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Western Civilization I HIS-101

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Title: Western Civilization I HIS-101


1
Western Civilization IHIS-101
  • Unit 8 Early Middle Ages, 750-1000

2
End of Late Antiquity
  • Byzantium Greek
  • Greek-speaking
  • Combined Roman imperial and bureaucratic
    traditions with intense pursuit of Christian
    faith
  • Islam Arabic
  • The Roman ideal of expansion and cultural and
    religious assimilation
  • Hellenistic philosophical and scientific
    interests
  • Persian literary and artistic culture
  • Western Europe Latin
  • Latin Speaking
  • Germanic, Celtic, and Latin cultural influences
  • Roman ideals of empire

3
Byzantium in the 7th Century
  • With Justinians death, the empire faced numerous
    issues
  • Empty treasury due to wars
  • Too much territory to protect
  • Smaller population from the plague
  • Renewed threats along the frontier
  • Creation of the theme
  • A new administrative unit which placed control of
    both the military and civilian populations in one
    person
  • Led to increased militarization of the empire
  • Helped strengthen the empire from new threats

4
Byzantium in the 7th Century
  • Threat of Islam
  • Most serious challenge to the empire
  • Unified Arab tribes attempted to take control of
    the empire including Constantinople
  • City was able to defend itself through the use of
    Greek Fire
  • Still remained struggles between the two in
    southern Asia Minor
  • The Bulgars
  • Asiatic people who settled in the Balkans
  • In 679, defeated imperial forces and created a
    new Bulgarian kingdom in the lower Danube River
    valley

5
Byzantium in the 8th Century
  • By the 8th century, Byzantium only controlled the
    eastern Balkans and Asia Minor
  • By this point, it had developed a unique
    character, separating it more clearly from the
    west
  • Development as a Greek state
  • Latin fell into disuse after Justinians reign
  • His Body of Civil Law was the last thing
    published in Latin
  • Greek became the official language
  • Development of a Christian state
  • Tied in with the government was a strong
    foundation in Christianity
  • Almost all of its citizens were devoutly Christian

6
Byzantium in the 8th Century
  • Permanent war economy
  • State retained control through regulation of
    economy
  • Necessary due to the need for a large army
  • Pushed agricultural and industrial production for
    the necessary funds
  • State took control of trade of grain and silk
  • Role of the Emperor
  • Believed to have been chosen by God
  • Were absolute rulers
  • As they appointed the patriarch, they also exuded
    control over the church

7
  • Mosaic inside the Hagia Sophia

8
Byzantine Religion
  • The Byzantine Empire was characterized by
    religious orthodoxy
  • There were numerous disputes over proper wording
    of religious creeds
  • Emperor played an active role in doctrinal
    disputes
  • First Iconoclastic Controversy (730-787)
  • Iconoclasts wanted to prohibit the veneration of
    icons
  • To them, it resembled idolatry and paganism
  • Also believed that because Christ was divine, he
    should not be portrayed in art
  • Traditionalist argued it was not the images that
    were worshipped by the what they represented

9
Byzantine Religion
  • Emperor Leo III (717741)
  • Supported Iconoclasm and made it official policy
    of the church
  • Ordered the removal and destruction of all images
  • When the Patriarch refused to comply, Leo
    replaced him
  • Constantine IV (741-775)
  • Also a strong supporter of Iconoclasm
  • Heavily persecuted those who did not follow his
    rulings, including monks
  • Seventh Ecumenical Council at Nicaea (787)
  • Instigated by Irene, regent to her son Leo IV
  • Brought a temporary end to Iconoclasm

10
Byzantine Religion
  • Second Iconoclastic Controversy (814-842)
  • Instituted by Emperor Leo V
  • Did not end until Theodora, regent to Michael
    III, reinstated images in 842
  • Consequences
  • Much religious art destroyed as a result of the
    Controversy
  • Opened a serious breach between East and West as
    the popes were against Iconoclasm
  • Defeat of Iconoclasm led to renewed emphasis on
    Orthodox faith as key to political unity
  • Focusing on tradition led to fewer religious
    conflicts and a stronger fear of heresy

