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Forest Encyclopedia


Wonders of the Forest ... it thus prevents the rapid runoff of water that can cause erosion and flooding; ... Different insects and micro-organisms live in the forest. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forest Encyclopedia

Forest Encyclopedia Wonders of the
  • Sponsored by
  • the students of 4th grades
  • Slonim gymnasium 1
  • Slonim, Belarus
  • Teacher - Irina Volynets

  • Tanya Benko
  • Kate Dyatlova
  • Kate Sinitsa
  • Kate Risunova
  • Ksenya Sosnovskaya
  • German Deshko
  • Diana Alisevich
  • Dasha Belevich
  • Kate Skobeiko
  • Slava Tsydik
  • Vanya Volynets

Special gratitude to
3-5 graders Greenacres School , USA
TEACHERS Christine Kolstoe Kelly Kerani, Gina
Fosco, Kate Marshall
Forests pages 3-8
  • Forests in Belarus
  • Slonim gymnasium 1, Slonim, Belarus
  • Pages 11 33
  • One way or another to be clean
  • Greenacres School, Scarsdale, NY, USA
  • Pages 34 -36
  • The Temporate Rainforest in
    Washington State
  • Lynnwood Elementary, Lynnwood, WA, the USA
  • Pages 37 44
  • Forests in Nebraska,
  • St. Stephen the Martyr School
  • Omaha, Nebraska, USA

  • A forest is a large area of land covered
    with trees. But a forest is much more than just
    trees. It also includes smaller plants, such as
    mosses, shrubs, and wild flowers. In addition,
    many kinds of birds, insects, and other animals
    make their home in the forest. Millions upon
    millions of living things that can only be seen
    under a microscope also live in the forest.

Forests cover 30 of the earths surface
Forests are of a great importance for us
  • Forests help conserve and enrich the
    environment in several ways
  • Forest soil soaks up large amounts of rainfall,
    it thus prevents the rapid runoff of water that
    can cause erosion and flooding
  • Forest plants help renew the atmosphere
  • Forests provide a home for many plants and
    animals that can live nowhere else.

  • Forests can be called lungs of our
    planet. They remove carbon dioxide from the air
    and produce oxygen, e. g. One hectare of pine
    wood takes 12 tons of carbon dioxide and produces
    10 tons of oxygen annually though one hectare of
    fir wood 22,3 and 18,9. People and nearly all
    other living beings require oxygen. If green
    plants didnt continuously renew the oxygen
    supply, almost all life would soon stop. And if
    carbon dioxide built up in the atmosphere, it
    could severely alter the earths climate.

  • The natural beauty and peace of the forest
    offer a special source of enjoyment. In our
    country, huge forestlands have been set aside for
    people s enjoyment. Many people use these
    forests for such activities as camping, hiking,
    and hunting. Others visit them simply to enjoy
    the scenery and to relax in the quiet beauty.

Forests have a profound influence on our health
  • Forests produce a lot of phitoncides -
    volatile substances that have bactericidal
    qualities - they can kill pathogenic microbes.
    They have a wholesome influence on neural system,
    improve substances exchange and stimulate heart
    activity. The phitoncides of Poplar buds, some
    kinds of apples-kill viruses of influenza. A
    branch of a fir which is brought in the room,
    reduces microbes in the air by 10 times. The
    leaves of an oak destroy bacteria of dysentery
    and abdominal typhus .

