. In October 2001, U.S., British, and
    Canadian forces invaded Afghanistan in search of
    bin Laden and to destroy al-Qaeda and their
    allies the Taliban (Operation Enduring Freedom).
    Although bin Laden was never found the grip of
    the Taliban and al-Qaeda on Afghanistan was
    broken. The U.S. let forces still struggle to
    control portions of the country.

25
The Iraq War (Persian Gulf War 2, Operation
Iraqi Freedom)
  • Saddam Hussein was still president of Iraq at the
    time of the Afghanistan invasion. Officials in
    the U.S government feared connections between
    Hussein and al-Qaeda and the allegations that
    Iraq was building Weapons of Mass Destruction
    (WMDs) in the form of Nuclear, Biological, and
    Chemical weapons. The United Nations sent
    inspectors to Iraq to check for WMDs however
    Iraq failed to allow them to complete their
    inspections. In response the U.S. Congress
    passed an Iraq War Resolution that authorized the
    president to go forward with a war in Iraq.

26
  • In march 2003, the U.S. began bombing targets in
    the capital of Baghdad. British, Australian,
    Polish, and American soldiers invaded Iraq and
    defeated the Iraqi army. Saddam Hussein was
    captured, put on trial for crimes against
    humanity by the Iraqis, and later executed.

27
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction were never found in
    Iraq. It is difficult to determine how many
    Iraqis have died since the invasion, but as of
    2007, more than 500,000 Iraqis may have died
    according to one study. Many deaths are due to
    sectarian violence. Over 4,000 American soldiers
    have been killed and over 20,000 have been
    wounded in Iraq thus far.

28
Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
  • 3-2-1
  • List three types of Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Name two wars the U.S. fought against Iraq
  • Name the former dictator of Iraq

29
Why is the U.S. interested in the M.E.?
  • Oil
  • Stop Terrorists
  • Spread democracy

30
Al-Qaeda
  • The group is wanted by the United States for its
    September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade
    Center and the Pentagon, as well as a host of
    lesser attacks. To escape the post-9/11 U.S.-led
    war in Afghanistan, al-Qaedas central leadership
    is believed to have fled eastward into Pakistan,
    securing a safe haven in loosely governed areas
    there.

31
What is al-Qaeda?
  • Al-Qaeda seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it
    sees as the influence of the West and replace
    their governments with fundamentalist Islamic
    regimes. After al-Qaedas September 11, 2001,
    attacks on America, the United States launched a
    war in Afghanistan to destroy al-Qaedas bases
    there and overthrow the Taliban, the countrys
    Muslim fundamentalist rulers who harbored bin
    Laden and his followers.
  • Al-Qaeda is Arabic for The Base.

32
What are al-Qaedas origins?
  • Al-Qaeda grew out of the opposition to the 1979
    Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980s, bin
    Laden and the Palestinian religious scholar
    Abdullah Azzam, recruited, trained, and financed
    thousands of foreign mujahadeen, or holy
    warriors, from more than fifty countries. Bin
    Laden wanted these fighters to continue the "holy
    war" beyond Afghanistan. He formed al-Qaeda
    around 1988.

33
Who are al-Qaedas leaders?
  • At the top was bin Laden. He was killed during a
    US Special Forces raid on May 2. 2011 in
    Pakistan.
  • Ayman al-Zawahiri, the head of Egyptian Islamic
    Jihad, was thought to be bin Laden's top
    lieutenant and al-Qaeda's ideological adviser
    killed by a US drone attack.
  • Abu Yahya al-Libi, a Libyan who was captured by
    Pakistani authorities in 2002 but managed to
    escape from a U.S. prison in Afghanistan in 2005,
    has emerged as the public face of al-Qaeda and
    another top-level leader. Some counterterrorism
    experts consider him a top strategist and a
    theological scholar, arguing that his religious
    scholarship makes him one of the most effective
    promoters of global jihad. This article quotes
    Jarret Brachman, a former analyst for the Central
    Intelligence Agency who is now research director
    of the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
    I think he has become the heir apparent to Osama
    bin Laden in terms of taking over the entire
    global jihadist movement.

34
Who are al-Qaedas leaders?
  • Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, an Egyptian, was an
    original member of al-Qaeda's leadership council
    and had been a trusted adviser to bin Laden for
    more than a decade. He served time in prison in
    the early 1980s with deputy leader al-Zawahiri
    for their role as conspirators in the 1981
    assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.
    He was killed June 1, 2010.
  • Saif al-Adel, an Egyptian, who is believed to be
    under house arrest in Iran along with some other
    top leaders of the organization. He remains one
    of the FBIs most wanted terrorists.
  • Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah, an Egyptian and
    financial officer of al-Qaeda
  • Saad bin Laden, Osama bin Ladens son and
    possible successor, believed killed by a missile
    attack in 2009.
  • Adel and Abdullah are wanted for their role in
    the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya
    and Tanzania, which killed more than 200 people.

