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Indian Painting B.A. II


Indian Painting B.A. II Dr. O. P. Parameswaran, Assistant Professor, Department of Fine Arts, Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indian Painting B.A. II

Indian Painting B.A. II
  • Dr. O. P. Parameswaran,
  • Assistant Professor,
  • Department of Fine Arts,
  • Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls,
  • Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Unit-1 History of Indian Painting (BA-3)
  • 2.1 Gita Govida from Kangra (Pahari
    painting), about 1781 A.D

  • Introduction
  • The art of miniature painting that found
    patronage in the Rajput princedoms of the Punjab
    (now Himachal Pradesh) and Garhwal hills came to
    be known as the Pahari School.
  • It developed during the late 17th centuries and
    flourished down to the 19th century.

  • Origin
  • Amid the natural beauty of the Kangra Valley,
    Pahari painting developed into an art of great
    charm and delicacy under the influence of its own
    early tradition as well as refined Guler and
    Mughal styles.
  • In the late 18th century Kangra became the most
    powerful hill state at the time when the
    patronage of painting declined in Guler after
    Govardhan Chands death. During the reign of Raja
    Sansar Chand (1775-1823) the art of miniature
    painting in Kangra was brought to its zenith.

  • Its major flowering is believed to have occurred
    between 1780 and 1805, with a second important
    phase from 1810 to 1823.
  • Sansar Chand ascended the throne at the age of
    10, and soon showed an active interest in

  • The subject matter
  • The subject matter of Kangra miniature shows the
    cult of Krishna. Themes of the paintings were
    selected from Jayadevas Gita Govinda, Ramayana,
    Mahabharata, and Bhagavata Purana, Rashika priya
    of Krishna Das, the Sat Sai of Bihari lal, the
    Baramasa and the Ragamala etc.

  • Like all Indian painting the Kangra style based
    on line. Nowhere, however, are the lines so
    fluid, so refined and deceptively free.
  • By means of thin squirrel-hair brushes they
    succeeded in painting extremely fine line to
    depict rains, jewellery and other details.

  • Though the Kangra artist never mastered the
    complexities of perspective, the richness of
    their varied coloring, their mastery of line and
    sensitive portrayal of nature more than
    compensate for this.
  • Inspired by the experiments in Guler lovely faces
    and graceful forms, gracious poses and gestures,
    a harmonious blending of choice of colors and the
    inclusion of nature in its varied moods- the
    Kangra artists gave eloquent expression to the
    Rajput ideals of beauty.
  • In their paintings music and poetry, romance and
    religion are intertwined.

  • Their fertile output includes two main themes.
    The first records the royal activities and the
    second depicts the finest religious and romantic
    compositions ever painted in India.
  • Above all they created an idealized type of
    feminine beauty- the focal point of all Kangra
  • The most favored pose was a slightly inclined

  • The dress and veil, forming a curve as though
    filled by a gentle breeze, suggest a graceful
    forward movement.
  • The stiff architectural forms mostly of dazzling
    white marble help to emphasis the lithe rhythm of
    the human figures and the delicate colouring of
    their features.

  • A Gita Govinda series comprising more than a
    hundred and forty paintings of which many formed
    part of the Tehri Garhwarl Royal collection,
    exemplifies the mature Kangra style in every way.
  • The Gita Govida celebrating in Sanskrit lyrics
    the ecstatic love of Radha and Krishna was
    generally sung at weddings

  • This series may have been commissioned for Sansar
    Chands marriage around 1781, and have come to
    Tehri Garhwal through his two daughters who
    married Raja Sudersham Shah of Tehri Garhwal in

  • To increase the devotees emotional participation
    in the adventures of their God, the Kangra artist
    transformed lush grows and orchards of their
    country side into the sacred land of Brindavan.
    The river Beas, its emeralds green water laced
    with white foam as it winds along between
    Sujanpur and Alampur, becomes the holy Jamuna.
    Krishna himself resembles handsome Pahari prince
    and Radha a lovely young hill princess, while
    local maidens and villagers were changed into
    idealized gopies and companies of the mischievous
    young god.

  • The theme of the Gita Govinda is based on
    Krishna-Radha. Passionate and intense are the
    visions of the Love of Radha and Krishna passing
    through the phase of fervent longing and
    languishing, pathetic separation and joyous
  • Here the images of Radha-Krishna are depicted
    symbolically. They represent the relation between
    the human body and soul.