Forests in Belarus
One third of Belarus is covered with forests
62673 ha
A Belarusian forest is great and mysterious. It
can never be dull or monotonous. Each path
leading deep in the woods brings you to a green
temple full of wonders, rain-washed and
sun-heated, smelling of conifers, flowers and
herbs to a fascinating world of mysteries,
wonders and new discoveries.
Forest ecosystems are characterized by exclusive
high biodiversity. The flora consists of around
111 different types of trees. About twelve
thousand species of plants and mushrooms can be
found in these forests. Mainly fir and pine wood
trees form these dense forests. There are
thirteen types of pine woods and 12 types of fir
woods available here. In Belarus forests, 28
types of trees as well as around 70 types of
shrubberies can be found.
The Pine
  • A pine is any of a large group of
    evergreen trees that have needlike leaves and
    bear cones. There are about 100 species of pines.
    Almost all of them grow naturally only in the
    Northern Hemisphere. Pines are found in a wide
    range of environments, but they most often grow
    in sandy or rocky soils. They are especially
    common in the mountains of western and
    southeastern North America, southern Europe, and
    southeastern Asia. Some pines reach heights of
    about 60 meters. Others are small and shrublike.
  • Pines belong to a group of plants called
    conifers. All conifers reproduce by means of
    cones that produce pollen and seeds. A pine
    differs from other conifers in the way its leaves
    grow. Nearly all pines have needles that grow in
    bundles of two, three, or five each. The leaves
    of other conifers grow in larger bundles or do
    not form bundles.
  • Pine rank as the worlds most
    important source of timber. Most pines grow
    rapidly and form straight, tall trunks that are
    ideal for timber. Some pines produce resin, a
    substance used to make such products as
    turpentine, paint, and soap. The wood of many
    pine species makes excellent pulp for the
    manufacture of paper. Pines are also grown as
    shade trees. Some people use sometimes pines as
    Christmas trees.

The Birch
Scientific classification. Birches belong to the
birch family Betulaceae. Birch is the name of a
group of about 40 slender trees and shrubs that
grow in parts of Europe, northern Asia and North
America. They have a thin bark that peels in
horizontal layers. Some birches have bark that
separates into sheets almost like paper. Birches
produce long catkins (scaly spikes), which
contain tiny flowers. Birch trees may grow in
pairs and in clusters. Their leaves grow
alternately on the twig, and are generally bright
green, turning yellow in autumn. The birch is a
tall, graceful tree with delicate branches. The
slender trunk of the birch has thin peeling
bark. Silver birch grows in the country where I
live. Silver birch is a graceful Old World
species. It is easily recognized by its papery,
peeling, black-and-white bark and the ragged base
to the trunk. The brunches of the silver birch
usually droop at the tips (hence the Latin name
pendula, which means hanging). Silver birch grows
mainly on sandy and gravelly soils. In Belarus
the sap from a variety of silver birch called
weeping birch is used in spring to make syrup.
The Oak
  • Scientific classification. Oaks
    belong to the beech family, Fagaceae, and make up
    the genus Quercus.
  • Oak is any of a large variety of trees or
    shrubs that bear acorns. There are more than 600
    species of oaks. Nearly all of them grow
    naturally in the Northern Hemisphere only.
  • Oaks vary in size and the way they grow.
    Some oaks never become taller than shrubs. Other
    reach height of more than 30 metres. Many oaks
    that grow in warm climates do not lose their
    leaves in autumn. But most oaks found in regions
    with cold winters are deciduous- that is, they
    shed their leaves each autumn. The leaves of many
    deciduous oaks turn beautiful colours, such as
    deep red and golden brown in early autumn. In
    spring oaks produce small, yellowish-green
    flowers. Once fertilized, a female flower will
    become an acorn. The acorn is the fruit of the
    oak. Acorns vary in length from less than 13
    millimetres to more than 50 millimetres.
  • Oaks grow slowly and usually do not bear
    acorns until they are about 20 years old. But
    these trees live a long time. Most oaks live for
    200 to 400 years.
  • Oaks are an important source of timber.
    Oak wood is heavy, hard and strong and it has a
    beautiful grain. Manufactures use it for
    furniture, barrels, boats, and railway sleepers.
    Many of the once extensive oak woods of Europe
    were destroyed long ago to provide timber for
    boat building and house construction. Cork comes
    from the bark of some oak species. Acorns are an
    important source of food for wildlife. In some
    countries pigs and poultry are fed on acorns.
  • Several kinds of oaks are used to
    provide fannin for curing leather and for making
    blue-black ink. Tannin is found in the bark of
    oak trees but it is also concentrated in galls.
    Cortex Quercus is used as medicine for diarrhoea,
    pulmonary tuberculosis, women s diseases, and
    eczema, for strengthening teeth and gaggling a