11
  • Triumph of Orthodoxy
  • Theodora and Michael celebrating the end to
    Iconoclasm

12
Rise of Islam
  • Born in the desert of Arabia
  • Early Arabian religions were polytheistic
  • There was the belief in one supreme God (Allah)
    who ruled over the other gods
  • Kabah
  • Allah was symbolized by the Black Stone which was
    enshrined in the Kabah in Mecca
  • Quraish tribe
  • Dominant tribe of Mecca
  • Controlled the Kabah and the economic life of
    Mecca
  • It was also the tribe Muhammad was born into

13
Muhammad (c. 570-632)
  • Muhammad (c. 570-632)
  • Born at Mecca to a merchant family but was
    orphaned at the age of 5
  • Became a caravan manager
  • Married his employer at the age of 25
  • Religious experience
  • In 610, the angel Gabriel appeared to him
  • Told him that there was no god but Allah
  • Muhammad becomes an uncompromising monotheist
  • Believed that Allah had already revealed himself
    to both Moses and Jesus
  • Called to be the Prophet

14
Muhammad (c. 570-632)
  • Muhammad wanted to convince people that his
    revelations were true
  • Some thought he was insane
  • Others thought he would upset the social and
    political order
  • The Quraish may have been fearful of how this
    would affect the Kabah and the commerce of the
    city
  • Hijrah of 622
  • Muhammad and his followers were invited to
    Yathrib
  • Organized the first Muslim community there
  • Believed there was no separation between
    religious and political authority
  • City was remained Medina (city of the Prophet)
  • Marks the beginning of the Islamic era (year 1)

15
Muhammad (c. 570-632)
  • Conquering of Mecca
  • Muhammad put together a sizable military force
  • Started raids on Quraish caravans
  • Finally captures Mecca in 630 and the Quraish
    submit to Islam
  • Farewell Pilgrimage (632)
  • Muhammads final pilgrimage to Mecca
  • Accompanied by tens of thousands of followers
  • Laid the foundation for the Hajj
  • Muhammad died on June 8, 632
  • Did not stop the spread of his teachings
  • Spread throughout the Arab world in a short
    period of time
  • Helped to united Arab society both politically
    and religiously

16
Religious Teachings of Islam
  • Term islam means submission to the will of
    Allah
  • Allah the Creator God Almighty
  • Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet
  • Men and women must surrender themselves to Allah
  • Qur'an
  • Book containing Gods revelations to Muhammad
  • Basic message there is no God but Allah and
    Muhammad is his Prophet
  • 114 chapters
  • Serves as Muslim code of ethics and law

17
Religious Teachings of Islam
  • Five Pillars of Islam
  • Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his Prophet
  • Standard prayer five times a day and public
    prayer on Friday
  • Observance of the holy month of Ramadan with
    fasting from dawn to sunset
  • Making a pilgrimage to Mecca in ones lifetime
  • Giving alms to the poor
  • Islam, Christianity and Judaism
  • Jesus was a prophet but was not the son of God
  • Strict monotheism
  • Old and New Testament as divinely inspired
  • Islam as a way of life no sacraments or clergy

18
Islamic Conquests
  • Abu-Bakr (c. 573-634)
  • Was Muhammads father-in-law who succeeded him
  • The caliph (deputy of the Prophet)
  • Led a military campaign against those who
    followed Muhammad but would not follow Abu-Bakr
  • Successors continued on to expand throughout the
    Middle East and into north Africa and Spain
  • Explanations
  • Search for territory and booty
  • Weakness of their neighbors
  • Did not demand conversions
  • Muslims preferred to old rulers

19
  • Expansion of Islam After Muhammad

20
The Shiite-Sunni Schism
  • Caliph Uthman replaces Umar in 644
  • A weak ruler
  • Belonged to the wealthy Umayyad family who
    initially rejected Muhammad
  • Murdered in 656 by mutineers
  • Opponents rally around Ali
  • Was Muhammads cousin and son-in-law
  • Murdered and Uthmans party emerged triumphant
  • The Sunnis
  • Accepted religious customs set forth by Abu-Bakr
    and Umar as binding (sunna)
  • Also accepted Uthman as the legitimate heir to
    Muhammad

