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Regents Review - Ancient Greece

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Title: Regents Review - Ancient Greece Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Manuel Mendoza Created Date: 4/19/2004 1:53:14 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Regents Review - Ancient Greece


1
Ancient GREECE
2
Archaic Greece 1650 BCE - 700 BCE
3
Bronze Age Greece
4
Crete Minoan Civilization(Palace at Knossos)
5
Knossos Minoan Civilization
6
Minoan Civilization
7
The Mycenaean Civilization
8
Homer The Heroic Age
9
The Mask of Agamemnon
10
"Hellenic" (Classical) Greece 700 BCE - 324 BCE
11
Ancient GREECE
12
The Geography of Greece
13
Greek Geography
  • Mountains Valleys
  • Part of the Balkan Peninsula
  • Surrounded by Mediterranean Sea
  • Mountainous / Numerous tiny islands
  • This is the cause for the lack of unification in
    Greece (everyone is cutoff)
  • This leads to the creation of independent
    city-states
  • Seas
  • Vital link to outside world
  • Skilled sailors
  • Allows for the spread of their ideas and culture

14
ATHENS Yesterday Today
15
Piraeus Athens Port City
16
Early Athenian Lawgivers
  • Context
  • Growing discontent in Athens among the soldiers
    farming/merchant classes over the power of the
    aristocracy (rich) nobles
  • Farmers were forced to sell themselves into
    slavery
  • Foreigners desire citizenship
  • Reform is desired / Athens moves toward a
    democracy (rule by the people)

17
Early Athens
  • With the Emergence of early Athens 800-400
    B.C.E.
  • Rise of Democracy during the 5th century
  • Monarchies forced aside by the Aristocratic
    class Gave rise to the Oligarchs in the early
    500s
  • Solon Reformer, set up laws that were written
    and could be revised.
  • 510 Rebellion broke out Cleisthenes( Aristocrat)
    to gain control However instability within the
    aristocrats led to the rise of democracy in
    Athens.

18
Athenian Democracy
  • Town meetings
  • Only free white males assembled together
  • make decisions that affected the polis
  • Able to speak freely, persuade others to their
    opinions Collective votes determined political
    actions.
  • Emergence of the Council of 500
  • Citizens were chosen for a term of 1yr
  • Responsible for making and implementing policies
  • Democratic principles were heavily emphasized
  • Only consisted of free white males
  • Women and Slaves No political Power

19
Early Sparta
  • 7th century B.C.E.
  • Both Athens and Sparta were similar in many ways
  • However, Major rebellions in and around Sparta
    influenced a highly Militaristic society
  • 700s Spartans defeated Messenia ( City-State)
  • 600s Messenians challenged the Spartans Led to
    the Spartans grasping a tighter control over the
    Military.

20
Sparta
  • Military Powerhouse
  • Spartan Men Warriors
  • Self Disciplined
  • Rigidly obedient
  • Emphasized Fitness for Both Men and Women.

21
Economic Characteristics
  • Economic
  • Trade
  • Ionia Rivers Fertile plain near the coast
  • Greek Farmers on mainland Depended on rainfall
    for their crops
  • Poor Soil Limited crop production
  • Planted barley, olive trees, grape vines
  • Sheep, Goats were raised in most areas
  • Cattle and Horses in Northern Greece
  • Natural Resources
  • Building stones Marble
  • Clay Pottery
  • Very few metal deposits
  • Across the Aegean
  • Timber, gold, iron, copper and tin.
  • Coinage
  • Significance facilitated Trade
  • Replaced inefficient systems of weighing gold and
    silver exchange of goods.
  • Storage of wealth more efficient

22
Social Distinctions Citizens vs. Non
Citizens
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Equal in Status
  • Spartans were simple people
  • Frugal lifestyle Did not accumulate possessions
  • Houses were equally unadorned
  • Distinctions were made by military and athletic
    Talent.
  • Spartan Boys age of 7yrs
  • Trained in military barracks
  • Maintained order and stability through highly
    organized military
  • Trade and luxuries seen as harmful to their
    purity
  • Society maintained by Military values
  • Urban-based Aristocracy
  • Simple farmers
  • Distinction between aristocracy and the commoners
    led to discontent and reform
  • Gave commoners More Rights
  • Society was maintained by democratic principles
  • Only Free male citizens could participate making
    them more equal
  • Ironically Divided free men vs. slaves. ( 30
    of Pop made up of slaves)
  • Divisions of labor in Athens Personal servants,
    Craftsman
  • Slaves held no political rights, nor could they
    serve in the army