Forests offer a diverse set of habitats for
different plants mushrooms, flowers, berries,
herbs and bushes

The Fauna of Belarus is noted for its diversity.
Around 464 species of invertebrates and more than
thirty thousand vertebrates make the fauna of
Belarus. About 60 species of fish and 305 species
of birds are present here. About six classes of
mammals represent the mammal family in Belarus.
Elks, wild boars, deer, roe deer, wolves, hares,
beavers, and wolves are mostly found in the
The Hare
  • Hares are very
    fast-moving. The
  • European brown
    hare (Lepus europaeus) can run at speeds of up to
    72 km/h (45 mph). They live solitarily or in
    pairs, while a "drove" is the collective noun for
    a group of hares. Their bodies are capable of
    absorbing the g-force produced while running at
    extreme speeds or while escaping predators. Hares
    live in simple nests
  • above the ground, and usually
  • do not live in groups. Hares are
  • generally larger than rabbits,
  • with longer ears, and have black
  • markings on their fur

The Hedgehog
  • The hedgehog is the name of a dozen
    species of small, mainly nocturnal mammals that
    have a thick prickly coat.
  • Hedgehogs hunt for food at night. They eat
    insects slugs, worms, small mammals, snakes,
    birds, and birds eggs. When cold weather comes,
    hedgehogs settle down to hibernate.
  • The common European hedgehog is about 25
    centimeters long. It has short ears and legs, a
    short tail and a long nose. Stiff, needlelike
    growths called spines cover its back and protect
    the animal from its enemies. When it is in
    danger, the hedgehog rolls itself into a ball. It
    builds a nest of grass and dead leaves. The young
    are born with the spines beneath the skin to
    avoid damaging the mother. The European hedgehog
    has been introduced into New Zealand.
  • Long-eared hedgehogs and the desert
    hedgehogs of Africa and Asia dig out burrows
    where they nest during the heat of the day.

The Wolf
  • The wolf is one of the largest members
    of the dog family . Wolves are expert hunters
    and prey chiefly on large hoofed animals, such as
    caribou, deer, elk and moose. Many people are
    afraid of wolves. They believe wolves attack
    human beings, and the animals eerie howl
    frightens them. But wolves avoid people as much
    as possible.
  • Wolves look much like German shepherd
    dogs. But a wolf has longer legs, bigger feet, a
    wider head, and a long bushy tail. Most adult
    male wolves weigh from 35 to 55 kilograms. They
    measure from 1.5 to 2 meters long, including
    the tail, and are about 75 centimeters tall at
    the shoulder. Female wolves are smaller.
  • A wolf has excellent vision, a keen sense
    of smell, and fine hearing.
  • Wolves eat almost any animal they can
    catch. Many of animals they hunt, such as caribou
    and elk are faster and stronger then wolves.

The Roe deer
  • The Roe deer is the smallest and the most
    widespread from all European deer. It is
    widespread in Western Europe, from the
    Mediterranean to Scandinavia, and from the
    British Isles to the Caucasus.
  • It is relatively small, reddish and
    grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold
    environments. The weight of a big male is about
    27 kg. It has rather short, erect antlers and a
    reddish body with a grey face. Its hide is golden
    red in summer, darkening to brown or even black
    in winter, with lighter undersides and a white
    rump patch the tail is very short and barely
  • The Roe Deer is primarily crepuscular, or
    primarily active during the twilight, very quick
    and graceful, lives in woods although it may
    venture into grasslands and sparse forests. It
    feeds mainly on grass, leaves, berries and young
    shoots. It particularly likes very young, tender
    grass with a high moisture content, i.e., grass
    that has received rain the day before.

The Lynx
  • A lynx is a medium-sized wild cat. It's brown
    and has a lot of dark brown spots on its fur.
    Lynx have short tails and characteristic tufts of
    black hair on the tip of their ears(we call them
    brushes as they look like brushes).They have a
    ruff under the neck, which has black bars),
    resembling a bow tie. They have large padded paws
    for walking on snow, and long whiskers on the
    face. Lynx live in forests where there are a lot
    of shrubs, reeds, and tall grass. They hunt on
    the ground, but they can climb trees and can swim
    swiftly, catching fish. People have killed many
    lynx and now this animal is included in our Red
    Book. Hunting lynx is forbidden.