21
The Shiite-Sunni Schism
  • The Shiites
  • Insisted that only descendants of Ali and Fatimah
    (his wife) could rule the Muslim community (the
    umma)
  • Did not accept binding religious customs
  • Minority religious party

22
  • Great Umayyad Mosque at Damascus

23
Umayyads and Abbasids
  • Umayyad Dynasty (661-750)
  • Were looking towards the west for expansion
  • Capital at Damascus
  • Sort of a Byzantine successor state
  • Goal was to conquer Constantinople
  • Failed attack in 717 weakened the rulers
  • After 750, Umayyad dynasty rules only in Spain
  • Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258)
  • More eastern focused
  • Rule stressed Persian elements rather than
    Byzantine
  • New capital was built at Baghdad

24
Islam in the 9th and 10th Centuries
  • Faced numerous problems
  • Impoverishment of economic base
  • Due to ecological crises in the Tigris-Euphrates
    basin
  • Because of this, tax revenues declined
  • Unable to support civil service or mercenary army
  • Religious division between Sunnis and Shiites,
    and between the different Shiite factions
  • Umayyad Spain succumbs to Christian pressure by
    the 9th and 10th centuries
  • Christian conquest of Spain complete by the
    mid-13th century

25
  • Europe c. 650

26
Instability in the Early Middle Ages
  • Prior to 650, the economy of the west was strong
  • Gold coinage was still being used
  • Trade was strong, including luxuary goods
  • By 650, economic stability broke down
  • Causes in Byzantium
  • Justinian's effort to reconquer the West
  • Excessive Byzantine taxation of agricultural
    lands
  • This hurt the peasantry the most
  • Islamic piracy

27
Instability in the Early Middle Ages
  • Causes in western Europe
  • Urban life declined as more people moved out to
    the countryside
  • Land passed out of cultivation
  • Coinage system broke down
  • Two-tier economy (wealthy using coins, poor
    bartering)
  • Political instability
  • Incessant wars between kings and lords
  • Inability to regulate royal succession
  • Rivalries

28
  • Coronation of Charlemagne (800)

29
The Carolingians
  • Rise of the Carolingians
  • Worked to depose the Merovingian dynasty from
    Frankish lands in the 8th century
  • Pepin the Short (751-768)
  • Son of Charles Martel
  • Was appointed king by Frankish nobility
  • Also was anointed by Pope Stephen II
  • First king to be anointed, setting a new
    precedent
  • Went to war against the Lombards
  • Donated the land gained to the pope, helping to
    further develop the Papal States

30
Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Charles the Great Carolus magnus
  • Son of Pepin the Short
  • Was a warrior king who was also well educated
  • Expansion of the Empire
  • United the Frankish Kingdom through armed
    expeditions
  • Went on a total of 54 military campaigns
    throughout Spain, Italy, and Germany
  • In 773, took control of Italy from the Lombards
  • In 788, defeated the Bavarians
  • Wiped the Avars in the Danube River Valley from
    existence

31
Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Turned his attention south towards Spain
  • Began fighting in northern Spain in 778
  • Was defeated by the Basques
  • In 795, established the Spanish March just south
    of the Pyrenees as a defensive border against the
    Muslims
  • Campaigns into German
  • Fought against the Saxons between the Elbe River
    and North Sea in northern Germany
  • In 804, defeated them after 18 campaigns
  • At its peak, the empire covered most of western
    and central Europe
  • Europe will not see another empire of this size
    until Napoleon

32
  • Charlemagnes Empire

33
Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Governing the Empire
  • There was no system of public taxation
  • Depended upon the royal estates to provide
    necessary resources (food and goods)
  • Gave loyal nobles lifetime holdings
  • Count
  • These were kings chief representatives in local
    areas
  • Descended from the similar position under
    Merovingians
  • Included margraves (mark graf) in the border
    regions
  • Were a threat to Charlemagne as they had
    extraordinary power in their local districts