23
Gender Relations Men and Women
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Women were free and equal to men
  • Encouraged to be physical fit as men Produce
    strong and healthy babies
  • Wives did not live with husbands ( Men were often
    at war)
  • Sparta Run by Women
  • While men were on the war front.
  • Women maintained the city state and household
  • Gender inequality Clearly Defined
  • Respectable Athenian women
  • Confined to the home
  • Ventured outside under the guardianship of slaves
    and servants
  • Women in rural areas
  • Had more Freedom
  • However, Athenian women No political rights,
    could not own property or businesses
  • Citizens however could not participate in
    government affairs
  • Other Athenian Women ( not upper class)
    Particularly prostitutes
  • Did not follow same rules and were considered
    lower in class distinction.

24
Cultural Characteristics Philosophy/Religion
  • Philosophy Love of Wisdom
  • Interested in the physical world
  • Did not believe the Gods caused natural phenomena
  • Nature or Natural law caused phenomena
  • Socrates 470-399 b.c.e
  • Focused on ethical questions and truth seeking
    regarding human nature.
  • Rational of Human Nature Ability of humans to
    reason for themselves
  • Convicted of poisoning the minds of young
    Athenian youths
  • Trial of Socrates indicates the clash between
    traditional religious values and the emphasis on
    human reasoning
  • Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Not omnipotent
  • Carried same emotions as humans
  • No priestly class
  • Did not take their gods seriously
  • Did not believe the gods controlled human destiny
  • Emphasized Secularism affairs of the world
  • Led to seeking the answers to the dilemmas of
    Human existence
  • Similar to Confucianism ?

25
Art Drama, Lyric Poems, Classical Architecture
  • Drama 600s in athens
  • Representation of myths about the gods,
    interventions with human affairs
  • Lyric Poetry
  • form of musical quality of songs Express
    personal feelings
  • Architecture
  • Greek temples
  • Parthenon on the Acropolis
  • Architecture Widely adopted by the Romans
  • Legacy Provided the basic principles of modern
    architecture

26
Greek Sculpture
  • Reflect how they valued worth of an individual
  • Revealed human capabilities
  • Physically/Intellectually
  • Depicted the concept of Beauty and Perfection
  • Expression individualized
  • Achievements of the Greeks during the classical
    age 500-300 b.c.e
  • Hellenic culture Based on the Greek term Hellas

27
Early Athenian Lawgivers
  • Solon
  • Athenian leader
  • Outlaws debt slavery / frees slaves
  • Opened more positions for citizens
  • Grants some foreigners citizenship
  • Cleisthenes
  • created the first democracy!
  • Reorganizes the assembly to balance the power of
    the rich and poor Assembly has the power to
    make laws (legislature)
  • Created the Council of the 500 (Citizens)
  • Council of 500 proposes laws
  • 1/5 of Athenians were citizens

28
Early Athenian Lawgivers
  • Pericles
  • Athenian leader
  • Believed all male citizens should take part in
    govt.
  • Strengthened Greek democracy
  • Increased of paid officials
  • Paid jurors (Both allowed poorer citizens to
    participate in govt.)
  • Develops a direct democracy in Athens (citizens
    rule make laws directly rather than thru
    representatives
  • Funeral Oration stressed the rights duties
    of citizenship power rested in the hands not
    of the minority but of the whole people
  • Cultural Achievements
  • Helps rebuild the Acropolis
  • Turns Athens into the cultural center of Greece
  • Rules during Greeces Golden Age

29
Persian Wars 499 BCE 480 BCE
30
Persian Wars Famous Battles
  • Marathon (490 BCE)
  • 26 miles from Athens messenger runs this to
    announce Persian defeat
  • Hand to hand battle
  • Athenian victory
  • Thermopylae (480 BCE)
  • 300 Spartans violently fight vs. Persians in the
    Mountain pass
  • Led by Leonidas
  • Persian victory
  • Salamis (480 BCE)
  • Naval battle on the narrow strait of Salamis
  • Athenian navy victorious
  • Results of the Persian Wars Greeks form an
    alliance (The Delian League) Leads to the rise
    of the Athenian Empire