These species of birds inhabit our forests
The Woodpecker
  • Woodpeckers live in forests or woodland
    habitats. They possess predominantly white,black
    and brown, green and red plumage and exhibit
    patches of red and yellow on their heads and
    bellies. They have strong bills for drilling and
    drumming on trees and long sticky tongues for
    extracting food. They eat mainly insects and
    their grubs taken from living and dead trees, and
    other arthropods, along with fruit from live
    trees, nuts and sap both from live trees. Their
    role ecologically is thereby keeping trees
    healthy by keeping them from suffering mass

The Bullfinch
  • A bullfinch is a small, stout-billed
    songbird found in Europe and Asia. Its short,
    thick, bulging bill makes it look a little like a
    bull. It is slightly larger than a sparrow. The
    male has a blue-grey back, rosy-red breast, and a
    black beak, crown, wings, and tail. Bullfinches
    feed on berries, seeds, and the buds of shrubs
    and trees. They can cause a great deal of damage
    to fruit trees and flowering shrubs.
  • The nest is a distinctive structure with a
    framework of twigs, moss and lichen lined with
    small roots.
  • The bullfinch has a soft, piping call,
    which is repeated at intervals.

Ducks and Swans
Different insects and micro-organisms live in the
Endangered species
  • The Belarus Red Book was created to
    protect rare and vanishing species of plants and
    animals.  Currently protected and recorded within
    the Red Book are 17 mammal species, 72 bird
    species, 4 amphibian species, 10 types of fish,
    72 types of insects

Forests are in danger nowadays.
  • Every 45 minutes a hectare of the worlds forests
    is destroyed forever.

We are responsible for our planet
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Forests in Nebraska
St. Stephen the Martyr School
Omaha, Nebraska,USA
  • Here are the questions these students
  • What kind of forests are in Nebraska?
  • What animals live in these forests?
  • What plants grown in these forests?
  • Are there endangered animals in Nebraska?
  • What can we do to save forests in general?

  • 1. We have a forest called the Nebraska national
    forest. It is 142,000 acres long. It is the
    biggest forest in Nebraska. The rest of Nebraska
    is mostly a grass land and marsh type of land
  • 2. A lot of animals live in forests. Usually
    foxes, birds, etc. Our state bird sometimes lives
    in the big forests or in grasslands. It is the
    Western meadowlark .
  • 3. Flowers are a big thing in Nebraska. We have
    flowers like sunflowers. We also can grow crops
    like corn in grasslands.
  • 4. Yes there are many endangered species in
    Nebraska. One of the species is buffalo. They
    live on the west part of Nebraska. They are
    mostly raised like cattle, not just in the wild.
  • 5. We save forests by cleaning. We need to save
    forests for paper and trees and wild life. Also
    stopping wild fires in forests.

  • 1. We dont have a lot of forests but these are
    some of the native trees in Nebraska, Ponderosa
    Pine, and Eastern Cottonwood, Common Hackberry,
    Black Walnut, Bur Oak.
  • 2. Some animals that live in Nebraska are
    butterflies, rabbits, squirrels, eagles, geese,
    turkeys, and deer.
  • 3. Some plants that live in Nebraska are grass,
    corn, soybeans, green beans, wheat, and trees.
  • 4. Some endangered animals are beetle, crane,
    curlew, bald eagle, ferret, plover, shiner,
    sturgeon, and a tern.
  • 5. Some ways to save the environment is to pick
    up trash, dont pollute.

  • The types of trees in Nebraska are Coniferous and
  • The animals that live in Nebraska are unique
    because we have a lot of bunnies, butterflies,
    deer, fish, ducks, birds, and farm animals.
    Sometimes we hunt animals for food.
  • The plants that grow in Nebraska are a Goldenrod
    which is our state plant. There are prickly pear
    plants which is a pear growing on a cactus. We
    have a lot of grass so we have a lot of farming.
    And then Sun Flowers that grow naturally.
  • An animal that lives in Nebraska that is
    endangered is a Black Footed Ferret. Another one
    is a swift fox. Or an Eskimo Curlew that is a
  • Nebraska can stop polluting and stop smoking. We
    can also stop hunting animals and stop cutting
    down trees and polluting the air.