34
Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Charlemagne wanted to limit the powers of the
    counts
  • Moved them to serve outside their own family
    lands
  • Periodically rotated them to new regions
  • Made the offices appointive rather than
    hereditary
  • Missi dominci Messengers of the King
  • One lay nobility and one church official
  • Travel to local districts to keep an eye on the
    counts
  • Difficulties of governing
  • Large distances made it difficult to exercise
    supervision over local affairs
  • Depended upon a loyal and powerful local lord
  • Meant that the king had to be more powerful than
    the lords

35
Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Other reforms
  • Military reforms included the use of new siege
    technology and new military tactics
  • Continued the use of the cavalry revolution
    started by Charles Martel
  • New coinage system using livre, sous, and deniers
    (1 livre 20 sous 1 sous 12 deniers)
  • Carolingian Renaissance with advancements in art,
    literature, and scholarship
  • Development of the Carolingian minuscule as a
    writing standard

36
  • Example of Carolingian minuscule
  • (c. 1125-1130)

37
Charlemagne and the Catholic Church
  • Hierarchy of the Catholic Church disintegrated
    over the course of the 7th century
  • Many positions were unfilled
  • Others were filled with unqualified relatives of
    the royal families
  • Charlemagne took up the cause of church reform
  • Appointed qualified officials to church positions
    and created new ones
  • Made sure clergy followed their superior and
    executed their duties
  • Gained support from the church for his efforts

38
Charlemagne and the Catholic Church
  • Pope Leo III (795-816)
  • Had been strongly disliked by Roman nobility
  • Faction led by the nephew of the previous pope
    charged him with misconduct, perjury, and
    adultery
  • In April 799, was attacked by a gang who
    attempted to gouge his eyes out and cut off his
    tongue
  • Fled to the safety of Charlemagnes court
  • Charlemagne provided an armed escort for Leos
    return
  • The assailants were arrested and charged
  • However, Charlemagne had to come down with troops
    in Fall 800 to secure the popes position

39
Charlemagne and the Catholic Church
  • Charlemagne as Emperor
  • Was crowned as Emperor of the Romans by Pope
    Leo III after mass on December 25, 800
  • Historians are unsure if he knew in advance that
    this was going to happen
  • Accepted the title as it put him on equal
    standing with the Byzantine emperor
  • Title may have been given as a result of the rise
    of Iconoclasm in the east
  • Significance Germanic king crowed emperor by the
    spiritual leader of western Christendom

40
  • Louis the Pious
  • (814840)

41
Collapse of the Carolingian Empire
  • Charlemagne died on January 28, 814
  • Died shortly after developing pleurisy
  • None of his descendants had the personality or
    strength to hold the empire together
  • Louis the Pious (814840)
  • Was the only surviving legitimate son of
    Charlemagne
  • Endured numerous wars along the frontier
  • Also struggled with both the Frankish nobility
    and his own four sons in a number of civil wars
  • After his death, sons continued to struggle for
    control of the empire

42
Collapse of the Carolingian Empire
  • Treaty of Verdun (843)
  • Divided the empire amongst Louis three surviving
    sons
  • Charles the Bald (843-877) received the western
    Frankish kingdom (develop into modern France)
  • Louis the German (843-876) received the eastern
    lands (develop into modern Germany)
  • Lothair (840-855) received both the title of
    Emperor and the Middle Kingdom which included
    the Netherlands, the Rhineland, and northern
    Italy
  • Continued collapse
  • Descendants continued to struggle for power
  • Exacerbated by external attacks

43
  • Frankish kingdoms after the Treaty of Verdun (843)