35
Who are al-Qaedas leaders?
  • The Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who
    established the Sunni Muslim extremist group
    al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and directed a series of
    deadly terror attacks in Iraqincluding the
    beheadings of kidnapped foreignerswas also
    associated with al-Qaeda. Zarqawi pledged his
    allegiance to bin Laden in October 2004, and bin
    Laden praised Zarqawi as "the prince of al-Qaeda
    in Iraq." Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. air strike
    near Baghdad in 2006.
  • Abu Ayyub al-Masri, one of al-Zawahiris
    disciples since joining the Egyptian Islamic
    Jihad in 1982, succeeded Zarqawi as AQ 1 leader
    until he was killed on April 18th, 2010

36
  • U.S. officials say several top al-Qaeda leaders
    are in their custody. These include a senior
    lieutenant, Abu Zubaydah, who was captured in
    Pakistan in March 2002, and Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi,
    a senior commander in Afghanistan. In March 2003,
    the alleged mastermind of the September 11
    attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and al-Qaeda's
    treasurer, Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi, were also
    captured in Pakistan. They, along with four
    others detained at Guantanamo Bay, were charged
    with murder, terrorism, and violating rules of
    war in February 2008.

37
Who are al-Qaedas leaders?
  • Besides being detained, several senior leaders in
    the network have died or have been killed in the
    U.S.-led war against terrorists.
  • A senior al-Qaeda commander, Muhammad Atef, died
    in the U.S. air strikes in Afghanistan.
  • Media reports said Abu Obaidah al-Masri, a senior
    al-Qaeda leader believed to be involved in the
    2005 London subway and bus bombings and in
    planning attacks in Afghanistan, died of
    hepatitis in Pakistan in April 2008.  
  • In April 2006, Abdul Rahman al-Muhajir and Abu
    Bakr al-Suri, two of al-Qaeda's top bomb makers,
    were killed in Pakistan. 
  • In January 2008, Abu Laith al-Libi, al-Qaedas
    senior military commander and a key link between
    the group and its affiliates in North Africa, was
    killed in Pakistans tribal areas in a secret
    U.S. missile strike.

38
Interactive Notebook Question (left side)
  • What event led Osama bin Laden to form Al-Qaeda
    in 1988?

39
Where does al-Qaeda operate?
  • There is no single headquarters. From 1991 to
    1996, al-Qaeda worked out of Pakistan along the
    Afghan border, or inside Pakistani cities.
    Al-Qaeda has autonomous underground cells in some
    100 countries, including the United States. Law
    enforcement has broken up al-Qaeda cells in the
    United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, France,
    Spain, Germany, Albania, Uganda, and elsewhere.
  • To escape the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan,
    al-Qaedas leadership once again sought refuge in
    Pakistans tribal areas after September 11, 2001.
    Bin Laden, along with some other members of the
    organization, is thought to be hiding in Pakistan
    along the Afghan border.

40
Where does al-Qaeda operate?
41
How big is al-Qaeda?
  • Its impossible to say precisely, because
    al-Qaeda is decentralized. Estimates range from
    several hundred to several thousand members.

42
Is al-Qaeda connected to other terrorist
organizations?
  • Egyptian Islamic Jihad
  • The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group
  • Islamic Army of Aden (Yemen)
  • Jama'at al-Tawhid wal Jihad (Iraq)
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad (Kashmir)
  • Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
  • Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Algeria)
    (formerly Salafist Group for Call and Combat)
  • Armed Islamic Group (Algeria)
  • Abu Sayyaf Group (Malaysia, Philippines)
  • Jemaah Islamiya (Southeast Asia)

43
What major attacks has al-Qaeda been responsible
for?
  • The group has targeted American and other Western
    interests as well as Jewish targets and Muslim
    governments it sees as corrupt or impiousabove
    all, the Saudi monarchy. Al-Qaeda linked attacks
    include
  • The February 2006 attack on the Abqaiq petroleum
    processing facility, the largest such facility in
    the world, in Saudi Arabia.
  • The July 2005 bombings of the London public
    transportation system.
  • The March 2004 bomb attacks on Madrid commuter
    trains, which killed nearly 200 people and left
    more than 1,800 injured.
  • The May 2003 car bomb attacks on three
    residential compounds in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • The November 2002 car bomb attack and a failed
    attempt to shoot down an Israeli jetliner with
    shoulder-fired missiles, both in Mombasa, Kenya.
  • The October 2002 attack on a French tanker off
    the coast of Yemen.
  • Several spring 2002 bombings in Pakistan.
  • The April 2002 explosion of a fuel tanker outside
    a synagogue in Tunisia.
  • The September 11, 2001, hijacking attacks on four
    U.S. airplanes, two of which crashed into the
    World Trade Center, and a third of which crashed
    into the Pentagon.
  • The October 2000 U.S.S. Cole bombing.
  • The August 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in
    Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

44
Bibliography
  • Council for Foreign Relations. http//www.cfr.org/
    publication/9126/
  • Retrieved May 13, 2009
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