  • In Nebraska we have Elm, Ash, Hardwoods,
    Ponderosa Pine, Oaks, Eastern Red cedar,
    Hardwood, Cottonwood, Willow, and Ag-forest
    planting forests. Some are located by lakes like
    the Zorinsky Lake. Others are located in some
    other places around other lakes and areas. Most
    forests are located in central and western
    Nebraska. There are some National forests here,
  • Animals that live there include a bald eagle. It
    also includes sometimes a black bear. Theres
    also the white-tailed deer.
  • Plants that grow there include Elm and Maple
    trees. It also includes the Pecan tree.
  • Animals that are endangered in our forests
    include the whooping crane. It also includes the
    American buying beetle. I only listed some of the
    endangered animals in our forests. There arent
    very many endangered animals in our forests.
  • To save forests we should not litter. We can also
    donate money to save them.

  • One of the forests in Nebraska is Nebraska
    National Forest. It is a United States National
    Forest. Another forest in Nebraska is Samuel R.
    McKelvie National Forest. It is located in the
    north-central Sandhills.
  • The animals that live there are the black-footed
    ferret. There is also a prairie dog. There are
    also many more. All the animals in Nebraska
    forests are wild. The black-footed ferret is
    considered the most endangered animal in North
  • The plants that grow in Nebraska forests are
    grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees. Many plants
    grow there. These plants though are most common
    in Nebraska forests.
  • One of the endangered animals is the black-footed
    ferret. Like I mentioned before they are the most
    endangered animal in North America. These animals
    are have the widest range of any endangered
  • To save the forests you can collect money and
    give it to a forest in Nebraska. We can also go
    to someone who works at a forest in Nebraska and
    ask them what you can do. There are many ways you
    can save the forests.

  • In Nebraska there are forests having lots
    of trees and plants. The trees are pretty tall
    with lots of leaves in the spring. There are
    different trees in our forests. We have no
    mountains in our forests. It is kind of flat
    with hills. We have a lot of birds like robins,
    eagles, hawks and other many birds. The most
    common snakes we have in our forests are Gardner
    snakes. We also have a lot of squirrels that live
    in our forests. There are also a lot of deer and
    turkey. Some plants in our forest are trees like
    maple trees, and a lot more. We have flowers like
    mums . There are also different types of grass.
    There are endangered animals in Nebraska. Some
    animals that are endangered are prairie dogs and
    black footed ferrets. We cannot cut down so many
    trees . We could save forests by not putting
    harmful toxins into the forests. We could also
    save forests by preventing wild fires.

  • Here are the kinds of forest we have in Nebraska,
    there are no original trees but Nebraskans though
    trees where important so they made a national
    forest where they planted trees.
  • The kinds of animals we have here are squirrels,
    deer, birds, frogs, crane, bison, and cats.
  • The plants that grow here are the goldenrod,
    sunflower, American bellflower, common boneset,
    narrow-leaf coneflower ,and Virginia strawberry.
  • The endangered animals we have in Nebraska are
    eagle, crane, beetle, ferret, curlew, and plover.
  • The things we can do to save forest are using
    less paper, planting more trees, not littering,
    and not cutting down trees.

  • There arent many natural forests in
    Nebraska. The animals that live here are deer,
    foxes, turtles, and moose and all the animals at
    the zoo like tigers, bears and farm animals.
    They live in trees or at the zoo. The plants
    that grow here need a lot of water. Dont burn
    down trees or recycle and do not us as much
    paper. Pick up litter on the street. Do not
    pollute. Find new ideas to help the
    environment. Do not take as long as showers or
    dont let the water run when you are brushing
    your teeth. Join a club to help keep the earth
    clean. Clean up trash at the beach if you live
    by one.