44
Invasions of the 9th and 10th Centuries
  • Europe faced invasions from three entities over
    the course of the 9th and 10th centuries
  • Included Muslims, Magyars, and the Vikings
  • The latter two would be assimilated into
    Christian European civilization
  • Muslims
  • Expansion into southern Mediterranean began in
    the 9th century
  • Raided southern coasts
  • Took the island of Sicily in 827 and threatened
    Rome
  • Destroyed Carolingian defenses in northern Spain
  • Led raids into southern France

45
Invasions of the 9th and 10th Centuries
  • Magyars
  • Originally hailed from western Asia
  • Moved into the Carpathian Basin c. 895
  • The Árpád dynasty led raids into Germany, France,
    and Italy between 898-920
  • Expansion was checked by Otto I of the Germans at
    the Battle of Lechfeld (955)
  • By the 10th century they were converted to
    Christianity
  • Created the kingdom of Hungary (c. 1000)
  • First king, Stephen I (c. 1000-1038), was later
    canonized by the Church

46
  • St. Stephen I
  • (c. 1000-1038)

47
The Vikings
  • Vikings
  • Germanic people based in Scandinavia
  • They mark the final wave of Germanic migration
  • Was a warrior class society known for its
    superior ship building
  • Viking raids
  • Began in the 790s as sporadic, small-scale raids
  • Became more regular and devastating in the 9th
    century
  • Sacked towns and villages, defeating small armies
  • Brought sense of fear to northern Europe
  • Local priests would encourage populations to
    change their behavior as God was angry with them

48
The Vikings
  • Expansion
  • Began establishing winter settlements throughout
    Europe
  • Norwegian Vikings moved into Ireland and western
    England
  • Danish Vikings moved into eastern England and the
    Rhineland
  • In 911, Frankish king Charles the Simple gave one
    of the Viking rulers, Rollo, the Duchy of
    Normandy
  • This was in return for Rollo converting to
    Christianity
  • Set a precedence as more kings allowed the
    Vikings to settle
  • Became protectors against other Viking attacks
  • Ruled principalities in Scotland, Ireland,
    Normandy and Russia

49
The Vikings
  • Explorers
  • The Vikings were know for their explorations
    throughout the north including Russia to the east
  • In 860, they began exploring the north Atlantic
  • Discovered Iceland in 874
  • Eric the Red (950 - c. 1003)
  • Born in Norway
  • Parents were exiled to Iceland on charges of
    manslaughter
  • Eric was banished from Iceland for murder in 982
  • Decided to travel west to Greenland
  • By this point, a number of Vikings had already
    been to Greenland
  • Created the first permanent settlement there in
    985

50
The Vikings
  • Leif Eriksson (c.970 c.1020)
  • Son of Erik the Red
  • According to the Saga of the Greenlanders,
    traveled west of Greenland in 1000
  • Helluland (Land of the Flat Stones) - Baffin
    Island
  • This was the first land he came to in his
    exploration
  • Markland (Tree-land) - Labrador
  • Erikssons crew cut down many trees to bring back
    to Greenland
  • Vinland (Land of the Grapevines) - Newfoundland
  • His crew spent the winter here
  • Viking settlement at LAnse Aux Meadows (c. 11th
    century)

51
  • Viking Expansion

52
The Vikings
  • Norman Conquest of England (1066)
  • With the death of King Edward the Confessor
    (1042-1066), there was no clear succession for
    the throne of England
  • Some believe it was to be William, Duke of
    Normandy, while others say it was Harold
    Godwinson
  • Harold took the throne as Harold II
  • William responded by invading England
  • Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066)
  • Harold II died in battle, supposedly shot through
    the eye with an arrow
  • Decisive Norman victory
  • William took the throne as William I, better
    known as William the Conqueror

53
The Vikings
  • Norman Conquest marks the end of the Viking Era
  • Expansion came to a close in the 10th century
  • Combination of greater monarchical control in the
    northern countries and the expansion of
    Christianity
  • Vikings were assimilated into European culture
    and religion
  • Conversion to Christianity was forced through the
    use of brutal tactics, especially in Norway
  • Impact
  • As monarchs were not able to stop the Viking
    invasions, people turned to their local nobility
    for help
  • In turn, nobility took greater control over local
    governments, creating anew political and military
    order

