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Vertebrates

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Title: Vertebrates


1
Vertebrates
Emily Reiss Josie Jacob-Dolan Tori Willbanks-Roos
2
What makes a vertebrate a vertebrate?
  • Internal bony skeleton
  • Backbone encasing spinal column, skull-encased
    brain
  • Deuterostomes
  • (ex Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)

3
Chordate- have a notochord and a dorsal, hollow
nerve cord
  • Chordate vs. Vertebrate
  • Notochord
  • Dorsal, Hollow Nerve cord
  • Pharyngeal slits and clefts
  • Muscular, post- anal tail
  • Somites
  • Tunicates
  • Ex. humans, amphioxus

4
Craniates- chordates with a head
  • Neural Crest
  • Heart with at least 2 chambers
  • Kidneys
  • Evolved during the Cambrian explosion about 530
    million years ago
  • Ex. human, hagfish

To be or not to be...
5
Vertebrates- Craniates with a backbone
  • Originally most vertebrae were cartilage
  • In some cases additions to the notochord
  • Most times surrounded the notochord
  • Lampreys
  • Ex. Humans, pteraspis
  •  
  •  

6
Gnathostomes- Vertebrates with jaws
  • Gnathostome means "jaw mouth"
  •  Aquatic gnathostomes have a lateral line system
  • Appear in the fossil record about 470 million
    years ago
  • Placoderms-"plate-skinned"
  • Acanthodians
  • Chondrichthyans-"cartilage fish" ??
  • These include sharks and rays
  • Body structure/characteristics

7
 Rays vs Sharks
  • Sharks
  • streamlined body, swift swimmers don't not
    maneuver very well
  • movements of the trunk and the caudal (tail) fin
    help to move them
  • are carnivores
  • have several rows of teeth
  • Oviparous vs. Ovoviviparous vs. Viviparous
  • Rays
  •  closely related to sharks
  •  live on the bottom of the ocean
  •  tails are whip-like
  • -The largest sharks and rays are suspension
    feeders that consume plankton-

8
Gnathostomes- Vertebrates with jaws, continued.
  • Osteichthyans- "bony fish"
  • Most aquatic osteichthyans control their buoyancy
    with a swim bladder.
  • They are covered by a protective bony flap called
    the operculum.

page 682
9
Ray vs Lobe Finned fishes
  • Ray
  • originated in fresh water and spread to the
    seas. 
  • Some (salmon, searun trout) replay their
    evolutionary roundtrip from fresh water to
    seawater and back to fresh water during their
    life cycle.
  • serve as a food source for some humans
  • ex bass, trout, perch, tuna, and herring
  • Lobe
  • rodshaped bones surrounded by a thick layer of
    muscle in their pectoral and pelvic fins. 
  • only three lineages survive today 
  • ex coelacanths, lungfishes, and  those that gave
    rise to tetrapods

10
Tetrapods- Gnathostomes that have limbs and feet
  • Tetrapod means "four feet"
  • Derived characters
  • The Origin of Tetrapods
  • ex Amphibians- meaning "two lives"
  • Types

on page 685
11
Amphibians
  • Ancestors were tetrapods
  • Moist skin
  • Respiration gas exchange through skin and lungs 
  • Have a 3-chambered heart
  • Ectotherms
  • Reproduction external fertilization, external
    development 
  • Metamorphosis

12
Amniotes- Tetrapods that have a terrestrially
adapted egg
  • Amniotic egg
  •  Extraembryonic membranes - specialized
    membranes, protect the embryo but not part of the
    embryo itself
  • Different shells more leathery and flexible
    (slows dehydration, allows for living on land)
  • Came around in the Carboniferous
  • Other adaptations
  • less permeable skin, ability to use the rib cage
    to ventilate the lungs.

13
Reptiles!
  • Clade of amniotes, (lizards, snakes, turtles,
    crocs, birds.)
  • Scales create waterproof barrier, helps prevent
    dehydration 
  • Shelled eggs on land
  • "Cold blooded"
  • Ectothermic- Not enough metabolic heat to have
    much effect on body temperature. 
  • Endothermic- Warmed by heat generated by
    metabolism. Used to maintain body temperature
    higher than external environment.

14
  • Parareptiles- Mostly large, stocky quadrupedal
    herbivores
  • Diapsids- Distinguished by pair of holes on each
    side of the skull, includes lepidosaurs and
    archosaurs.
  • Lepidosaurs- Includes lizards, snakes, etc.
  • Archosaurs- Includes crocodiles, alligators,
    dinosaurs, and birds.
  • Pterosaurs- Winged reptile that lived during the
    time of dinosaurs.
  • Dinosaurs-Member of an extremely diverse group of
    ancient reptiles varying in body shape, size, and
    habitat.
  • Theropod- A member of an ancient group of
    dinosaurs that were bipedal carnivores.

15
  • Birds
  • Reptiles but features all  in adapted for flight.
  • Wings, feathers, stronger muscles, good eye sight
  • Better for hunting, migrating, defense 
  • Endothermic
  • Flightless species - Ratites (Ostrich, Kiwi, Emu,
    etc.)
  • Beaks and feet very adaptable 

16
Mammals Amniotes that have hair and produce milk
  • Mammary glands - produce milk for offspring
  • Hair - retain heat
  • Endothermic 
  • Teeth adapted for many different foods
  • Bigger brains 

17
Marsupials
  • Synapsids
  • Lacked hair, laid eggs
  • Temporal Fenestra (holes behind eye sockets) -
    still present in humans
  • Not true mammals but adapted mammal like
    characteristics
  • Three major lineages

Monotremes
Eutherians
18
  •  Eutherians
  • "Placental mammals" because placentas are more
    complex 
  • Longer pregnancies, born when fully developed
  • Includes Primates 
  •  Monotremes
  • Have hair, produce milk (from glands)
  • Lay eggs (unlike any other mammal)
  • Platypus, Echidnas (spiny anteaters)
  •  Marsupials
  • Give birth to live young
  • Embryo develops in placenta 
  • Born early in development, matures in pouch

19
Primates
  • Hands and feet, digits
  • Opposable Thumb
  • Big brains, flat faces
  • Three main groups of living primates
  • Lemurs
  • Lorises and Pottos
  • Anthropoids
  • Great Apes
  • Humans

20
Works Cited Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B.
Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San Francisco, CA
Pearson Education Inc, 2005. Print.Campbell,
Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San
Francisco, CA Pearson Education Inc, 2005.
eBook.
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