31
Golden Age of Pericles460 BCE 429 BCE
32
Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Socrates
  • Know thyself!
  • question everything
  • only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness.
  • Plato
  • The Academy
  • The world of the FORMS
  • The Republic ? philosopher-king

33
Great Athenian Philosophers
  • Aristotle
  • The Lyceum
  • Golden Mean everything inmoderation.
  • Logic.
  • Scientific method.

34
Athens The Arts Sciences
  • DRAMA (tragedians)
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles
  • Euripides
  • THE SCIENCES
  • Pythagoras
  • Democritus ? all matter made up of
    small atoms.
  • Hippocrates ? Father of Medicine

35
Phidias Acropolis
36
The Acropolis Today
37
The Parthenon
38
The Agora
39
The Classical Greek Ideal
40
Olympia
41
The Ancient OlympicsAthletes Trainers
42
Olympia Temple to Hera
43
The 2004 Olympics
44
SPARTA
45
SPARTA
Helots ? Messenians enslaved by the
Spartans.
46
Social Distinctions Citizens vs. Non Citizens
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Equal in Status
  • Spartans were simple people
  • Frugal lifestyle Did not accumulate possessions
  • Houses were equally unadorned
  • Distinctions were made by military and athletic
    Talent.
  • Spartan Boys age of 7yrs
  • Trained in military barracks
  • Maintained order and stability through highly
    organized military
  • Trade and luxuries seen as harmful to their
    purity
  • Society maintained by Military values
  • Urban-based Aristocracy
  • Simple farmers
  • Distinction between aristocracy and the commoners
    led to discontent and reform
  • Gave commoners More Rights
  • Society was maintained by democratic principles
  • Only Free male citizens could participate making
    them more equal
  • Ironically Divided free men vs. slaves. ( 30
    of Pop made up of slaves)
  • Divisions of labor in Athens Personal servants,
    Craftsman
  • Slaves held no political rights, nor could they
    serve in the army

47
Gender Relations Men and Women
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Gender inequality Clearly Defined
  • Respectable Athenian women
  • Confined to the home
  • Ventured outside under the guardianship of slaves
    and servants
  • Women in rural areas
  • Had more Freedom
  • However, Athenian women No political rights,
    could not own property or businesses
  • Citizens however could not participate in
    government affairs
  • Other Athenian Women ( not upper class)
    Particularly prostitutes
  • Did not follow same rules and were considered
    lower in class distinction.
  • Women were free and equal to men
  • Encouraged to be physical fit as men Produce
    strong and healthy babies
  • Wives did not live with husbands ( Men were often
    at war)
  • Sparta Run by Women
  • While men were on the war front.
  • Women maintained the city state and household

48
Peloponnesian Wars
49
Macedonia Under Philip II
50
"Hellenistic" Greece 324 BCE - 100 BCE
51
Alexander the Great
52
Alexander the Greats Empire
53
Alexander the Great in Persia
54
The Hellenization of Asia
55
Pergamum A Hellenistic City
56
The Economy of the Hellenistic World
57
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Cynics ? Diogenes
  • ignore social conventions avoid luxuries.
  • citizens of the world.
  • live a humble, simple life.
  • Epicurians ? Epicurus
  • avoid pain seek pleasure.
  • all excess leads to pain!
  • politics should be avoided.

58
Hellenistic Philosophers
  • Stoics ? Zeno
  • nature is the expansion of divine will.
  • concept of natural law.
  • get involved in politics, not for personal
    gain, but toperform virtuous acts for the good
    of all.
  • true happiness is found ingreat achievements.

59
Hellenism The Arts Sciences
  • Scientists / Mathematicians
  • Aristarchus ? heliocentric theory.
  • Euclid ? geometry
  • Archimedes ? pulley
  • Hellenistic Art
  • More realistic less ideal than Hellenic art.
  • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!

60
Ptolemaic View of the Universe
61
The Breakup of Alexanders Empire
62
The Incursion of Rome into the Hellenistic World
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