54
  • William the Conqueror
  • (1066-1087)
  • From the Bayeux Tapestry (1476)

55
Legacy of the Carolingians
  • The legacy of the Carolingians
  • Had created a sense of a united, Christian Europe
  • Collapsed due to invasions in the 9th and 10th
    centuries
  • Emergence of new political divisions
  • England
  • Had not be under control of the Carolingians
  • Had been a mass of small kingdoms
  • Changed with unification that began under Alfred
    the Great
  • Strong state was created through the effective
    use of government administration and trade

56
England
  • Alfred the Great (871-899)
  • Originally was the king of Wessex
  • Unified local governments and codified the laws
  • Built up the army to protect England from Viking
    invaders
  • Set up government based on the Carolingian model
  • King Edgar (959-975)
  • Kingship was elective but it was chosen through
    Alfreds line
  • England by this point was a powerful centralized
    monarchy with a strong administration
  • By 1000, England had the most advanced
    administrative government in western Europe

57
East Francia
  • Saxon kings of Germany (East Francia)
  • They also built their kingdom on the Carolingian
    model
  • Royal power based on conquest rather than trade
    and administration
  • Conrad I (911-918)
  • First non-Carolingian ruler
  • Had been Duke of Franconia and was elected king
  • Struggled to keep power away from other dukes
  • Henry the Fowler (919-936)
  • Had been Duke of Saxony when he was elected king
  • First to use high church officials as
    administrators
  • Created a unified eastern German kingdom

58
East Francia
  • Otto I (936-973)
  • Most famous of the Saxon kings
  • Successfully invaded northern Italy in 951
  • Defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Lechfeld
    (955)
  • Otto as Holy Roman Emperor (962-973)
  • Otto was crowned by Pope John XII after securing
    the latters position in the Papal States
  • First guarantor for the protection of the Papal
    States since the Carolingians
  • His crowning traditionally marks the beginning of
    the Holy Roman Empire

59
East Francia
  • Otto focused on strengthening control of the
    church
  • In 963, Pope John organized an alliance against
    Otto
  • Otto marched on Rome and deposed of the pope
  • Forced the election of Poe Leo VIII
  • John returned to Rome and deposed of Leo
  • When John died, Benedict V was elected as the new
    pope
  • Done without Ottos consent
  • Otto returned to Rome in 964 to overthrew
    Benedict
  • Leo VIII was returned to the papacy

60
  • Holy Roman Empire (c. 1000)

61
West Francia
  • During the 9th and 10th centuries, the
    Carolingian kings struggled with the nobility for
    power
  • Counts very often ignored the demands of the
    kings
  • When the last Carolingian king died, Louis V
    (the Lazy), the counts elected a new king
  • Hugh Capet (987-996)
  • Family controlled the Ile-de-France around Paris
  • When elected, the counts planned to control him
  • Counts figured that he would live off of his
    personal lands and not bother them
  • Made Paris the center point of French
    civilization
  • The Capetian dynasty lasted until 1792 in France

62
  • Hugh Capet
  • (987-996)

63
Manorial System
  • Expansion of the manorial system
  • Manor was an agricultural estate operated by a
    lord
  • It was worked on by peasants
  • Lord provided protection
  • In return, peasants gave up their freedom, became
    tied to the land, and provided labor services
  • Transformation of slaves
  • This was the basic agricultural unit of the early
    Middle Ages
  • Slavery was no longer an option for land owners
    as it was now looked down upon
  • Helped slaves out by establishing them on small
    parcels of land
  • In return, they were to work the land and provide
    food for the lord

64
Manorial System
  • Transformation of free peasants
  • Small farmers needed protection and food in case
    of bad harvests
  • Were willing to give up their freedom to get both
  • Status of serf
  • Could not be bought and sold
  • Were subject to their lords in numerous ways
  • Required to provide labor, pay rents, and were
    subject to the lords jurisdiction
  • By the 9th century, 60 of the population had
    become serfs
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